Richard J. Cool

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (98)326.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a low-resolution spectroscopic survey for 21 galaxy clusters at 0.4<z<0.8 selected from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). We measured spectra using the Low-Dispersion Prism (LDP) in IMACS on the Magellan Baade telescope and calculate redshifts with a precision of $\sigma_z=0.006$. We find 1,602 galaxies that are brighter than R=22.6 in the large-scale cluster environs. We identify the galaxies expected to be accreted by the clusters as they evolve to z=0 using spherical infall models, and find that ~30-70% of the z=0 cluster population lies outside the virial radius at z~0.6. For analogous clusters at z=0, we calculate that the ratio of galaxies that have fallen into the clusters since z~0.6 to that which were already in the core at that redshift is typically between ~0.3 and 1.5. This wide range of ratios is due to intrinsic scatter and is not a function of velocity dispersion, so a variety of infall histories is to be expected for clusters with current velocity dispersions of $300~<\sigma<~1200$ km/s. Within the infall regions of z~0.6 clusters, we find a larger red fraction of galaxies than in the field and greater clustering among red galaxies than blue. We interpret these findings as evidence of "preprocessing", where galaxies in denser local environments have their star formation rates affected prior to their aggregation into massive clusters, although the possibility of backsplash galaxies complicates the interpretation.
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the clustering of X-ray, radio, and mid-IR-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 0.2 < z < 1.2 using multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRIMUS and DEEP2 redshift surveys, covering 7 separate fields spanning ~10 square degrees. Using the cross-correlation of AGN with dense galaxy samples, we measure the clustering scale length and slope, as well as the bias, of AGN selected at different wavelengths. Similar to previous studies, we find that X-ray and radio AGN are more clustered than mid-IR-selected AGN. We further compare the clustering of each AGN sample with matched galaxy samples designed to have the same stellar mass, star formation rate, and redshift distributions as the AGN host galaxies and find no significant differences between their clustering properties. The observed differences in the clustering of AGN selected at different wavelengths can therefore be explained by the clustering differences of their host populations, which have different distributions in both stellar mass and star formation rate. Selection biases inherent in AGN selection, therefore, determine the clustering of observed AGN samples. We further find no significant difference between the clustering of obscured and unobscured AGN, using IRAC or WISE colors or X-ray hardness ratio.
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    ABSTRACT: We utilize $\Lambda$CDM halo occupation models of galaxy clustering to investigate the evolving stellar mass dependent clustering of galaxies in the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and DEEP2 Redshift Survey over the past eight billion years of cosmic time, between $0.2<z<1.2$. These clustering measurements provide new constraints on the connections between dark matter halo properties and galaxy properties in the context of the evolving large-scale structure of the universe. Using both an analytic model and a set of mock galaxy catalogs, we find a strong correlation between central galaxy stellar mass and dark matter halo mass over the range $M_\mathrm{halo}\sim10^{11}$-$10^{13}~h^{-1}M_\odot$, approximately consistent with previous observations and theoretical predictions. However, the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) and the mass scale where star formation efficiency reaches a maximum appear to evolve more strongly than predicted by other models. We find that the fraction of satellite galaxies in haloes of a given mass decreases by $\approx5\%$ from $z\sim0.5$ to $z\sim0.9$, and we find that the $M_1/M_\mathrm{min}$ ratio, which quantifies the critical mass above which haloes host at least one satellite, decreases from $\approx20$ at $z\sim0$ to $\approx13$ at $z\sim0.9$. Considering the evolution of the subhalo mass function vis-\`{a}-vis satellite abundances, this trend has implications for relations between satellite galaxies and halo substructures and for intracluster mass, which we argue has grown due to stripped and disrupted satellites between $z\sim0.9$ and $z\sim0.5$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 807(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/152 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report small-scale clustering measurements from the PRIMUS spectroscopic redshift survey as a function of color and luminosity. We measure the real-space cross-correlations between 62,106 primary galaxies with PRIMUS redshifts and a tracer population of 545,000 photometric galaxies over redshifts from z=0.2 to z=1. We separately fit a power-law model in redshift and luminosity to each of three independent color-selected samples of galaxies. We report clustering amplitudes at fiducial values of z=0.5 and L=1.5 L*. The clustering of the red galaxies is ~3 times as strong as that of the blue galaxies and ~1.5 as strong as that of the green galaxies. We also find that the luminosity dependence of the clustering is strongly dependent on physical scale, with greater luminosity dependence being found between r=0.0625 Mpc/h and r=0.25 Mpc/h, compared to the r=0.5 Mpc/h to r=2 