Govind K Makharia

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (121)316.96 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The type of anti-reflux procedure to be used as an adjunct to laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy (LHCM) in Achalasia cardia is controversial. We compared Angle of His accentuation and Dor fundoplication in a randomized controlled trial. From May 2010 to October 2013, 62 patients undergoing LHCM were randomized to receive either Dor fundoplication (Dor group) or Angle of His accentuation (AOH group) as an anti-reflux procedure. Symptomatic outcome was evaluated using modified Mellow and Pinkas scale for dysphagia and modified DeMeester's score for regurgitation and heartburn. Achalasia-specific quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. The primary outcome was symptomatic relief and the secondary outcome was postoperative heartburn. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. All the procedures were completed laparoscopically with no mortality. Morbidity was similar in the two groups (6.4 %). Median operative time was higher in Dor group (170 vs 130 min). At a median follow-up of 21 months relief of dysphagia, regurgitation, and heartburn was seen in 87, 90.3, and 90.3 % patients in Dor group versus 93.5, 96.7, and 77.4 % in AOH group patients with significant improvement in symptom scores. Improvement was similar in both groups with no statistically significant difference in the symptom scores (p = 0.48 for dysphagia, p = 0.37 for regurgitation, and p = 0.19 for heartburn). The QOL improved in both groups [62.3 to 12.3 (p = 0.02) in Dor group and 63.9-13 (p = 0.02) in AOH group] with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative heartburn between the two groups (p = 0.19). Laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy with either Angle of His accentuation or Dor fundoplication leads to similar improvement in symptoms and quality of life.
    Surgical endoscopy. 11/2014;
  • Prasenjit Das, Govind K Makharia
    Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. 10/2014;
  • P Yadav, V Tak, B R Mirdha, G K Makharia
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal flagellate Giardia lamblia includes many genetically distinct assemblages, of which assemblage A and B, predominantly infect humans. Nitroimidazoles derivatives (metronidazole and tinidazole) and nitazoxanide are some of the therapeutic agents for treatment of giardiasis. Nevertheless, some individuals with giardiasis are non-responsive to standard therapy. The present study highlights cases of refractory giardiasis and attempts to elucidate if genetic heterogeneity in the parasite is associated with treatment failure.
    Indian journal of medical microbiology. 10/2014; 32(4):378-82.
  • Prashant Singh, Govind K Makharia
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    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CeD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CeD is a global disease and estimated to affect approximately one percent of the global population. With advent of simple serological tests for the diagnosis, the number of individuals diagnosed with CeD is increasing exponentially. It was initially thought that gluten hypersensitivity in CeD is limited to small intestine only and all other features are secondary to malabsorption, but it is now recognized that the hypersensitivity to gluten is not limited to small intestine alone and may affect other organs such as skin, brain, and bones independent of intestinal involvement. CeD is now considered a multi-system disorder and their clinical presentation may be with gastrointestinal symptoms, called “classical CeD” or more often with non-gastrointestinal symptoms called “non-classical CeD”. These patients may present with short stature, anemia, liver dysfunction (asymptomatic increase in transaminases, chronic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis), cutaneous manifestations (dermatitis herpetiformis, oral ulcers), reproductive diseases (infertility, recurrent abortions), neurological manifestations (ataxia, peripheral neuropathy), and metabolic disorders (osteopenia/osteoporosis). What determines these variable phenotypes remain unclear but likely is a result of genetic as well as environmental factors. Many of these patients with non-classical CeD are likely to report to specialists other than gastroenterologists such as hematologists, endocrinologists, rheumatologists or gynecologists. Unfortunately, the awareness about non-classical presentations of CeD amongst health care professionals remains low. There is an urgent need to increase awareness among health care professionals about varied manifestations of CeD in order to decrease the burden of undiagnosed CeD.
    International Journal of Celiac Disease. 09/2014; 2(3):76-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormalities of transmembrane and cytoplasmic proteins of tight junctions (TJ) have been implicated in pathogenesis of both celiac (CeD) and Crohn's diseases (CD). Since disease pathogenesis in CeD and CD are different, we planned to study if there is any differential expression pattern of TJ marker proteins and ultrastructural changes, respectively, in duodenal villi vs crypts. Endoscopic duodenal biopsies from treatment naïve patients with CeD (n = 24), active CD (n = 28), and functional dyspepsia (as controls, n = 15), both at baseline and 6 months after treatment, were subjected to light microscopic analysis (modified Marsh grading); immune-histochemical staining and Western blot analysis to see the expression of key TJ proteins [trans-membrane proteins (claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-4, occludin, and JAM) and cytoplasmic protein (ZO-1)]. Transmission electron microscopy and image analysis of the TJs were also performed. There was significant overexpression of claudin-2 (pore-forming) and occludin (protein maintaining cell polarity) with under-expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 (pore-sealing proteins) in treatment naïve CeD and active CD with simultaneous alteration in ultrastructure of TJs such as loss of penta-laminar structure and TJ dilatation. Normalization of some of these TJ proteins was noted 6 months after treatment. These changes were not disease specific and were not different in duodenal villi and crypts. Overexpression of pore-forming and under-expression of pore-sealing TJ proteins lead to dilatation of TJ. These changes are neither disease specific nor site specific and the end result of mucosal inflammation.
    Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Some of the conventional serological tests for coeliac disease (CD) are expensive, time-consuming and not readily available in developing countries, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Recently, point-of-care tests (POCT) have been manufactured and tested in Europe but have not been validated in our setting. We therefore aimed to study the diagnostic accuracy of the POCT 'Biocard' test in diagnosing CD in Indian children.
    Gastroenterology 06/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Digestive Disease Week® (DDW) 2014 (Chicago, U.S.A) published in Gastroenterology, Chicago, USA; 05/2014
  • Gastroenterology; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Once thought to be uncommon in Asia, coeliac disease (CD) is now being increasingly recognized in Asia–Pacific region. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. In recognition of such heterogeneity of knowledge and awareness, the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology commissioned a working party to address the key issues in emergence of CD in Asia. A working group consisting of members from Asia–Pacific region, Europe, North America, and South America reviewed relevant existing literature with focus on those issues specific to Asia–Pacific region both in terms of what exists and what needs to be done. The working group identified the gaps in epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of CD in Asian–Pacific region and recommended the following: to establish prevalence of CD across region, increase in awareness about CD among physicians and patients, and recognition of atypical manifestations of CD. The challenges such as variability in performance of serological tests, lack of population-specific cut-offs values for a positive test, need for expert dietitians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, need for gluten-free infrastructure in food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations were also emphasized. Although absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years or decades. It is thus appropriate that medical community across the Asia–Pacific region define extent of problem and get prepared to handle impending epidemic of CD.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2014; 29(4):666-77. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reviewed our celiac disease (CeD) database to study if anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody (ab) titers correlate with severity of villous abnormalities in Indian patients and to find out a cutoff value of anti-tTG ab fold-rise, which could best predict CeD. Guidelines for diagnosing CeD suggest that biopsy could be avoided in some patients with high anti-tTG ab titer. We reviewed a cohort of 366 anti-tTG ab-positive individuals in whom duodenal biopsies were performed. Anti-tTG ab was obtained before initiation of gluten-free diet. Anti-tTG ab results were expressed in terms of fold-rise by calculating ratio of observed values with cutoff value. CeD was diagnosed if in addition to positive serology, patients had villous atrophy (>Marsh grade 2) and unequivocal response to gluten-free diet. The mean anti-tTG fold-rise in groups with Marsh grade ≤2 was 2.6 (±2.5), grade 3a was 4.0 (±3.9), 3b was 5.7 (±5.1), and 3c was 11.8 (±8.0). The positive likelihood ratio for diagnosing CeD was 15.4 and 27.4 at 12- and 14-fold-rise of anti-tTG ab titer, respectively. The positive predictive value of diagnosis of CeD was 100% when anti-tTG ab titer was 14-fold higher over the cutoff value. Fifty-seven (43.9%) individuals with anti-tTG titer rise <2-fold high also had CeD. As severity of villous abnormality increases, titer of anti-tTG also rises. Presence of villous atrophy can be predicted at very high anti-tTG ab titer. In contrast to emerging belief, mucosal biopsies should be performed even if anti-tTG ab titer is <2 times, because many patients with CeD have low titers.
