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ABSTRACT: We characterised a population of macrophages potentially involved in the immunoregulation induced by experimental cysticercosis. Following Taenia crassiceps infection, macrophages recruited in the peritoneal cavity were isolated and co-cultured at different ratios with T cells from naïve mice previously stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies; these macrophages inhibited naïve T cell proliferation. This suppressive effect was Interleukin (IL)-10, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and nitric oxide (NO) independent. In contrast, macrophage-T cell contact was necessary to maintain anergy of T cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of these macrophages showed higher transcripts of IL-10, chitinases Fizz1 and Ym1, and arginase-1 compared with naïve macrophages; by contrast, IL-12p40, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcripts were undetected, whereas C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) was unchanged. Analysis of the membrane molecules expressed on Taenia-induced macrophages showed an up-regulation of several markers, mainly programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2. Blockade of PD-L1, PD-L2 or their receptor PD-1, but not of another marker, eliminated their ability to inhibit T-cell proliferation. Parallel experiments using ovalbumin (OVA)-peptide as a model antigen displayed similar results. Additionally, the same mechanism appears to be functional in splenocytes of T. crassiceps-infected mice given that blockade of PD-1, PD-L1 or PD-L2 re-established their ability to proliferate in response to parasite antigens. Moreover, Taenia-induced macrophages were able to suppress a mixed lymphocyte reaction in a PD-1-dependent manner. Thus, cestode infections induce macrophages alternatively activated with strong suppressive activity involving the PD-1/PD-L's pathway.
International Journal for Parasitology 12/2005; 35(13):1349-58. · 3.64 Impact Factor