[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins are proinflammatory polypeptides released during complement activation. They exert their biological activities through interaction with two G protein-coupled receptors named C3aR and C5aR, respectively. In the brain, these receptors are expressed on glial cells, and some recent data have suggested that anaphylatoxins could mediate neuroprotection. In this study, we used RT-PCR and ribonuclease protection assays (RPA) to investigate the role of anaphylatoxins on neurotrophin expression by the human glioblastoma cell line T98G and by rat astrocytes. Our data show that for both cell types, anaphylatoxins upregulate expression of NGF mRNA. This response depended on a G protein-coupled pathway since pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) completely blocked NGF mRNA increases. This effect was anaphylatoxin-specific since pre-incubation with anti-C3a or anti-C5aR antibodies abolished the effects of C3a and C5a, respectively. The regulation of NGF mRNA by anaphylatoxins was not accompanied by translation into protein expression, but there was a significant synergic effect of anaphylatoxins/IL-1b costimulation. Our demonstration of involvement of anaphylatoxins in the NGF release process by astrocytes suggests that C3a and C5a could modulate neuronal survival in the CNS.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2006; 3(1):8-10. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-3-8 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins are two proinflammatory peptides generated during complement system activation. C3a and C5a exert several biological activities through binding to their specific receptors, named C3aR and C5aR, respectively. We have previously shown that C3aR and C5aR are constitutively expressed by astrocytes, a cell type that actively participates in inflammatory events in the central nervous system. In this article, we focus on the transduction signal pathways activated by these two receptors on astrocytes. We show that the stimulation of C3aR or C5aR results in the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway by phosphorylation of the p44 and p42 kinases. On the contrary, the binding of C3a or C5a to their receptors on astrocytes decreases the production of cAMP, revealing an inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Stimulation of C3aR and C5aR induces an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, arising from the opening of intracellular calcium channels. The observed calcium wave results from the activation of the phospholipase C pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that the binding of C3a or C5a to their receptors on astrocytes would be of functional importance since it induces the activation of two important transduction pathways leading to several cellular events such as neurotrophin and cytokine production.
Molecular Brain Research 05/2003; 112(1-2):53-60. DOI:10.1016/S0169-328X(03)00046-9 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The octadecaneuropeptide (ODN; QATVGDVNTDRPGLLDLK) and its C-terminal octapeptide (OP; RPGLLDLK), which exert anxiogenic activity, have been previously shown to increase intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured rat astrocytes through activation of a metabotropic receptor positively coupled to phospholipase C. It has also been found that the [d-Leu5]OP analog possesses a weak antagonistic activity. The aim of the present study was to synthesize and characterize cyclic analogs of OP and [d-Leu5]OP. On-resin homodetic backbone cyclization of OP yielded an analog, cyclo1-8 OP, which was three times more potent and 1.4-times more efficacious than OP to increase [Ca2+]i in cultured rat astrocytes. Cyclo1-8 OP also mimicked the effect of both OP and ODN on polyphosphoinositide turnover. Conversely, the cyclo1-8 [d-Leu5]OP analog was totally devoid of agonistic activity but suppressed the effect of OP and ODN on [Ca2+]i and phosphoinositide metabolism in astrocytes. The structure of these cyclic analogs has been determined by two-dimensional 1H-NMR and molecular dynamics. Cyclo1-8 OP exhibited a single conformation characterized by a gamma turn comprising residues Pro2-Leu4 and a type III beta turn encompassing residues Leu5-Lys8. Cyclo1-8 [d-Leu5]OP was present as two equimolar conformers resulting from cis/trans isomerization of the Arg-Pro peptide bond. These pharmacological and structural data should prove useful for the rational design of non peptidic ODN analogs.
