J Xenellis

Hippokration General Hospital, Athens, Athínai, Attica, Greece

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Publications (28)30.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is associated with various oculomotor, vestibular, and auditory abnormalities. However, auditory system investigation has been mainly performed with the subjective method of pure-tone audiometry. In this study, a detailed vestibular and audiological evaluation was undertaken, including the objective and more sensitive method of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with genetically diagnosed myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 21 controls were studied. Audiological and vestibular investigations included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), TEOAEs, and electronystagmography. RESULTS: Hearing impairment was evident in 15 (62.5%) patients and in nine of them (37.5%) ABR abnormalities were found. However, subclinical cochlear damage was found in all patients, as evidenced by absent emissions or lower otoacoustic emission amplitude. Vestibular hypesthesia was found in nine patients (37.5%), accompanied by spontaneous nystagmus in four of them (15.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Auditory and vestibular abnormalities are quite common in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. However, it appears that subclinical cochlear damage is an ubiquitous finding of the disease.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 11/2012; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several repositioning maneuvers have been proposed for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) due to canalithiasis of the horizontal semicircular canal (HSC). However, comparisons between these canalith repositioning procedures as well as a generally accepted algorithm for the management of HSC canalithiasis are currently lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 different treatment proposals and review the relevant literature. Prospective clinical study. Tertiary neurotology department. Sixty patients diagnosed with HSC canalithiasis. A single application of Baloh's maneuver (n = 13), Vannucchi's forced prolonged position (n = 29), or Asprella-Gufoni maneuver (n = 18). Bilateral geotropic nystagmus. The first application of the Baloh's maneuver seemed to be significantly less effective than both Vannucchi's forced prolonged position (p = 0.035) and the Asprella-Gufoni maneuver (p = 0.006). No significant difference was detected in the efficiency of Vannucchi's forced prolonged position and the Asprella-Gufoni maneuver for this population (p = 0.4). The Asprella-Gufoni maneuver and Vannucchi's forced prolonged position both seem to be significantly more effective than the Baloh's maneuver in the treatment of HSC canalithiasis. The important pros of the Asprella-Gufoni maneuver versus Vannucchi's forced prolonged position are patient's convenience and maximal use of gravitational and angular acceleration forces. Controlled clinical studies are needed to conclude to an evidence-based proposal for the therapeutical steps that should be followed after the diagnosis of HSC canalithiasis.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 09/2011; 32(8):1302-8. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    M Riga, A Bibas, J Xenellis, S Korres
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    ABSTRACT: Background. This study is a review of the incidence, clinical characteristics, and management of secondary BPPV. The different subtypes of secondary BPPV are compared to each other, as well as idiopathic BPPV. Furthermore, the study highlights the coexistence of BPPV with other inner ear pathologies. Methods. A comprehensive search for articles including in the abstract information on incidence, clinical characteristics, and management of secondary BPPV was conducted within the PubMed library. Results. Different referral patterns, different diagnostic criteria used for inner ear diseases, and different patient populations have led to greatly variable incidence results. The differences regarding clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes may support the hypothesis that idiopathic BPPV and the various subtypes of secondary BPPV do not share the exact same pathophysiological mechanisms. Conclusions. Secondary BPPV is often under-diagnosed, because dizziness may be atypical and attributed to the primary inner ear pathology. Reversely, a limited number of BPPV patients may not be subjected to a full examination and characterized as idiopathic, while other inner ear diseases are underdiagnosed. A higher suspicion index for the coexistence of BPPV with other inner ear pathologies, may lead to a more integrated diagnosis and consequently to a more efficient treatment of these patients.
    International Journal of Otolaryngology 01/2011; 2011:709469.
