[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (SH) cells endogenously express A(2A) adenosine receptors and can be differentiated into a sympathetic neuronal phenotype, capable of depolarisation-dependent noradrenaline release. Using differentiated SH culture, we here explored the link between A(2A)-receptor signalling and neurotransmitter release. In response to the receptor agonist CGS21680, the cells produced cyclic AMP (cAMP), and when depolarised, they released increased amounts of noradrenaline. An A(2A)-receptor antagonist, XAC, as well as an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), H89, depressed agonist-dependent release. In the presence of XAC or H89, noradrenaline release was found to be below basal values. This suggested that release facilitation also owes to constitutive receptor activity. We demonstrate that even in the absence of an agonist, the native A(2A)-receptor stimulated cAMP production, leading to the activation of PKA and enhanced noradrenaline release. Ancillary, non-cAMP-dependent effects of the receptor (i.e. phosphorylation of CREB, of Rabphilin3A) were refractory to constitutive activation. PKA-dependent facilitation of noradrenaline release was recapitulated with membrane-permeable 8-Br-cAMP; in addition to facilitation, 8-Br-cAMP caused marked inhibition of release, an effect not observed upon receptor activation. Inhibition by receptor-independent cAMP was likely due to suppression of voltagedependent calcium current (VDCC) and increased activity of Src-family kinases. Receptor-mediated release facilitation was reproduced in the presence of tetrodotoxin (blocking action potentials); hence, the signalling occurred at the active zone comprising release sites. Our findings thus support (1) presynaptic localisation of the A(2A)-receptor and (2) suggest that compartmentalised pathways transmit cAMP signalling in order to facilitate depolarisation-dependent neurotransmitter release.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P2Y(1) , P2Y(2) , P2Y(4) , P2Y(12) and P2Y(13) receptors for nucleotides have been reported to mediate presynaptic inhibition, but unequivocal evidence for facilitatory presynaptic P2Y receptors is not available. The search for such receptors was the purpose of this study.
In primary cultures of rat superior cervical ganglion neurons and in PC12 cell cultures, currents were recorded via the perforated patch clamp technique, and the release of [(3) H]-noradrenaline was determined.
ADP, 2-methylthio-ATP and ATP enhanced stimulation-evoked (3) H overflow from superior cervical ganglion neurons, treated with pertussis toxin to prevent the signalling of inhibitory G proteins. This effect was abolished by P2Y(1) antagonists and by inhibition of phospholipase C, but not by inhibition of protein kinase C or depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. ADP and a specific P2Y(1) agonist caused inhibition of Kv7 channels, and this was prevented by a respective antagonist. In neurons not treated with pertussis toxin, (3) H overflow was also enhanced by a specific P2Y(1) agonist and by ADP, but only when the P2Y(12) receptors were blocked. ADP also enhanced K(+) -evoked (3) H overflow from PC12 cells treated with pertussis toxin, but only in a clone expressing recombinant P2Y(1) receptors.
These results demonstrate that presynaptic P2Y(1) receptors mediate facilitation of transmitter release from sympathetic neurons most likely through inhibition of Kv7 channels.
British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2011; 164(5):1522-33. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through inhibitory and excitatory effects on sympathetic neurons, B(2) bradykinin receptors contribute to protective and noxious cardiovascular mechanisms. Presynaptic inhibition of sympathetic transmitter release involves an inhibition of Ca(V)2 channels, neuronal excitation an inhibition of K(V)7 channels. To investigate which of these mechanisms prevail over time, the respective currents were determined. The inhibition of Ca(2+) currents by bradykinin reached a maximum of 50%, started to fade within the first minute, and became attenuated significantly after > or = 4 min. The inhibition of K(+) currents reached a maximum of 85%, started to fade after > 3 min, and became attenuated significantly after > or = 7 min. Blocking Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C (PKC) enhanced the inhibition of Ca(2+) currents by bradykinin and delayed its fading, left the inhibition of K(+) currents and its fading unaltered, and enhanced the reduction of noradrenaline release and slowed its fading. Conversely, direct activation of PKC abolished the inhibition of noradrenaline release and largely attenuated the inhibition of Ca(2+) currents. These results show that the inhibitory effects of bradykinin in sympathetic neurons are outweighed over time by its excitatory actions because of more rapid, PKC-dependent fading of the inhibitory response.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2009; 110(6):1977-88. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: M(2), M(3) and/or M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been reported to mediate presynaptic inhibition in sympathetic neurons. M(1) receptors mediate an inhibition of K(v)7, Ca(V)1 and Ca(V)2.2 channels. These effects cause increases and decreases in transmitter release, respectively, but presynaptic M(1) receptors are generally considered facilitatory. Here, we searched for inhibitory presynaptic M(1) receptors.