Mpc/h range. Moreover, over a range of two orders of magnitude in luminosity, a single power-law fit to the luminosity dependence is not sufficient to explain the increase in clustering at both the bright and faint ends at the smaller scales. We argue that luminosity-dependent clustering at small scales is a necessary component of galaxy-halo occupation models for blue, star-forming galaxies as well as for red, quenched galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of galaxy environment on the evolution of the quiescent fraction ($f_\mathrm{Q}$) from z =0.8 to 0.0 using spectroscopic redshifts and multi-wavelength imaging data from the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and the Sloan Digitial Sky Survey (SDSS). Our stellar mass limited galaxy sample consists of ~14,000 PRIMUS galaxies within z = 0.2-0.8 and ~64,000 SDSS galaxies within z = 0.05-0.12. We classify the galaxies as quiescent or star-forming based on an evolving specific star formation cut, and as low or high density environments based on fixed cylindrical aperture environment measurements on a volume-limited environment defining population. For quiescent and star-forming galaxies in low or high density environments, we examine the evolution of their stellar mass function (SMF). Then using the SMFs we compute $f_\mathrm{Q}(M_{*})$ and quantify its evolution within our redshift range. We find that the quiescent fraction is higher at higher masses and in denser environments. The quiescent fraction rises with cosmic time for all masses and environments. At a fiducial mass of $10^{10.5}M_\odot$, from z~0.7 to 0.1, the quiescent fraction rises by 15% at the lowest environments and by 25% at the highest environments we measure. These results suggest that for a minority of galaxies their cessation of star formation is due to external influences on them. However, in the recent Universe a substantial fraction of the galaxies that cease forming stars do so due to internal processes.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/162 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the evidence for a symbiotic connection between active galactic nuclei (AGN) fueling and star formation by investigating the relationship between the X-ray luminosities of AGN and the star formation rates (SFRs) of their host galaxies. We identify a sample of 309 AGN with X-ray luminosities $10^{41}<L_\mathrm{X}<10^{44} $ erg s$^{-1}$ at $0.2 < z < 1.2$ in the PRIMUS spectroscopic redshift survey. There is a wide range of SFR at a given $L_X$, and we do not find a significant correlation between SFR and the observed instantaneous $L_X$ for star forming galaxies. However, there is a weak but significant correlation between the mean $L_\mathrm{X}$ of detected AGN and SFR, which likely reflects that $L_\mathrm{X}$ varies on shorter timescales than SFR. We also find no correlation between stellar mass and AGN luminosity. AGN are found in star forming and quiescent galaxies, and both galaxy populations have a similar power-law distribution in the probability of hosting an AGN as a function of specific accretion rate. However, a higher fraction of AGN hosts are classified as star forming with increasing $L_\mathrm{X}$, and a star forming galaxy is $\sim2-3$ times more likely to host an AGN of a given specific accretion rate than a quiescent galaxy of the same stellar mass. The probability of a galaxy hosting an AGN remains constant across the main sequence of star formation. These results indicate that there is an underlying connection between star formation and the presence of AGN, but AGN are also widespread in quiescent galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/187 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: I will discuss two observational projects related to galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution at z < 1. First I will present a statistical study of the morphologies of galaxies in which star formation is being shut down or quenched; this has implications for how red, elliptical galaxies are formed. I will discuss the physical processes behind star formation quenching from the morphological transformations that galaxies undergo during this process. Then I will focus on multi-wavelength AGN selection methods and tie together disparate results in the literature. Several IR-AGN selection methods have been developed using Spitzer/IRAC data in order to supplement traditional X-ray AGN selection; I will characterize the uniqueness and complementarity of these methods as a function of both IR and X-ray depth. I will use data from the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) to compare the efficiency of IR and X-ray AGN selection and discuss the properties of the AGN and host galaxy populations of each. Finally, I will briefly mention ongoing work to compare the clustering of observed IR and X-ray AGN samples relative to stellar mass-matched galaxy samples.
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    ABSTRACT: I present small-scale galaxy cross-correlation measurements from the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) as a function of color, luminosity, and redshift. We measure the real-space clustering of ~50,000 galaxies from PRIMUS, over a redshift range 0.2 < z < 1, by cross-correlating spectroscopic PRIMUS galaxies with a tracer population of galaxies selected from imaging catalogs. In agreement with previous work, we find strong clustering differences between blue and red galaxy populations. Our results indicate luminosity-dependent clustering, but this luminosity dependence further varies depending on color and physical scale. We interpret our results using a halo abundance model.