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    ABSTRACT: The association of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders with aural symptoms, such as tinnitus, otic fullness, and subjective decrease of hearing acuity, is a well-established clinical observation. Although several hypotheses have been made about the otic-conductive origin of these complaints, conventional 226-Hz tympanometry has failed to demonstrate any middle ear abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with TMJ disorders with multiple frequency tympanometry (MFT). Prospective clinical study. Outpatient clinic. The population of this study consisted of 40 patients with unilateral TMJ disorders diagnosed for longer than 1 month. After verifying that there were no abnormal otoscopic findings, 226-Hz tympanometry, conventional pure-tone audiometry, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and MFT were performed. Resonant frequency (RF) values. With the exception of MFT, no abnormal audiologic findings were revealed. The ear ipsilateral to the lesion demonstrated significantly higher (p = 0.002) RF values in comparison to the contralateral ear. The difference in RF values was more obvious in patients aged 45 years or younger. The results of this study imply an increase in the stiffness of the middle ear, which has not been detected by conventional tympanometry. This represents the first concrete documentation of minor alterations in the conductive properties of the middle ear and seems to support the various hypotheses on the middle-ear origin of aural complaints in patients with TMJ disorders. Further studies are needed before a clear insight on the presumably multifactorial pathophysiology of these complaints can finally be reached.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 12/2010; 31(9):1359-64. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: to analyse a large series of patients with initial diagnosis of chronic otitis media (COM) with a polypoid mass in the external ear canal (EAC). 185 consecutive patients with COM were evaluated; 75 showed a polypoid mass in the EAC. In 65 out of the 75 (86.7%) patients, histological examination after mastoidectomy revealed cholesteatoma. In the remaining 10 (13.3%) cases, the histological diagnosis was: glomus tumor, melanoma, mucosal adenoma, fibrous dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma, adenoma of the endolymphatic sac, encephalocele, and tuberculosis. One patient (glomus tumor) had undergone biopsy of the polypoid mass twice preoperatively and the initial histological diagnosis was "inflammatory polyp". Therefore, we examined the temporal bones with a glomus tumor diagnosis from the temporal bone collection of the House Ear Institute. In 1560 temporal bones, a glomus tympanicum was found in 6. In four cases, the tumor extended to the EAC mimicking a polyp covered by squamous epithelium. A significant percentage of polyps in COM may be the tip of an 'iceberg'. CT-scan and MRI techniques may be helpful but not always accurate, and biopsies have certain risks. Increased clinical suspicion may limit misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.
    Auris, nasus, larynx 11/2010; 38(3):325-8. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is strongly related to tobacco and alcohol consumption. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases and N-acetyltransferases, influence the risk of cancers associated with tobacco smoke and alcohol. This was a retrospective case-control study. The study group consisted of 88 Greek patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; there were also 102 control subjects. Frequencies of the genotypes GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3 and NAT2 were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment polymorphism. The distribution of overall genotypes was 55.68 per cent rapid acetylator and 44.32 per cent slow acetylator in patients, and 36.27 per cent rapid acetylator and 63.72 per cent slow acetylator in controls. The odds ratio for rapid acetylator status in cases versus controls was 2.207 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.23-3.95, p = 0.0087). This study demonstrated a significant relationship between rapid acetylator genotypes and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 11/2009; 124(3):318-23. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the results of vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in patients with idiopathic sudden hearing loss, and to correlate these results with the findings of caloric testing, the clinical appearance of vertigo and the influence of age. Eighty-six patients with unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss and 35 healthy controls underwent a standard protocol of neurotological evaluation. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses were measured and compared with caloric responses. On the affected side, 30.2 per cent of patients showed abnormal vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses, while 52.3 per cent had abnormal caloric responses. A statistically significant relationship was found between the results of these two tests. A statistically significant relationship was also found between the type of vestibular lesion and the occurrence of vertigo. Advancing age correlated statistically with more extensive labyrinthic lesions. A combination of vestibular evoked myogenic potential and electronystagmography testing indicated the existence of vestibular involvement in many patients with idiopathic sudden hearing loss. Both tests are necessary in order to obtain a more thorough and in-depth knowledge of the pathophysiology of idiopathic sudden hearing loss.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 09/2009; 123(12):1325-30. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of electronystagmography and magnetic resonance imaging to the aetiological diagnosis of vertigo and unsteadiness, in a population in which the history and clinical examination provide no conclusive diagnosis of the origin of the dysfunction (i.e. peripheral or central). This retrospective study included 102 patients, who underwent full ENT clinical evaluation, history and neurotological assessment (including pure tone audiography, auditory brainstem response testing, electronystagmography and magnetic resonance imaging). Electronystagmography contributed to establishment of a diagnosis in 53/102 patients (52 per cent), whereas magnetic resonance imaging did the same in four of 102 patients (3.9 per cent). Electronystagmography remains the most useful examination for aetiological diagnosis of patients with vertigo and unsteadiness, since the actual number of patients with vertigo and unsteadiness of central origin is small (3.9 per cent), even in a population in which history and clinical examination may indicate an increased probability of central nervous system dysfunction.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 03/2009; 123(8):851-6. · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Skull Base-an Interdisciplinary Approach - SKULL BASE-AN INTERDISCIP APP. 01/2009; 19.
  • Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 09/2008; 30(2):252-3. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the long-term results of cochlear implantation in cases with chronic otitis media or atelectasis using a single surgical technique performed in a single cochlear implant center. Nine patients who were implanted using the blind-pit closure of the external ear canal technique (4 patients with adhesive otitis media and 5 with radical mastoid cavities). Follow-up ranged from 18 months to 12 years (mean, 7.05 yr). The surgical procedure was performed in 2 stages. The first stage included canal wall down or lowering any high facial ridge in previous mastoidectomies, removal of all skin, and blind-pit closure of the external ear canal without mastoid cavity obliteration or eustachian tube obliteration. Cochlear implantation was performed 6 months after the first surgical procedure. All operations were uneventful, and during cochlear implantation, as a second stage, no epithelia or other problems were encountered. No serious complications were encountered during the follow-up period. One case had a minor disruption of the external canal closure that was reclosed successfully under local anesthesia. All patients were using the device at the last follow-up interval with no device problems. Blind-sac closure of the external ear canal without obliteration is a rather safe surgical procedure in cases with chronic otitis media or atelectasis. Meticulous surgical technique and proper patient selection are of paramount importance. However, a 2-stage procedure may not always be necessary and might best be confined to those patients who have active inflammatory disease at the primary procedure.
    Ontology & Neurotology 06/2008; 29(4):499-501. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the development of the organ of Corti in the human cochlea, and to correlate our findings with the onset of auditory function. Step sections of 81 human fetal temporal bones were studied, from eight weeks of gestation to full term. By the end of the 10th week, the tectorial membrane primordium could be traced even in the most apical turns. Individual hair cells became identifiable at the basal turn at 14 weeks. At the same time, a small but well formed oval space was observed between the inner and outer hair cells in the basal turn. This does not correspond to the tunnel of Corti, as is erroneously quoted in the literature, as the individual pillar cells develop at later stages. Between 14 and 15 weeks, Hensen's cells were recognised for the first time. Individual pillar cells were identifiable at 17 weeks and the tunnel of Corti opened at 20 weeks. By 25 weeks, the cochlea had reached its adult size, but continued to develop until full term. A temporal coincidence of different developmental events is responsible for early fetal audition at 20 weeks, including growth of pillar cells, opening of the tunnel of Corti and regression of Kollicker's organ, with the subsequent formation of the inner spiral sulcus and then separation of the tectorial membrane. The fine structures of the organ of Corti continue to develop well after the 25th week, and this may well alter the mechanical properties of the vibrating parts of the cochlea, which may in turn account for the frequency shift observed in preterm infants. These changes will have to be taken into account in the development of prenatal hearing screening tests.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 05/2008; 122(4):336-42. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristics of otoacoustic emissions that make them ideally suited for universal newborn hearing loss screening could potentially be useful for the screening of older children. This study was performed in order to assess the role of otoacoustic emissions in a screening programme for middle-ear disorders and hearing loss in school-age children. Cross-sectional, preliminary screening study. Primary schools of Argolida municipality, south-east Greece, between December 2004 and March 2005. PATIENT SELECTION AND RECRUITMENT: All the primary school students of Argolida were invited, by press releases and individually by their teachers, to attend a session of otological and audiological screening. One hundred and ninety-six children were evaluated using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Twenty per cent failed in both ears, while in 32 per cent otoacoustic emissions could not be produced in at least one ear. Younger children had higher rates of absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. The absence of otoacoustic emissions was highly correlated with tympanic membrane changes seen on otoscopy and the presence of a type B tympanogram. As a single screening modality, otoacoustic emissions had a 100 per cent sensitivity in diagnosing hearing loss worse than 30 dB, and a 90 per cent sensitivity and 64 per cent specificity in diagnosing hearing loss worse than 25 dB, which did not improve by adding tympanometry to the screening protocol. These results strongly suggest the potential usefulness of otoacoustic emission testing in screening school-age children for hearing loss. Further studies, taking into account cost-effectiveness issues, are indicated.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 05/2008; 122(12):1299-304. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Injury of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) increases the morbidity following a variety of neck procedures and can have catastrophic consequences in people who use their voice professionally. Identification and preservation of the EBSLN are thus important in thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, carotid endarterectomy, and anterior cervical spine procedures, where the nerve is at risk. There are large variations in the anatomical course of the EBSLN, which makes the intraoperative identification of the nerve challenging. The topographic relationship of the EBSLN to the superior thyroid artery and the upper pole of the thyroid gland are considered by many authors to be the key point for identifying the nerve during surgery of the neck. The classifications by Cernea et al. ([1992a] Head Neck 14:380-383; [1992b] Am. J. Surg. 164:634-639) and by Kierner et al. ([1998] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124:301-303), as well as clinically important connections are discussed in detail. Along with sound anatomical knowledge, neuromonitoring is helpful in identifying the EBSLN during neck procedures. The clinical signs of EBSLN injury include hoarseness, decreased voice projection, decreased pitch range, and fatigue after extensive voice use. Videostroboscopy, electromyography, voice analysis, and electroglottography can provide crucial information on the function of the EBSLN following neck surgery.