    Journal of clinical gastroenterology 02/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Prashant Singh, Shubhangi Arora, Govind K Makharia
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    ABSTRACT: Most of celiac disease (CeD) patients have anemia, and its diagnosis is seldom considered in the presence of normal hemoglobin. However, over the past few years, we have observed a few CeD patients having normal hemoglobin. Therefore, we reviewed our CeD database to find out what proportion of CeD patients had normal hemoglobin levels and if there were any differences in characteristics of those with and without anemia. Of 338 CeD patients, 14.8 % had normal hemoglobin levels at diagnosis. When compared with CeD patients without anemia, those with anemia had significantly longer duration of symptoms, lower albumin levels, and higher anti-tissue transglutaminase fold rise, and a higher proportion had abnormal d-xylose tests and severe villous abnormalities. Thus, CeD patients with anemia had more severe disease than those without anemia. It is therefore important to diagnose these patients at an earlier stage of the disease even when the classical feature such as anemia is not clinically evident.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013;
  • ISGCON 2013; 11/2013
  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Gastro 2013 APDW/WCOG Shanghai, Asian Pacific Digestive Week 2013 ∣, World Congress of Gastroenterology, 21-24 September 2013, Shanghai Expo Center, Shanghai, China; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric with anti-inflammatory properties, has been demonstrated to be useful in experimental models of ulcerative colitis (UC). It's efficacy in humans needs to be investigated. A randomized, double-blind, single-centre pilot trial was conducted in patients with distal UC (<25cm involvement) and mild-to-moderate disease activity. Forty-five patients were randomized to either NCB-02 (standardized curcumin preparation) enema plus oral 5-ASA or placebo enema plus oral 5-ASA. Primary end point was disease response, defined as reduction in Ulcerative Colitis Diseases Activity Index by 3 points at 8weeks, and secondary end points were improvement in endoscopic activity and disease remission at 8weeks. Response to treatment was observed in 56.5% in NCB-02 group compared to 36.4% (p=0.175) in placebo group. At week 8, clinical remission was observed in 43.4% of patients in NCB-02 group compared to 22.7% in placebo group (p=0.14) and improvement on endoscopy in 52.2% of patients in NCB-02 group compared to 36.4% of patients in placebo group (p=0.29). Per protocol analysis revealed significantly better outcomes in NCB-02 group, in terms of clinical response (92.9% vs. 50%, p=0.01), clinical remission (71.4% vs. 31.3%, p=0.03), and improvement on endoscopy (85.7% vs. 50%, p=0.04). In this pilot study we found some evidence that use of NCB-02 enema may tend to result in greater improvements in disease activity compared to placebo in patients with mild-to-moderate distal UC. The role of NCB-02 as a novel therapy for UC should be investigated further.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 09/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attempts to diagnose and subtype irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by symptom-based criteria have limitations, as these are developed in the West and might not be applicable in other populations. This study aimed to compare different criteria for diagnosing and subtyping of IBS in India. Manning's and the Rome I, II, and III criteria as well as the Asian criteria were applied to 1,618 patients (from 17 centers in India) with chronic lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with no alarm features and negative investigations. Of 1,618 patients (aged 37.5 [SD 12.6] years; 71.2 % male), 1,476 (91.2 %), 1,098 (67.9 %), 649 (40.1 %), 849 (52.5 %), and 1,206 (74.5 %) fulfilled Manning's, Rome I, II, and III, and the Asian criteria, respectively. The most common reason for not fulfilling the criteria was absence of the following symptoms: "more frequent stools with onset of pain," "loose stool with onset of pain," "relief of pain with passage of stool," "other abdominal discomfort/bloating," and, in a minority, not meeting the duration criterion of 3 months/12 weeks. By stool frequency, constipation-predominant IBS (<3 stools/week) was diagnosed in 319 (19.7 %), diarrhea-predominant IBS (>3 stools/day) in 43 (2.7 %), and unclassified in 1,256 (77.6 %). By Bristol stool form, constipation, diarrhea, and unclassified were diagnosed in 655 (40.5 %), 709 (43.8 %), and 254 (15.7 %) patients, respectively. By their own perception, 462 (28.6 %), 541 (33.4 %), and 452 (27.9 %) patients reported constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant, and alternating types, respectively. By Manning's and the Asian criteria, a diagnosis of IBS was made frequently among Indian patients with chronic functional lower GI symptoms with no alarm features; the Rome II criteria gave the lowest yield. By the stool frequency criteria, a majority of patients had unclassified pattern, unlike by the stool form and patients' perception of their symptoms.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-The data on status of apoptosis in patients with celiac disease are conflicting. Furthermore, complex interaction between intrinsic and common apoptotic pathways, apoptotic inhibitors, and epithelial cell proliferation is largely unclear for patients with celiac disease. Objectives.-To determine the role of apoptosis and epithelial cell regeneration in celiac disease. Design.-Twenty-five treatment-naïve patients with celiac disease and 6 patients with functional dyspepsia, as controls, were included and duodenal biopsy specimens from all were subjected to immunohistochemistry with markers of intrinsic apoptotic pathway (AIF, H2AX, p53), common pathway (CC3, M30), apoptotic inhibitors (XIAP, Bcl2), and epithelial proliferation (Ki-67). Apoptotic and proliferation indices were calculated. Results.