[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-translational modification of histones resulting in chromatin remodelling plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Here we report characteristic patterns of expression of 12 members of 3 classes of chromatin modifier genes in 6 different cancer types: histone acetyltransferases (HATs)- EP300, CREBBP, and PCAF; histone deacetylases (HDACs)- HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7A, and SIRT1; and histone methyltransferases (HMTs)- SUV39H1and SUV39H2. Expression of each gene in 225 samples (135 primary tumours, 47 cancer cell lines, and 43 normal tissues) was analysedby QRT-PCR, normalized with 8 housekeeping genes, and given as a ratio by comparison with a universal reference RNA.
This involved a total of 13,000 PCR assays allowing for rigorous analysis by fitting a linear regression model to the data. Mutation analysis of HDAC1, HDAC2, SUV39H1, and SUV39H2 revealed only two out of 181 cancer samples (both cell lines) with significant coding-sequence alterations. Supervised analysis and Independent Component Analysis showed that expression of many of these genes was able to discriminate tumour samples from their normal counterparts. Clustering based on the normalized expression ratios of the 12 genes also showed that most samples were grouped according to tissue type. Using a linear discriminant classifier and internal cross-validation revealed that with as few as 5 of the 12 genes, SIRT1, CREBBP, HDAC7A, HDAC5 and PCAF, most samples were correctly assigned.
The expression patterns of HATs, HDACs, and HMTs suggest these genes are important in neoplastic transformation and have characteristic patterns of expression depending on tissue of origin, with implications for potential clinical application.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DUTT1 gene is located on human chromosome 3, band p12, within a region of nested homozygous deletions in breast and lung tumors. It is therefore a candidate tumor suppressor gene in humans and is the homologue (ROBO1) of the Drosophila axonal guidance receptor gene, Roundabout. We have shown previously that mice with a targeted homozygous deletion within the Dutt1/Robo1 gene generally die at birth due to incomplete lung development: survivors die within the first year of life with epithelial bronchial hyperplasia as a common feature. Because Dutt1/Robo1 heterozygous mice develop normally, we have determined their tumor susceptibility. Mice with a targeted deletion within one Dutt1/Robo1 allele spontaneously develop lymphomas and carcinomas in their second year of life with a 3-fold increase in incidence compared with controls: invasive lung adenocarcinomas are by far the predominant carcinoma. In addition to the mutant allele, loss of heterozygosity analysis indicates that these tumors retain the structurally normal allele but with substantial methylation of the gene's promoter. Substantial reduction of Dutt1/Robo1 protein expression in tumors is observed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. This suggests that Dutt1/Robo1 is a classic tumor suppressor gene requiring inactivation of both alleles to elicit tumorigenesis in these mice.
Cancer Research 10/2004; 64(18):6432-7. · 8.65 Impact Factor