In primary cultures of rat superior cervical ganglion neurons, Ca(2+) currents were recorded via the perforated patch-clamp technique, and the release of [(3)H]-noradrenaline was determined.
The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine M (OxoM) transiently enhanced (3)H outflow and reduced electrically evoked release, once the stimulant effect had faded. The stimulant effect was enhanced by pertussis toxin (PTX) and was abolished by blocking M(1) receptors, by opening K(v)7 channels and by preventing action potential propagation. The inhibitory effect was not altered by preventing action potentials or by opening K(v)7 channels, but was reduced by PTX and omega-conotoxin GVIA. The inhibition remaining after PTX treatment was abolished by blockage of M(1) receptors or inhibition of phospholipase C. When [(3)H]-noradrenaline release was triggered independently of voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (VACCs), OxoM failed to cause any inhibition. The inhibition of Ca(2+) currents by OxoM was also reduced by omega-conotoxin and PTX and was abolished by M(1) antagonism in PTX-treated neurons.
These results demonstrate that M(1), in addition to M(2), M(3) and M(4), receptors mediate presynaptic inhibition in sympathetic neurons using phospholipase C to close VACCs.
British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2009; 156(8):1342-52. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release is commonly mediated by a direct interaction between G protein betagamma subunits and voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. To search for an alternative pathway, the mechanisms by which presynaptic bradykinin receptors mediate an inhibition of noradrenaline release from rat superior cervical ganglion neurons were investigated. The peptide reduced noradrenaline release triggered by K+-depolarization but not that evoked by ATP, with Ca2+ channels being blocked by Cd2+. Bradykinin also reduced Ca2+ current amplitudes measured at neuronal somata, and this effect was pertussis toxin-insensitive, voltage-independent, and developed slowly within 1 min. The inhibition of Ca2+ currents was abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor, but it was not altered by a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, by the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, or by the inactivation of protein kinase C or Rho proteins. In whole-cell recordings, the reduction of Ca2+ currents was irreversible but became reversible when 4 mM ATP or 0.2 mM dioctanoyl phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate was included in the pipette solution. In contrast, the effect of bradykinin was entirely reversible in perforated-patch recordings but became irreversible when the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate was blocked. Thus, the inhibition of Ca2+ currents by bradykinin involved a consumption of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate by phospholipase C but no downstream effectors of this enzyme. The reduction of noradrenaline release by bradykinin was also abolished by the inhibition of phospholipase C or of the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. These results show that the presynaptic inhibition was mediated by a closure of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels through depletion of membrane phosphatidylinositol bisphosphates via phospholipase C.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of cancer cells derived from epithelial tissue express Lewis-Y (LeY) type difucosylated oligosaccharides on their plasma membrane. This results in the modification of cell surface receptors by the LeY antigen. We used the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family members ErbB1 and ErbB2 as model systems to investigate whether the sugar moiety can be exploited to block signaling by growth factor receptors in human tumor cells (i.e., SKBR-3 and A431, derived from a breast cancer and a vulval carcinoma, respectively). The monoclonal anti-LeY antibody ABL364 and its humanized version IGN311 immunoprecipitated ErbB1 and ErbB2 from detergent lysates of A431 and SKBR-3, respectively. ABL364 and IGN311 blocked EGF- and heregulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK = extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2] in SKBR-3 and A431 cells. The effect was comparable in magnitude with that of trastuzumab (Herceptin) and apparently noncompetitive with respect to EGF. Stimulation of MAPK by ErbB was dynamin dependent and contingent on receptor internalization. ABL364 and IGN311 changed the intracellular localization of fluorescent EGF-containing endosomes and accelerated recycling of intracellular [(125)I]EGF to the plasma membrane. Taken together, these observations show that antibodies directed against carbohydrate side chains of ErbB receptors are capable of inhibiting ErbB-mediated signaling. The ability of these antibodies to reroute receptor trafficking provides a mechanistic explanation for their inhibitory action.