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of the luminosity and color-dependence of galaxy clustering at 0.2<z<1.0 in the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). We quantify the clustering with the redshift-space and projected two-point correlation functions, xi(rp,pi) and wp(rp), using volume-limited samples constructed from a parent sample of over 130,000 galaxies with robust redshifts in seven independent fields covering 9 sq. deg. of sky. We quantify how the scale-dependent clustering amplitude increases with increasing luminosity and redder color, with relatively small errors over large volumes. We find that red galaxies have stronger small-scale (0.1<rp<1 Mpc/h) clustering and steeper correlation functions compared to blue galaxies, as well as a strong color dependent clustering within the red sequence alone. We interpret our measured clustering trends in terms of galaxy bias and obtain values between b_gal=0.9-2.5, quantifying how galaxies are biased tracers of dark matter depending on their luminosity and color. We also interpret the color dependence with mock catalogs, and find that the clustering of blue galaxies is nearly constant with color, while redder galaxies have stronger clustering in the one-halo term due to a higher satellite galaxy fraction. In addition, we measure the evolution of the clustering strength and bias, and we do not detect statistically significant departures from passive evolution. We argue that the luminosity- and color-environment (or halo mass) relations of galaxies have not significantly evolved since z=1. Finally, using jackknife subsampling methods, we find that sampling fluctuations are important and that the COSMOS field is generally an outlier, due to having more overdense structures than other fields; we find that 'cosmic variance' can be a significant source of uncertainty for high-redshift clustering measurements.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 784(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/2/128 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z<0.37 in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and we find two double-peaked AGNs and five offset AGN candidates. When we compare these results to a similar search of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey and match the two samples in color, absolute magnitude, and minimum velocity offset, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are dual SMBH candidates increases from z=0.25 to z=0.7 by a factor of ~6 (from 2/70 to 16/91, or 2.9% to 18%). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ~3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9% to 29%). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 777(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/64 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an observationally motivated model to connect the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and galaxy populations at 0.2 < z < 1.0 and predict the AGN X-ray luminosity function (XLF). We start with measurements of the stellar mass function of galaxies (from the Prism Multi-object Survey) and populate galaxies with AGNs using models for the probability of a galaxy hosting an AGN as a function of specific accretion rate. Our model is based on measurements indicating that the specific accretion rate distribution is a universal function across a wide range of host stellar masses with slope γ1 –0.65 and an overall normalization that evolves with redshift. We test several simple assumptions to extend this model to high specific accretion rates (beyond the measurements) and compare the predictions for the XLF with the observed data. We find good agreement with a model that allows for a break in the specific accretion rate distribution at a point corresponding to the Eddington limit, a steep power-law tail to super-Eddington ratios with slope , and a scatter of 0.38 dex in the scaling between black hole and host stellar mass. Our results show that samples of low luminosity AGNs are dominated by moderately massive galaxies () growing with a wide range of accretion rates due to the shape of the galaxy stellar mass function rather than a preference for AGN activity at a particular stellar mass. Luminous AGNs may be a severely skewed population with elevated black hole masses relative to their host galaxies and in rare phases of rapid accretion.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 775(1):41. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/775/1/41 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PRIsm MUti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z~1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of ~2,500 objects over 0.18 square degrees. The final PRIMUS catalog includes ~130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 sq. deg. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al 2010. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of sigma_z/(1+z)=0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between AGNs and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 767(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/118 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of Spitzer/IRAC and X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selection techniques in order to quantify the overlap, uniqueness, contamination, and completeness of each. We investigate how the overlap and possible contamination of the samples depends on the IR and X-ray depths. We use Spitzer/IRAC imaging, Chandra and XMM X-ray imaging, and PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) spectroscopic redshifts to construct galaxy and AGN samples at 0.2<z<1.2 over 8 deg^2. We construct samples over a wide range of IRAC flux limits (SWIRE to GOODS depth) and X-ray flux limits (10 ks to 2 Ms). We compare IR-AGN samples defined using the IRAC color selection of Stern et al. and Donley et al. with X-ray detected AGN samples. For roughly similar depth IR and X-ray surveys, we find that ~75% of IR-AGN are identified as X-ray AGN. This fraction increases to ~90% when comparing against the deepest X-ray data, indicating that only ~10% of IR-selected AGN may be heavily obscured. The IR-AGN selection proposed by Stern et al. suffers from contamination by star-forming galaxies at various redshifts when using deeper IR data, though the selection technique works well for shallow IR data. While similar overall, the IR-AGN samples preferentially contain more luminous AGN, while the X-ray AGN samples preferentially contain lower specific accretion rate AGN, where the host galaxy light dominates at IR wavelengths. The host galaxy populations of the IR and X-ray AGN samples have similar restframe colors and stellar masses; both selections identify AGN in blue, star-forming and red, quiescent galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 770(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/770/1/40 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified fifteen new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened SEDs based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters $R_{V}$ and $A_{V}$ for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values $\langle R_{V} \rangle = 3.77 \pm 0.09$ and $\langle A_{V} \rangle = 6.51 \pm 0.38$ mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance $\langle d \rangle = 4.16 \pm 0.07$ (random) $+0.26$ (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR PAH ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP~18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2.