-Expression of end-apoptotic products, that is, H2AX in the cell nuclei (P = .01) and M30 in the cell cytoplasm (P < .01), was significantly upregulated in celiac disease in comparison to controls. Cleaved caspase-3 was also upregulated in villous cytoplasm in celiac disease. Apoptotic inhibitor Bcl2 was significantly down-regulated in celiac disease in comparison to controls. In addition, Ki-67 proliferation index was upregulated both in the crypts and villous mucosal epithelium in comparison to the crypts of the controls. Conclusions.-Treatment-naïve patients with celiac disease have significantly higher level of apoptosis that involves both the common and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Increased apoptosis and unequaled cell regeneration in crypts probably results in villous atrophy. Down-regulation of apoptotic inhibitors in treatment-naïve celiac disease imparts an additional pro-apoptotic effect.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 09/2013; 137(9):1262-9. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While anemia occurs in 80 % to 90 % of patients with celiac disease (CD), it may be the sole manifestation of CD. The prevalence of CD in Indian patients with nutritional anemia is not known. Adolescent and adult patients presenting with nutritional anemia were prospectively screened for CD using IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG Ab) followed, if positive, by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy. Ninety-six patients [mean ± SD age 32.1 ± 13.1 years and median duration of anemia 11 months (range 1 to 144 months)] were screened. Of these patients, 80 had iron deficiency anemia, 11 had megaloblastic anemia, and 5 had dimorphic anemia. Seventy-three patients were on hematinics and 36.4 % had received blood transfusions. Nineteen had a history of chronic diarrhea and the mean ± SD duration of diarrhea in them was 9.7 ± 35.8 months. IgA anti-tTG Ab was positive in 13 patients, of whom 12 agreed to undergo duodenal biopsy. Ten patients had villous atrophy (Marsh grade 3a in three, 3b in one, and 3c in six) and two did not. Thus, 10 patients with nutritional anemia (iron deficiency 9, vitamin B12 deficiency 1) were diagnosed to have CD. On multivariate logistic regression, age, duration of symptoms, and presence of diarrhea were found to be the predictors of CD. All the patients with CD were put on gluten-free diet and with iron and vitamin supplementations and showed a significant improvement in hemoglobin concentration. CD screening should be included in the work up of otherwise unexplained nutritional anemia.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2013;
  • Prashant Singh, Sukhman Shergill, Govind K Makharia
    Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD 09/2013; 22(3):359-60. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a multisystem disease, and the liver is affected in a subset of patients. We herein present a case series of 25 patients with celiac disease who had evidence of cirrhosis of the liver. We retrospectively reviewed the case records of patients with celiac disease having concomitant cirrhosis. The diagnosis of celiac disease was made on the basis of the modified European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition criteria. Of 25 patients (nine males; mean age 28.8 ± 16.6 years) with celiac disease and cirrhosis, 17 patients presented predominantly with cirrhosis, while 8 presented primarily with celiac disease. Five patients had known cause of cirrhosis (autoimmune hepatitis, three; PBC, one; hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, one); the remaining 20 were cryptogenic. Gluten-free diet led to improvement in diarrhea and anemia and to a better control of ascites and other features of liver failure. Some patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis have coexistent celiac disease, and they show response to gluten-free diet. Patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis should be screened for celiac disease.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Histological examination of duodenal biopsies is the gold standard for assessing intestinal damage in celiac disease (CD). A noninvasive marker of disease status is necessary, because obtaining duodenal biopsies is invasive and not suitable for routine monitoring of CD patients. As the small intestine is a major site of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity and also the location of the celiac lesion, we investigated whether patients with active CD display abnormal pharmacokinetics of an orally administered CYP3A4 substrate, simvastatin (SV), which could potentially be used for noninvasive assessment of their small intestinal health.METHODS:Preclinical experiments were performed in CYP3A4-humanized mice to examine the feasibility of the test. Subsequently, a clinical trial was undertaken with 11 healthy volunteers, 18 newly diagnosed patients with CD, and 25 celiac patients who had followed a gluten-free diet (GFD) for more than 1 year. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of orally administered SV plus its major non-CYP3A4-derived metabolite SV acid (SV equivalent (SVeq)) was measured, and compared with clinical, histological, and serological parameters.RESULTS:In CYP3A4-humanized mice, a marked decrease in SV metabolism was observed in response to enteropathy. In the clinical setting, untreated celiac patients displayed a significantly higher SVeq Cmax (46±24 nM) compared with treated patients (21±16 nM, P<0.001) or healthy subjects (19±11 nM, P<0.005). SVeq Cmax correctly predicted the diagnosis in 16/18 untreated celiac patients, and also the recovery status of all follow-up patients that exhibited normal or near-normal biopsies (Marsh 0-2). All patients with abnormal SVeq Cmax showed a reduction in the value after 1 year of following a GFD.CONCLUSIONS:SVeq Cmax is a promising noninvasive marker for assessment of small intestinal health. Further studies are warranted to establish its clinical utility for assessing gut status of patients with CD.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 4 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.151.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2013; · 9.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
316.96 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition
      • • Department of Pathology
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2013
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • Dayanand Medical College & Hospital
      Ludhiana, Punjab, India