Cancer Research 03/2004; 64(3):1087-93. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium is a universal second messenger. The temporal and spatial information that is encoded in Ca(2+)-transients drives processes as diverse as neurotransmitter secretion, axonal outgrowth, immune responses and muscle contraction. Ca(2+)-release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores can be triggered by diffusible second messengers like Ins P (3), cyclic ADP-ribose or nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). A target has not yet been identified for the latter messenger. In the present study we show that nanomolar concentrations of NAADP trigger Ca(2+)-release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was due to a direct action on the Ca(2+)-release channel/ryanodine receptor type-1, since in single channel recordings, NAADP increased the open probability of the purified channel protein. The effects of NAADP on Ca(2+)-release and open probability of the ryanodine receptor occurred over a similar concentration range (EC(50) approximately 30 nM) and were specific because (i) they were blocked by Ruthenium Red and ryanodine, (ii) the precursor of NAADP, NADP, was ineffective at equimolar concentrations, (iii) NAADP did not affect the conductance and reversal potential of the ryanodine receptor. Finally, we also detected an ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction of skeletal muscle. This enzyme was not only capable of synthesizing cyclic GDP-ribose but also NAADP, with an activity of 0.25 nmol/mg/min. Thus, we conclude that NAADP is generated in the vicinity of type 1 ryanodine receptor and leads to activation of this ion channel.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study demonstrates the following characteristic suramin actions on the purified skeletal muscle calcium release channel in single-channel current recordings and [(3)H]ryanodine binding to HSR: 1) Suramin (0.3-0.9 mM) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the open probability (P(o) congruent with 0.9) at 20 to 100 microM Ca(2+) and an almost fully open channel at 1 mM Ca(2+) (P(o) = 0.95) with a marked shift to longer open states (tau(o)3/tau(o)4). Suramin increased the apparent calcium affinity to the activating high-affinity calcium binding sites and reduced the apparent magnesium affinity to the inhibitory low affinity Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) binding sites. 2) Channel activation by suramin and sulfhydryl oxidation was additive. 3) Suramin (0.9 mM) reversed the Ca-calmodulin-induced channel inhibition at 0.1 or 1 to 5 microM Ca-calmodulin. 4) The open probability of the suramin activated channel was almost completely inhibited by 10 mM Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) on short suramin exposure. Prolonged suramin exposure (30-60 min) resulted in a time-dependent, slow increase in P(o), with long open states of low frequency in the presence of 10 to 20 mM Mg(2+) or Ca(2+). 5) Magnesium induced inhibition of P(o) (IC(50) = 0.38 mM) and equilibrium [(3)H]ryanodine binding (IC(50) = 0.30 mM) agreed well in control channels, but were dissociated in the presence of 0.9 to 1.0 mM suramin (IC(50) = 0.82 mM versus 83 mM). [(3)H]ryanodine binding seemed to monitor predominantly the long-term alteration in channel function. 6) The multiple effects of suramin on channel function suggest an allosteric mechanism and no direct effects on binding of endogenous ligands involved in channel gating.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modulation of the calmodulin-induced inhibition of the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) by two sulfhydryl oxidizing compounds, 4-(chloromercuri)phenyl-sulfonic acid (4-CMPS) and 4, 4'-dithiodipyridine (4,4'-DTDP) was determined by single channel current recordings with the purified and reconstituted calcium release channel from rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (HSR) and [(3)H]ryanodine binding to HSR vesicles. 0.1 microm CaM reduced the open probability (P(o)) of the calcium release channel at maximally activating calcium concentrations (50-100 microm) from 0.502 +/- 0.02 to 0.137 +/- 0.022 (n = 28), with no effect on unitary conductance. 4-CMPS (10-40 microm) and 4,4'-DTDP (0.1-0.3 mm) induced a concentration dependent increase in P(o) (> 0.9) and caused the appearance of longer open states. CaM shifted the activation of the calcium release channel by 4-CMPS or 4,4'-DTDP to higher concentrations in single channel recordings and [(3)H]ryanodine binding. 40 microm 4-CMPS induced a near maximal (P(o) > 0.9) and 0.3 mm 4,4'-DTDP a submaximal (P(o) = 0.74) channel opening in the presence of CaM, which was reversed by the specific sulfhydryl reducing agent DTT. Neither 4-CMPS nor 4,4'-DTDP affected Ca-[(125)I]calmodulin binding to HSR. 1 mm MgCl(2) reduced P(o) from 0.53 to 0.075 and 20-40 microm 4-CMPS induced a near maximal channel activation (P(o) > 0.9). These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of CaM or magnesium in a physiological concentration is diminished or abolished at high concentrations of 4-CMPS or 4,4'-DTDP through oxidation of activating sulfhydryls on cysteine residues of the calcium release channel.
Journal of Membrane Biology 03/2000; 174(2):105-20. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The actions of the nitric oxide (NO) donors 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3 methyl-1-triazine (NOC-7), S-nitrosoacetylcysteine (CySNO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on the purified calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) of rabbit skeletal muscle were determined by single channel current recordings. In addition, the activation of the NO donor modulated calcium release channel by the sulfhydryl oxidizing organic mercurial compound 4-(chloromercuri)phenylsulfonic acid (4-CMPS) was investigated. NOC-7 (0.1 and 0.3 mM) and CySNO (0.4 and 0.8 mM) increased the open probability (P(o)) of the calcium release channel at activating calcium concentrations (20-100 microM Ca(2+)) by 60-100%, with no effect on the current amplitude; this activation was abolished by the specific sulfhydryl reducing agent DTT. High concentrations of CySNO (1.6-2 mM) decreased P(o). Activation by GSNO (1 mM) was observed in two thirds of the experiments, but 2 mM and 4 mM GSNO markedly reduced P(o) at activating Ca(2+) (20-100 microM). In contrast to 4-CMPS, NOC-7 or GSNO had no effect at subactivating free Ca(2+) (0.6 microM). 4-CMPS further increased the open probability of NOC-7- or CySNO-stimulated channels and reversed transiently the reduced open probability of CySNO or GSNO inhibited channels at activating free Ca(2+). High concentrations of GSNO did not prevent channel activation of 4-CMPS at subactivating free Ca(2+). The NOC-7-, CySNO- or GSNO-modified channels were completely blocked by ruthenium red. It is suggested that nitrosylation/oxidation of sulfhydryls by NO donors and oxidation of sulfhydryls by 4-CMPS affect different cysteine residues essential in the gating of the calcium release channel.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/1999; 1451(2-3):271-87. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether amphetamine enhances noradrenergic activity by uptake blockade or a releasing action is still a matter of debate. In order to gain insight into the interaction of amphetamine with the noradrenaline transporter its cDNA was transfected into COS-7 cells (NAT-cells) or cotransfected with the cDNA of the vesicular monoamine transporter (NAT/VMAT-cells); cells were loaded with [3H]noradrenaline, superfused and the efflux analysed for total tritium and [3H]noradrenaline. In NAT-cells amphetamine stimulated [3H]noradrenaline efflux concentration-dependently when added to the superfusion buffer at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 microM. By contrast, 10 or 100 microM amphetamine stimulated efflux to a smaller extent or not at all; however, on switching back to amphetamine-free buffer a prompt increase of efflux was observed. Cocaine did not increase efflux per se and blocked the amphetamine-induced efflux. In NAT/VMAT-cells amphetamine stimulated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect showed saturation at 1 microM and was not suppressed at higher concentrations. Cocaine also elicited efflux from NAT/VMAT-cells concentration-dependently; the maximum was reached at approximately 1 microM and amounted to only about half of the amphetamine-induced efflux. It is concluded that amphetamine can induce noradrenaline transporter mediated release only at high nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations. At higher concentrations it blocks the noradrenaline transporter; in this case, the releasing action of amphetamine, like that of cocaine, is dependent on a vesicular pool of noradrenaline.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA of the human dopamine transporter (DAT cells) or the human noradrenaline transporter (NAT cells) were loaded with [3H]-dopamine or [3H]-noradrenaline and superfused with buffers of different ionic composition. 2. In DAT cells lowering the Na+ concentration to 0, 5 or 10 mM caused an increase in 3H-efflux. Cocaine (10 microM) or mazindol (0.3 microM) blocked the efflux at low Na+, but not at 0 Na+. Lowering the Cl- concentration to 0, 5 or 10 mM resulted in an increased efflux, which was blocked by cocaine or mazindol. Desipramine (0.1 microM) was without effect in all the conditions tested. 3. In NAT cells, lowering the Na+ concentration to 0, 5 or 10 mM caused an increase in 3H-efflux, which was blocked by cocaine or mazindol. Desipramine produced a partial block, its action being stronger at 5 or 10 mM Na+ than at 0 mM Na+. Efflux induced by 0, 5 or 10 mM Cl- was completely blocked by all three uptake inhibitors. 