    The Astronomical Journal 02/2013; 145(5). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/145/5/125 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an observationally motivated model to connect the AGN and galaxy populations at 0.2<z<1.0 and predict the AGN X-ray luminosity function (XLF). We start with measurements of the stellar mass function of galaxies (from the Prism Multi-object Survey) and populate galaxies with AGNs using models for the probability of a galaxy hosting an AGN as a function of specific accretion rate. Our model is based on measurements indicating that the specific accretion rate distribution is a universal function across a wide range of host stellar mass with slope gamma_1 = -0.65 and an overall normalization that evolves with redshift. We test several simple assumptions to extend this model to high specific accretion rates (beyond the measurements) and compare the predictions for the XLF with the observed data. We find good agreement with a model that allows for a break in the specific accretion rate distribution at a point corresponding to the Eddington limit, a steep power-law tail to super-Eddington ratios with slope gamma_2 = -2.1 +0.3 -0.5, and a scatter of 0.38 dex in the scaling between black hole and host stellar mass. Our results show that samples of low luminosity AGNs are dominated by moderately massive galaxies (M* ~ 10^{10-11} M_sun) growing with a wide range of accretion rates due to the shape of the galaxy stellar mass function rather than a preference for AGN activity at a particular stellar mass. Luminous AGNs may be a severely skewed population with elevated black hole masses relative to their host galaxies and in rare phases of rapid accretion.
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF) from z=0-1 using multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From PRIMUS we construct an i<23 flux-limited sample of ~40,000 galaxies at z=0.2-1.0 over five fields totaling ~5.5 deg^2, and from the SDSS we select ~170,000 galaxies at z=0.01-0.2 that we analyze consistently with respect to PRIMUS to minimize systematic errors in our evolutionary measurements. We find that the SMF of all galaxies evolves relatively little since z=1, although we do find evidence for mass assembly downsizing; we measure a ~30% increase in the number density of ~10^10 Msun galaxies since z~0.6, and a <10% change in the number density of all >10^11 Msun galaxies since z~1. Dividing the sample into star-forming and quiescent using an evolving cut in specific star-formation rate, we find that the number density of ~10^10 Msun star-forming galaxies stays relatively constant since z~0.6, whereas the space-density of >10^11 Msun star-forming galaxies decreases by ~50% between z~1 and z~0. Meanwhile, the number density of ~10^10 Msun quiescent galaxies increases steeply towards low redshift, by a factor of ~2-3 since z~0.6, while the number of massive quiescent galaxies remains approximately constant since z~1. These results suggest that the rate at which star-forming galaxies are quenched increases with decreasing stellar mass, but that the bulk of the stellar mass buildup within the quiescent population occurs around ~10^10.8 Msun. In addition, we conclude that mergers do not appear to be a dominant channel for the stellar mass buildup of galaxies at z<1, even among massive (>10^11 Msun) quiescent galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 767(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/50 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accepted for publication in ApJ
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the connection between different classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the evolution of their host galaxies, by deriving host galaxy properties, clustering, and Eddington ratios of AGNs selected in the radio, X-ray, and infrared (IR) wavebands. We study a sample of 585 AGNs at 0.25 < z < 0.8 using redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We select AGNs with observations in the radio at 1.4 GHz from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, X-rays from the Chandra XBoötes survey, and mid-IR from the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey. The radio, X-ray, and IR AGN samples show modest overlap, indicating that to the flux limits of the survey, they represent largely distinct classes of AGNs. We derive host galaxy colors and luminosities, as well as Eddington ratios, for obscured or optically faint AGNs. We also measure the two-point cross-correlation between AGNs and galaxies on scales of 0.3–10 h −1 Mpc, and derive typical dark matter halo masses. We find that: (1) radio AGNs are mainly found in luminous red sequence galaxies, are strongly clustered (with Mhalo ∼ 3 × 10 13 h −1 M⊙), and have very low Eddington ratios (λ � 10 −3); (2) X-rayselected AGNs are preferentially found in galaxies that lie in the "green valley " of color-magnitude space and are clustered similarly to typical AGES galaxies (Mhalo ∼ 10 13 h −1 M⊙), with 10 −3 � λ � 1; (3) IR AGNs reside in slightly bluer, slightly less luminous galaxies than X-ray AGNs, are weakly clustered (Mhalo � 10 12 h −1
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    ABSTRACT: The observations were made with Hectospec, a 300 fiber, 1 degree field of view, robotic spectrograph for the 6.5m MMT telescope at Mt. Hopkins, from 2004 April to 2007 July. The wavelength range is 3700-9200Å with a pixel scale of 1.2Å and a spectral resolution of 6Å (i.e., roughly R~1000). (7 data files).

Publication Stats

2k Citations
326.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Physics
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • IEEC Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain