[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11250-015-0948-7 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objetivou-se determinar a correlação linear existente entre os ácidos graxos consumidos e depositados no músculo Longissimus dorsi de 35 bovinos machos não castrados, mestiços, com predominância da raça Nelore, com peso inicial médio de 428,0 ± 32,11 kg, terminados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco dietas e sete animais por dieta durante 74 dias. As dietas consistiram de níveis de inclusão da glicerina (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12%) na matéria seca (MS). Os animais foram pesados a cada 28 dias para avaliação do ganho de peso médio diário (GMD) e ajuste das dietas. Amostras do capim Brachiaria decumbens, dos suplementos, assim como do músculo Longissimus dorsi foram analisadas para avaliação do perfil de ácidos graxos. A correlação foi realizada estimando-se os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson. Os resultados encontrados demonstram a existência de correlações entre os ácidos graxos consumidos com aqueles depositados no músculo dos animais. As correlações observadas modificaram o perfil dos ácidos graxos da carne com redução da concentração dos ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e aumento da concentração dos ácidos graxos da série ? – 6, assim como da razão entre os ácidos graxos da série ? - 6 e ? - 3. Não foram verificadas correlações com os ácidos graxos hipercolesterêmicos (láurico, miristico e palmítico) do músculo dos bovinos suplementados com glicerina de baixa pureza.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100 % peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15 % crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65 % total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100 % of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 05/2015; 47(6). DOI:10.1007/s11250-015-0829-0 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to verify the effect of nutritional management that alternates periods of energy/protein restriction and refeeding of grazing crossbred heifers during their prepuberty on the hormonal profile and blood parameters. The study was conducted at Princesa do Mateiro farm in Ribeirão do Largo, in the southwest region of the state of Bahia. Twenty crossbred heifers 5/8 Dairy Guzerat x 3/8 Dutch with an average age of 12 months and average body weight of 187 ± 13.74 kg were used at the beginning of the experiment. It lasted 238 days, 14 out of them were for the animals' adaptation. The animals were kept in rotational grazing of Brachiariabrizantha cv. Marandú pastures and randomly assigned to two treatments: Control (T100) = animals receiving concentrate supplement to supply 100% of the nutrients requirement to gain 750 g day-1 of live weight and Compensatory Nutrition (CN). The animals of the CN treatment alternated periods of Restriction (T80) = receiving concentrate supplement to meet 80% of the demand for nutrients of the (T100) and periods of Refeeding (T120) = getting concentrate supplement to supply 120% of the nutrient requirements of the (T100 The final plasma concentrations of IGF-I, glucose and urea were higher (P<0.05) in the animals undergoing compensatory nutrition (CN) treatment. The insulin, cholesterol, progesterone and protein levels of the animals from Control and CN nutritional systems did not changed (P>0.05). There were positive correlations (P<0.05) between IGF-I, insulin, glucose and cholesterol, and a negative correlation (P<0.05) between IGF-I and urea. There were also positive correlation (P<0.05) between insulin and glucose and positive correlation (P<0.05) between glucose and cholesterol. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) of the urea with cholesterol, progesterone and protein. Progesterone also showed a positive correlation (P<0.05) with the protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate sunflower cake feed in commercial cut yields and chemical and sensory attributes of goat meat. Thirty-two castrated male goats were distributed in four levels (0, 8, 16 and 24%) of sunflower cake supplementation. The animals were slaughtered and the carcasses were placed in a cold chamber and sectioned into five anatomical regions corresponding to commercial cuts. Samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed for chemical composition and sensory quality. The chemical composition and pH were not affected by the treatments. The smell, taste and ‘goatiness’ of the aroma and flavor of the meat were also unaffected by the treatments. The appearance, tenderness and juiciness of the meat differed by treatment. The highest level (24%) of sunflower cake increased meat tenderness; however, according to the tasters there was reduced softness, although none of the samples were rejected by the tasters. Sunflower cake can be added to the diet at a level of up to 16% without altering the quantitative and qualitative attributes of the meat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P < 0.05), but did not affect the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake. The feeding and rumination efficiencies had a quadratic response (P < 0.05). The experimental diets did not affect (P > 0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2015; 47(5). DOI:10.1007/s11250-015-0812-9 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide (CaO). Upon ensiling, the treatments applied to the sugarcane were: 1% urea; 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO; and 1% CaO, in relation to a control silage, without additive. The chemical additives (urea and CaO) were added at ensiling, in an amount calculated based on the fresh matter (as is). A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments (silages) and nine replicates was adopted. The material was conditioned in PVC mini-silos for five months. At the end of the storage period, silos were weighed again and samples were collected to quantify the losses caused by fermentation, dry matter recovery, pH, and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) of the silages and to evaluate the chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates. The silage with 1% CaO showed the highest recovery of dry matter, and in terms of carbohydrate fractionation, it showed the highest levels of soluble and potentially soluble carbohydrates. Addition of 1% CaO during ensiling reduces the fermentation losses of sugarcane silages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 01/2015; 47(2):423-8. DOI:10.1007/s11250-014-0741-z · 0.82 Impact Factor