    Clinical Anatomy 04/2008; 21(2):99-105. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meningoencephaloceles are herniations of brain tissue through dehiscences of the skull base. These skull defects are either acquired (otologic infection, trauma, surgery, neoplasia) or spontaneous. Spontaneous temporal bone meningoencephaloceles are quite rare conditions, usually congenital in origin presenting during childhood, and only occasionally idiopathic presenting during adulthood. We present a case of temporal bone meningoencephalocele of adult onset. The patient was treated with exploratory mastoidectomy, amputation of the herniated cele and closure of the defect with temporalis fascia and an inferiorly based pedicled muscular flap. No reconstruction of the bony defect was performed, as the layered closure was considered adequate. Twelve months' follow-up revealed no relapse of the condition or postoperative complications.
    Skull Base Surgery 10/2007; 17(5):311-6. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare bilateral (BSSHL) with unilateral (USSHL) sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Two hundred and thirty-two patients with USSHL, 11 with simultaneous BSSHL and 7 with sequential BSSHL, who were older than 15 years had onset of hearing loss <30 days, no head injuries or history of acoustic trauma. All patients received the same treatment (prednisolone). Hearing loss was more severe in simultaneous BSSHL in comparison to sequential BSSHL (p = 0.01) or USSHL (p = 0.03). Autoimmune diseases were far more common in simultaneous BSSHL (36% of patients) than USSHL. Positive antinuclear antibody was found in half of BSSHL patients and in only 8% of unilateral cases (p = 0.01). The frequency of hearing improvement was much lower in simultaneous BSSHL than in USSHL (p = 0.001). Complete or partial improvement was noted in 74% of unilateral cases versus 27% in simultaneous bilateral cases. Patients with sequential BSSHL improved in a similar way to unilateral cases. Simultaneous BSSHL, sequential BSSHL and USSHL may have a completely different profile and should not be managed as one disease. Hearing loss, underlying autoimmune diseases, antinuclear antibodies, and improvement/recovery of hearing loss vary in a degree that implies different pathophysiology and prognosis.
    ORL 01/2007; 69(5):306-10. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) remains a challenge for the clinician. In the majority of cases, no definite cause can be found and the prognosis is variable. The present study assessed 114 patients suffering from idiopathic SSHL, with regard to the prognostic value of demographic, epidemiologic, neurotologic and audiometric factors. In addition, the relationship between the identification of wave V in auditory brainstem responses and the final hearing outcome was investigated. All patients received 75 mg/day intravenous prednisolone, divided into three daily doses, for 10 days, with gradual tapering of the dose over the next 10 days. The results (after one year follow up) revealed the following factors to be related to a better hearing outcome: younger age; male sex; less time elapsed between the onset of hearing loss and the beginning of treatment; and an upward-sloping or cupeloid audiogram contour. The detection of wave V early in recovery and within the first month of medical treatment might also constitute a significant favourable factor in respect to hearing recovery. The present study revealed that there are certain factors that affect prognosis in idiopathic SSHL. This is very important in counselling patients and may affect current clinical practice.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 10/2006; 120(9):718-24. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although systemic steroids in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) appears to be the most effective and the most widely accepted treatment today, a significant number of patients do not respond to steroid treatment or they cannot receive steroids for medical reasons. Intratympanic (IT) administration of steroids appears to be an alternative or additional method of management without the side effects of intravenous steroids. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safeness of IT administration of steroids in patients who had not responded to IV treatment and to compare treatment efficacy with controls. Our study consisted of 37 patients with SSHL who, at the end of 10 days of therapy with intravenous steroids as a 1st line treatment, had pure-tone 4-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) average (PTA) of worse than 30 dB or worse than 10 dB from the contralateral ear (defined as failed intravenous treatment). They were randomized into 2 groups, treatment and control. The 19 patients of the treatment group received approximately 0.5 mL sterile aqueous suspension of methylprednisolone acetate in a concentration of 80 mg/2 mL by direct injection. The procedure was carried out 4 times within a 15-day period. An audiogram was performed before each injection and approximately 1.5 months after the last session. All patients tolerated the procedure well. No perforation or infection was noticed in any of the patients at their last visit. With regard to the 19 patients who received intratympanic treatment, in 9 patients, the PTA threshold improved more than 10 db, in 10 patients there was no change greater than 10 db, and no patients deteriorated more than 10 db. In the control group, none of the patients showed any change greater than 10 db. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002). The treatment group showed an improvement in mean PTA of 14.9 dB, whereas the control group showed a deterioration of 0.8 dB, and this difference also was statistically significant (P = 0.0005). IT treatment (P = 0.0001), better post-IV PTA (P = 0.0008), and absence of vertigo (P = 0.02) were good predictors of the outcome. In contrast, sex, age, affected ear, days to admission, and pattern of the initial audiogram showed no significant influence on the outcome. IT steroid administration after failed intravenous steroids is a safe and effective treatment in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 07/2006; 134(6):940-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have specifically assessed the risk factors for persistence or recurrence of OME in a cohort of school-age children. The generally accepted etiological factors for OME occurrence may not apply in the same way when the presence of OME over a year from original diagnosis is assessed. A cohort of 250 school-age children with unilateral or bilateral OME, identified through screening of 5121 asymptomatic children was re-examined 16 months later. All were assessed for a variety of demographic, family and medical factors. Measures included tympanometry, acoustic reflexes and a complete otolaryngologic examination. At 16 months after initial confirmation of OME, 56 out of 250 children (22.4%) suffered from OME, 21 bilateral and 31 unilateral. Presence of OME at 16 months was not associated with gender, blood group, gestational age and weight, history of breast feeding, paternal education level and smoking history, history of allergy, previous use of antibiotics, or with surgery (myringotomy, insertion of ventilation tubes or adenotonsillectomy). In multiple backward-eliminating logistic regression, the only factors associated with OME presence after 16 months were episodes of AOM during the study period (odds ratio 2.75 (95% CI: 1.13-8.17), p=0.04) and younger age (odds ratio 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32-0.79), p=0.002 for each 2 years of increase in age). Seventy-eight percent of school-age children identified with OME through screening will be free of disease 16 months later. The threshold for referral, or surveillance could however justifiably be lower in children who (a) have once been identified with OME and (b) are (relatively) younger, or have experienced an episode of acute otitis media.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 01/2006; 69(12):1641-7. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulsatile tinnitus is frequently attributed to identifiable and treatable causes, in contrast to the more common subjective non-pulsatile tinnitus. It usually originates from vascular structures as a result of either increased blood flow or lumen stenosis; atherosclerotic carotid or subclavian artery disease; arterial, venous, or arteriovenous malformations, fistulas, or dissection; and paragangliomas. Other causes have also been reported, with often unclear pathophysiology. The aim of this paper is to present a case of pulsatile tinnitus secondary to iatrogenic pneumocephalus and to review the literature on pulsatile tinnitus. A 48-year-old white woman had a roaring, very disturbing, pulsatile tinnitus after the removal of a cerebellar lobe meningioma. When the patient experienced the symptom of tinnitus, a pulsatile movement of the tympanic membrane could be clearly seen, and this was synchronous with the patient's heartbeat. Computed tomography revealed an epidural pneumocephalus in the left posterior fossa communicating freely with the air cell system of the left mastoid cavity without any sign of residual tumor. A simple mastoidectomy was performed. The whole air cell system was removed and the mastoid cavity was filled with abdominal fat. After the operation, the pulsatile tinnitus ceased completely and the pneumocephalus disappeared gradually. The patient is free of symptoms 11 months after surgery. Otologists, neurosurgeons, and skull base surgeons should be aware of this surgical complication and be careful to identify any accidental opening to the air cell system of the temporal bone and meticulously close it when it happens. The review of the literature leads to the conclusion that pulsatile tinnitus should be thoroughly investigated, as it may be related to diseases that may have serious complications.
    Ontology & Neurotology 12/2005; 26(6):1149-51. · 2.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

195 Citations
30.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2012
    • Hippokration General Hospital, Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2005–2010
    • Athens State University
      Athens, Alabama, United States
    • The Australian Society of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery
      Evans Head, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • National Technical University of Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2004
    • Κωνσταντοπούλειο νοσοκομείο Νέας Ιωνίας (Η Αγία Όλγα)
      Athínai, Attica, Greece