4. In cross-loading experiments, 5 mM Na(+)- or 0 Cl(-)-induced efflux was much lower from [3H]-noradrenaline-loaded DAT, than NAT cells and was sensitive to mazindol, but not to desipramine. Efflux from [3H]-dopamine-loaded NAT cells elicited by 5 mM Na+ or 0 Cl- was blocked by mazindol, as well as by desipramine. 5. Thus cloned catecholamine transporters display carrier-mediated efflux of amines if challenged by lowering the extracellular Na+ or Cl-, whilst retaining their pharmacological profile. The transporters differ with regard to the ion dependence of the blockade of reverse transport by uptake inhibitors.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/1997; 121(2):205-12. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs) in the alpha 2-autoinhibitory modulation of noradrenaline release was investigated in cultured chick sympathetic neurons. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist UK 14,304 caused a concentration-dependent reduction of electrically evoked [3H] noradrenaline release with half-maximal effects at 14.0 +/- 5.5 nM. In neurons treated with 100 ng/ml cholera toxin for 24 h, the half-maximal concentration was lowered to 3.2 +/- 1.4 nM without changes in the maximal effect of UK 14,304. The pretreatment with cholera toxin also increased the inhibitory action of 10 nM UK 14,304 when compared with the inhibition of noradrenaline release in untreated cultures derived from the same cell population. In cultures treated with either 10 microM forskolin or 100 microM 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, neither the half-maximal concentration nor the maximal effect of UK 14,304 was altered. Cholera toxin, forskolin, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP all induced an increase in spontaneous outflow and a reduction in electrically evoked overflow, effects not observed after a pretreatment with dideoxyforskolin. Exposure of neurons to cholera toxin, but not to forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, induced a translocation of alpha-subunits of Gs (Gs alpha) from particulate to soluble fractions and led ultimately to a complete loss of Gs alpha from the neurons. In contrast, no effect was seen on the distribution of either alpha-subunits of Gi- or Ga-type G proteins or of beta-subunits. These results indicate that cholera toxin causes a selective, cyclic AMP-independent down-regulation of Gs alpha. This down-regulation of Gs alpha is associated with the sensitization of alpha 2-autoreceptors.
Journal of Neurochemistry 04/1996; 66(3):1019-26. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The release of previously incorporated [3H]-noradrenaline was investigated in cultures of dissociated chick or rat sympathetic neurones and in cerebrocortical slices from neonatal or adult rats. Noradrenaline, in the presence of 10 mumol l-1 of the uptake inhibitor, cocaine, or the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, 5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine (UK 4,304), was applied for different periods of time in order to detect a possible time-dependence of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of electrically evoked tritium outflow. 2. In chick sympathetic neurones, stimulation-evoked overflow was reduced to 30%, 42%, or 56% of control when noradrenaline (1 mumol l-1) was present for 2, 8, or 16 min, respectively. Likewise, UK 14,304 (1 mumol l-1) present for these periods of time reduced 3H overflow to 35%, 51%, and 53% of control, respectively. Addition of 1 nmol l-1 to 10 mumol l-1 UK 14,304 for either 2 or 16 min did not produce significantly different IC50 values, but the inhibitory effects were smaller with 16 min as compared to 2 min exposure at concentrations > or = 10 nmol l-1. 3. In rat sympathetic neurones, noradrenaline (100 nmol l-1) reduced stimulation-evoked overflow to 33%, 56%, or 57% of control, when present for 2, 8, or 16 min, respectively. Addition of UK 14,304 (1 mumol l-1) for these periods of time caused inhibition to 11%, 41%, and 46% of control. Applying UK14,304 for either 2 or 16 min did not result in significantly different IC5o values, but the inhibition induced by 16 min as compared to 2 min exposure was smaller at concentrations > 10 nmol 1-1.4. In cerebrocortical slices from either neonatal or adult rats, exposure to 0.1 to 1.0 micromol 1-1 UK14,304 for 16 min never caused a smaller inhibition than a corresponding 3 min exposure, although various experimental conditions were investigated.5 The results demonstrate that alpha 2-adrenoceptors which regulate noradrenaline release from sympathetic neurones undergo agonist-induced desensitization within minutes. Such rapid desensitization of alpha 2-autoreceptors was not detected in brain slice preparations.
British Journal of Pharmacology 04/1995; 114(6):1143-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of amphetamine and cocaine were studied in [3H]-dopamine-loaded and superfused COS-7 cells transfected with either the cDNA of the plasmalemmal dopamine transporter ("DAT cells") or the cDNA of the vesicular amine transporter ("VAT cells"), or with both transporters ("DAT/VAT cells"). Amphetamine (0.01-100 microM, added for 4 min of superfusion) led to a concentration-dependent increase in dopamine release in DAT cells, as well as in DAT/VAT cells. The EC50 of the effect of amphetamine on DAT cells was 1.1 +/- 0.6 microM; the effect on DAT/VAT cells did not reach a plateau in the concentration range tested. With longer exposure to amphetamine, dopamine efflux from DAT cells reached a peak and quickly returned to baseline, in spite of the continued presence of the drug, whereas in DAT/VAT cells and in VAT cells the effect was sustained. Cocaine (up to 100 microM) did not exert any effect of its own in DAT cells or VAT cells but inhibited the amphetamine-induced release of dopamine from DAT cells in a competitive manner. In DAT/VAT cells cocaine and its analogue (-)-2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane caused an efflux of dopamine resembling that caused by amphetamine but quantitatively much smaller. The rank order of potency was the same as in uptake experiments [(-)-2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane > cocaine]. The effect of cocaine was mimicked by the reduction of chloride. The results indicate that there is a plasmalemmal component and a vesicular component in the dopamine-releasing action of amphetamine. The releasing action of cocaine is dependent on the existence of a vesicular pool of the neurotransmitter and seems to be linked to inhibition of the plasmalemmal dopamine transporter.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explores the role of cyclic AMP in electrically evoked [3H]noradrenaline release and in the alpha 2-adrenergic modulation of this release in chick sympathetic neurons. Along with an increase in stimulation-evoked tritium overflow, applications of forskolin enhanced the formation of intracellular cyclic AMP. Both effects of forskolin were potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. The forskolin-induced increase in overflow was abolished by the Rp-diastereomer of cyclic AMP-thioate, an antagonist at cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases, and 1,9-dideoxy-forskolin, an inactive analogue at adenylyl cyclase, had no effect on the evoked overflow. A 24-h pretreatment with either cholera toxin or forskolin reduced the subsequent forskolin-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP and inhibited the stimulation-evoked release. Basal cyclic AMP production, however, remained unaltered after forskolin treatment and was enhanced after 24 h of cholera toxin exposure. The alpha 2-adrenergic agonist bromoxidine did not affect the formation of cyclic AMP stimulated by forskolin but reduced electrically evoked release. However, effects of bromoxidine on 3H overflow were attenuated by forskolin as well as by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Effects of bromoxidine on [3H]noradrenaline release were paralleled by an inhibition of voltage-activated Ca2+ currents, primarily through a delayed time course of current activation. This effect was abolished when either forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP was included in the pipette solution. Both substances, however, failed to affect Ca2+ currents in the absence of bromoxidine. These results suggest that the signaling cascade of the alpha 2-adrenergic inhibition of noradrenaline release involves voltage-activated Ca2+ channels but not cyclic AMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of Neurochemistry 08/1994; 63(1):146-54. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 1.6 mg kg-1 N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) to achieve an irreversible inactivation of presynaptic release-modulating alpha 2-autoreceptors. Cerebral cortex slices were prepared at different times after the injection (24, 48, 96, 192, 336, 774 h), incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline ([3H]-NA), superfused and stimulated electrically with 4 pulses at 100 Hz (= autoinhibition-free condition). Overflow of radioactivity was used to measure release. Furchgott analysis was used to estimate agonist dissociation constants (KA) and pool size of resynthesized receptors (q). 2. The KA values of the three alpha 2-autoreceptor agonists, bromoxidine (UK-14304), clonidine and noradrenaline (NA) were 187 nM, 72 nM, and 1202 nM, respectively. 3. The release-inhibiting effects of the agonists returned considerably faster than the receptor pool. The calculated half-lives for the recovery of the maximal release-inhibiting effects of bromoxidine, clonidine and NA were 30.7, 63.6 and 20.8 h, respectively, whereas the half-life for the recovery of the receptor pool was 445 h. 4. The data indicate a large receptor reserve at presynaptic alpha 2-autoreceptors for the agonists used and validate the use of EEDQ as a tool for the determination of agonist dissociation constants.
British Journal of Pharmacology 03/1993; 108(2):370-5. · 5.07 Impact Factor