European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2002; 268(23):6045-57. DOI:10.1046/j.0014-2956.2001.02533.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytes synthesize a series of regulatory peptides called endozepines, which act as endogenous ligands of benzodiazepine receptors. We have recently shown that one of these endozepines, the triakontatetraneuropeptide TTN, stimulates DNA synthesis in astroglial cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism of action of TTN on cultured rat astrocytes. Binding of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligand [3H]Ro5-4864 to intact astrocytes was displaced by TTN, whereas its C-terminal fragment (TTN[17-34], the octadecaneuropeptide ODN) did not compete for [3H]Ro5-4864 binding. Microfluorimetric measurement of cytosolic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) with the fluorescent probe indo-1 showed that TTN (10(-10) to 10(-6) M) provokes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i in cultured astrocytes. Simultaneous administration of TTN (10(-8) M) and Ro5-4864 (10(-5) M) induced an increase in [Ca2+]i similar to that obtained with Ro5-4864 alone. In contrast, the effects of TTN (10(-8) M) and ODN (10(-8) M) on [Ca2+]i were strictly additive. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ by EGTA (6 mM) or blockage of Ca2+ channels with Ni2+ (2 mM) abrogated the stimulatory effect of TTN. The calcium influx evoked by TTN (10(-7) M) or by Ro5-4864 (10(-5) M) was not affected by the N- and T-type calcium channel blockers omega-conotoxin (10(-6) M) and mibefradil (10(-6) M), but was significantly reduced by the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine (10(-7) M). Patch-clamp studies showed that, at negative potentials, TTN (10(-7) M) induced a sustained depolarization. Reduction of the chloride concentration in the extracellular solution shifted the reversal potential from 0 mV to a positive potential. These data show that TTN, acting through peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, provokes chloride efflux, which in turn induces calcium influx via L-type calcium channels in rat astrocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytes and astrocytoma cells actively express the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) gene, suggesting that DBI-processing products may regulate glial cell activity. In the present study, we have investigated the possible effect of one of the DBI-derived peptides, the triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN), on [(3)H]thymidine incorporation in cultured rat astrocytes. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of incubation media indicated that TTN is the major form of DBI-derived peptides released by cultured astrocytes. At very low concentrations (10(-14)-10(-11) M), TTN induced a dose-dependent increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, whereas at higher concentrations (10(-10)-10(-5) M) the effect of TTN gradually declined. In the same range of concentrations, the specific peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) agonist Ro 5-4864 mimicked the bell-shaped stimulatory effect of TTN on [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. The PBR antagonist PK11195 (10(-6) M) suppressed the stimulatory action of both TTN and Ro 5-4864 on [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, whereas the central-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (10(-6) M) had no effect. The present study demonstrates that the endozepine TTN stimulates DNA synthesis in rat glial cells through activation of PBRs. These data strongly suggest that TTN exerts an autocrine/paracrine stimulatory effect on glial cell proliferation.
Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2000; 75(2):701-7. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0750701.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High concentrations of diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mRNA have been detected in astrocytoma, suggesting that DBI-derived peptides may play a role in glial cell proliferation. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of a processing product of DBI, the octadecaneuropeptide ODN, on DNA synthesis in cultured rat astrocytes. At very low concentrations (10(-14) to 10(-11) M), ODN caused a dose-dependent increase of [3H]thymidine incorporation. At higher doses (10(-10) to 10(-5) M), the effect of ODN gradually declined. The central-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (10(-6) M) completely suppressed the stimulatory action of ODN whereas the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligand, PK11195 (10(-6) M) had no effect. The ODN-induced stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation was mimicked by methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM). The GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (10(-4) M) suppressed the effect of both ODN and DMCM on DNA synthesis. Exposure of cultured astrocytes to the specific GABAA agonist 3APS (10(-10) to 10(-4) M) also induced a dose-related increase of [3H]thymidine incorporation. The present study indicates that ODN, acting through central-type benzodiazepine receptors associated with the GABAA receptor complex, stimulates DNA synthesis in rat glial cells. These data provide evidence for an autocrine role of endozepines in the control of glial cell proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the mammalian brain, the endogenous ligands for benzodiazepine receptors (also called endozepines) are predominantly synthesized by glial cells. It has recently been reported that rat astrocytes in primary culture release substantial amounts of endozepines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of GABA in the control of endozepine release. Exposure of cultured rat astrocytes to GABA (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) induced a dose-related inhibition of endozepine secretion. At higher doses (3 x 10(-5) to 10(-3) M), the effect of GABA gradually diminished. The inhibitory effect of GABA (10(-5) M) was mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (10(-5) M). In contrast, the GABA(A) receptor agonists 3APS and isoguvacine (10(-5) M each) did not modify endozepine release. The inhibition of endozepine secretion evoked by GABA and baclofen (10(-5) M each) was totally abrogated by the specific GABA(B) receptor antagonist phaclofen (10(-4) M). GABA and baclofen caused a significant inhibition of forskolin-evoked production of cAMP in astrocytes and this effect was abolished in the presence of phaclofen. In contrast, isoguvacine had no effect on cAMP production. Exposure of astrocytes to dbcAMP induced a time- and dose-dependent stimulation of endozepine release. These data indicate that GABA, acting through GABA(B) receptors negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, inhibits endozepine release from cultured rat astrocytes. The secretion of endozepines thus appears to be a valuable marker to monitor astrocyte activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human astrocyte cell lines reportedly contain a specific receptor for the complement anaphylatoxin C3a based on ligand-binding studies, functional responses, and RNA analysis by RT-PCR. Uptake of 125I-C3a by astrocytes was specific and reversible. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of two classes of binding sites. High-affinity binding sites were abundantly expressed (20,000-80,000 sites per cell) with an estimated K(D) of 1-2 nM. Low-affinity binding sites with a K(D) of 209 nM were largely expressed (n > or = 4 x 10(6) sites per cell) and probably did not reflect a receptor-mediated binding, but rather an ionic interaction between C3a and the membrane. Analysis of astrocyte mRNA by RT-PCR with three different sets of primers covering 60% of the C3a receptor (C3aR) mRNA sequence indicated that glial C3aR was identical to the leukocytic one. Western blot analysis using a specific anti-C3aR evidenced a C3aR with a molecular mass of 60,000 Da. C3a and a superagonist peptide, E7, induced a transient increase of intracellular [Ca2+] in primary culture of astrocytes. Treatment of the ligands by carboxypeptidase B to eliminate the C-terminus Arg considerably decreased the [Ca2+] response. Moreover, flow cytometry experiments demonstrated the expression of C3aR on normal rat astrocyte membrane. This report brings new insight for the role of the complement system in the brain inflammation response.
Journal of Neurochemistry 01/1999; 71(6):2487-96. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71062487.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The octadecaneuropeptide ODN (QATVGDVNTDRPGLLDLK), originally characterized as an endogenous ligand for central-type benzodiazepine receptors, increases intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat astroglial cells. A series of ODN analogues was synthesized, and each compound was studied for its ability to induce Ca2+ mobilization in cultured rat astrocytes. Replacement of each amino acid by an L-alanine residue (AlaScan) showed that the N-terminal region of the molecule was relatively tolerant to alanine substitution (2-8, 10), except for the Ala9-substituted analogue (9) which was totally devoid of activity. Pyroglutamization (21) and acetylation (22) of the Gln1 residue reduced the Ca2+ response suggesting that a free N-terminal amine function is required for full activity of ODN. Alanine substitution of the residues in the C-terminal region of the molecule (11-14, 16-18) significantly reduced the biological activity of ODN. In particular, modifications of the Leu15 residue (15, 20) abolished the Ca2+-mobilizing activity. The analogues [Ala9]ODN (9), [Ala15]ODN (15), [D-Thr9]ODN (19), and [D-Leu15]ODN (20) partially antagonized the Ca2+ response evoked by ODN. Most importantly, the octapeptide ODN11-18 (OP, 24) produced a dose-response curve that was superimposable to that obtained with ODN, indicating that the C-terminal region of the molecule possesses full biological activity. Finally, the AlaScan of OP revealed that replacement of the Leu5 residue by Ala (29) or D-Leu (33) totally suppressed the calcium response, confirming the crucial contribution of the Leu15 residue of ODN to the biological activity of the neuropeptide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement system activation within the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in demyelinating and neurodegenerative disorders, but the role of complement in the pathogenic process or in the repair remains unclear. Besides the direct lytic effects of complement on target cells (oligodendrocytes or neurons), complement can exert other functions through interaction of complement fragments with specific receptors. The C5a anaphylatoxin, an inflammatory peptide which is formed during complement activation, might play a role in the CNS pathogenesis, and activation and recruitment of glial cells by binding to its receptor (C5aR) on CNS cells. Using degenerate primers corresponding to homologous regions between human and mouse C5aR cDNAs, we have cloned a rat C5aR cDNA probe from rat monocytes RNAs after RT-PCR experiment. The rat C5aR probe isolated by this procedure allowed us to clone the rat C5aR cDNA-coding sequence using a library screening cloning strategy. This probe was also used to study the expression of the C5aR mRNA in the rat CNS. Northern blotting and RT-PCR experiments demonstrated the constitutive expression of C5aR mRNA in brain, spleen, kidney and lung. This transcript was also observed in primary culture of rat astrocytes. Microfluorimetry experiments demonstrated that C5aR expressed by astrocytes in culture is functional since the addition of C5a induced a dose-dependent increase of intracellular calcium concentration. The expression of the C5aR by astrocytes suggests new roles for the C5a anaphylatoxin in reactive astrogliosis to CNS injuries.
Molecular Brain Research 10/1997; 48(2):215-22. DOI:10.1016/S0169-328X(97)00094-6 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diazepam-binding inhibitor has been initially isolated from the rat brain from its ability to compete with benzodiazepines for their receptors. We have recently shown that the octadecaneuropeptide (diazepam-binding inhibitor-(33-50) or ODN) induces an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in astroglial cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether central-type benzodiazepine receptors or peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors are involved in the response of cultured rat astrocytes to ODN. The mixed central-/peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligand flunitrazepam (10(-10) to 10(-6) M), the specific peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor agonist Ro5-4864 (10(-10) to 10(-6) M) and the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor 'antagonist' PK 11195 (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) all induced a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. At high doses (10(-7) to 10(-5) M), the central-type benzodiazepine receptor agonist clonazepam also mimicked the stimulatory effect of ODN on [Ca2+]i. However, the [Ca2+]i rise induced by ODN was blocked neither by PK 11195 nor by the central-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (10(-6) M each). Binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to intact astrocytes was displaced by low concentrations of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligands flunitrazepam, Ro5 4864 and PK 11195, and by high concentrations of clonazepam. In contrast, ODN did not compete for [3H]flunitrazepam binding in intact cells. These data indicate that the effect of ODN on Ca2+ mobilization in rat astrocytes is mediated by high affinity receptors which are not related to classical benzodiazepine receptors.
European Journal of Pharmacology 04/1997; 322(2-3):275-81. DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(97)00012-5 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the production of diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)-related peptides by astrocytes in primary culture and we have determined the effect of the octadecaneuropeptide DBI[33-50] (ODN) on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in astrocytes. Immunocytochemical labeling with antibodies against ODN showed that cultured astrocytes retain their ability to synthesize DBI in vitro. Cultured astrocytes were also found to release substantial amounts of ODN-immunoreactive material, and a brief exposure of astrocytes to a depolarizing potassium concentration resulted in a 5-fold increase in the rate of release of the ODN-like peptide. Microfluorimetric measurement of [Ca2+]i with the fluorescent probe indo-1 showed that nanomolar concentrations of ODN induced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i. The stimulatory effect of ODN on [Ca2+]i was not affected by calcium channel blockers or by incubation in Ca(2+)-free medium. In contrast, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, totally abolished the ODN-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. Repeated pulses of ODN caused attenuation of the response, indicating the existence of a desensitization phenomenon. Preincubation of astrocytes with pertussis toxin totally blocked the effect of ODN on [Ca2+]i. The present study indicates that ODN-related peptides are synthesized and released by glial cells. Our results also show that synthetic ODN induces calcium mobilization from an intracellular store through stimulation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Taken together, these data suggest that endozepines act as paracrine and/or autocrine factors controlling the activity of astroglial cells.
Molecular Brain Research 05/1996; 37(1-2):290-6. DOI:10.1016/0169-328X(95)00330-U · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytes synthesize a series of peptides called endozepines which act as endogenous ligands of benzodiazepine receptors. The present study demonstrates that the endozepine ODN causes a dose-dependent increase in inositol trisphosphate and a parallel decrease in phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in cultured rat astrocytes. Pre-incubation of astrocytes with the phospholipase C inhibitor U 73122 or with pertussis toxin totally blocked polyphosphoinositide metabolism. These data show that, in rat astrocytes, ODN stimulates a phospholipase C coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.