[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ganglia of monkeys with reactivated simian varicella virus (SVV) contained more CD8 than CD4 T-cells around neurons. The abundance of CD8 T cells were greater less than 2 months after reactivation compared to later times and correlated with CXCL10 RNA but not with SVV protein or ORF61 anti-sense RNA. CXCL10 RNA co-localized with T-cell clusters. After SVV reactivation, transient T-cell infiltration, possibly mediated by CXCL10, parallels VZV reactivation in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of cells infected by a wide range of herpesviruses has identified numerous virally encoded microRNAs (miRNAs), and several reports suggest that these viral miRNAs are likely to play key roles in several aspects of the herpesvirus life cycle. Here we report the first analysis of human ganglia for the presence of virally encoded miRNAs. Deep sequencing of human trigeminal ganglia latently infected with two pathogenic alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), confirmed the expression of five HSV-1 miRNAs, miR-H2 through miR-H6, which had previously been observed in mice latently infected with HSV-1. In addition, two novel HSV-1 miRNAs, termed miR-H7 and miR-H8, were also identified. Like four of the previously reported HSV-1 miRNAs, miR-H7 and miR-H8 are encoded within the second exon of the HSV-1 latency-associated transcript. Although VZV genomic DNA was readily detectable in the three human trigeminal ganglia analyzed, we failed to detect any VZV miRNAs, suggesting that VZV, unlike other herpesviruses examined so far, may not express viral miRNAs in latently infected cells.
Journal of Virology 09/2009; 83(20):10677-83. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simian varicella virus (SVV) causes varicella in primates, becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates to produce zoster. SVV produces a cytopathic effect in monkey kidney cells in tissue culture. To study the mechanism by which SVV-infected cells die, we examined markers of apoptosis 24 to 64 h postinfection (hpi). Western blot analysis of virus-infected cell lysates revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3, accompanied by a parallel increase in caspase-3 activity at 40 to 64 hpi. Caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway, was activated significantly in SVV-infected cells at all time points, whereas trace levels of the active form of caspase-8, an extrinsic pathway marker, was detected only at 64 hpi. Bcl-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was decreased by 50 to 70% throughout the course of virus infection. Release of cytochrome c, an activator of caspase-9, from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was increased by 200% at 64 hpi. Analysis of Vero cells infected with SVV expressing green fluorescent protein (SVV-GFP) at 64 hpi revealed colocalization of the active forms of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining with GFP. A significant decrease in the bcl-2 mRNA levels along with an abundance of mRNA specific for SVV genes 63, 40, and 21 was seen in the fraction of Vero cells that were infected with SVV-GFP. Together, these findings indicate that SVV induces apoptosis in cultured Vero cells through the intrinsic pathway in which Bcl-2 is downregulated.
Journal of Virology 08/2009; 83(18):9273-82. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which virus becomes latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Years later, in association with a decline in cell-mediated immunity in elderly and immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and causes a wide range of neurologic disease. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention of VZV infection and reactivation; pathogenesis of VZV infection; and current research focusing on VZV latency, reactivation, and animal models.
Neurologic Clinics 08/2008; 26(3):675-97, viii. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using FACS and single cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG VH repertoires from 10 subjects with a clinically isolated demyelinating syndrome (CIS). B and plasma cell repertoires from individual subjects showed similar VH family germline usage, nearly identical levels of post-germinal center somatic hypermutation, and significant overlap in their clonal populations. Repertoires from 7 of 10 CIS subjects demonstrated a biased usage of VH4 and/or VH2 family gene segments in their plasma or B cell repertoires. V-regionbias, however, was not observed in the corresponding peripheral blood CD19+ B cell repertoires from 2 CIS subjects or in normal healthy adults. Clinically, subjects with VH4 or VH2 CSF IgG repertoire bias rapidly progressed to definite MS, whereas individuals without repertoire bias did not develop MS after a minimum of 2 years of follow-up (p=0.01).
Journal of Neuroimmunology 07/2008; 199(1-2):126-32. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Virus reactivation produces zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is found in vesicles of patients with zoster and varicella, but virus shed in the absence of disease has not been documented. VZV DNA was previously detected in saliva of astronauts during and after spaceflight, a uniquely stressful environment in which cell mediated immunity (CMI) is temporally dampened. The decline in CMI to VZV associated with zoster led to the hypothesis that infectious VZV would also be present in the saliva of astronauts subjected to stress of spaceflight. Herein, not only was the detection of salivary VZV DNA associated with spaceflight validated, but also infectious virus was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. This is the first demonstration of shed of infectious VZV in the absence of disease.
Journal of Medical Virology 07/2008; 80(6):1116-22. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy produces stroke secondary to viral infection of cerebral arteries. Not all patients have rash before cerebral ischemia or stroke. Furthermore, other vasculitides produce similar clinical features and comparable imaging, angiographic, and CSF abnormalities. Methods: We review our 23 published cases and 7 unpublished cases of VZV vasculopathy. All CSFs were tested for VZV DNA by PCR and anti-VZV IgG antibody and were positive for either or both. Results: Among 30 patients, rash occurred in 19 (63%), CSF pleocytosis in 20 (67%), and imaging abnormalities in 29 (97%). Angiography in 23 patients revealed abnormalities in 16 (70%). Large and small arteries were involved in 15 (50%), small arteries in 11 (37%), and large arteries in only 4 (13%) of 30 patients. Average time from rash to neurologic symptoms and signs was 4.1 months, and from neurologic symptoms and signs to CSF virologic analysis was 4.2 months. CSF of 9 (30%) patients contained VZV DNA while 28 (93%) had anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF; in each of these patients, reduced serum/CSF ratio of VZV IgG confirmed intrathecal synthesis. Conclusions: Rash or CSF pleocytosis is not required to diagnose varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy, whereas MRI/CT abnormalities are seen in almost all patients. Most patients had mixed large and small artery involvement. Detection of anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF was a more sensitive indicator of VZV vasculopathy than detection of VZV DNA (p < 0.001). Determination of optimal antiviral treatment and benefit of concurrent steroid therapy awaits studies with larger case numbers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty-four patients with herpes zoster were treated with valacyclovir. On treatment days 1, 8, and 15, pain was scored and saliva examined for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA. VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started and later disappeared in 82%. There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain and between VZV DNA copy number and pain (P <.0005). VZV DNA was present in 1 patient before rash and in 4 after pain resolved and was not present in any of 6 subjects with chronic pain or in 14 healthy subjects. Analysis of human saliva has potential usefulness in the diagnosis of neurological disease produced by VZV without rash.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2008; 197(5):654-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five varicella zoster virus (VZV) genes are known to be transcribed in latently infected human ganglia. Transcripts from VZV gene 63, which encodes an immediate early (IE) protein, are the most prevalent and abundant. To obtain a reagent that might facilitate studies of the role of the IE63 protein in latency and reactivation, we selected an IE63-specific Fab fragment from a phage library and used it to prepare a recombinant mouse IgG1 antibody that detects IE63 and functions in Western blot, immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescence assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of B cell subtypes in 17 CSF samples from 15 patients with clinically-definite MS revealed that CD19+ B cells accounted for 2 to 11% (mean 5%) and CD138+ cells constituted 0 to 5% (mean 2%) of total CSF lymphocytes. Further stratification of CD138+ cells based on expression levels of CD19 showed that CD138+19+ plasma blasts constituted 89+/-2% (mean+/-SE) of the CD138+ cell population (P<0.00001), with more mature plasma cells (CD138+19-) constituting the remaining 11+/-2%. Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin variable regions in single CD138+19+ and CD138+19- cells sorted from MS CSF identified many of the same clonal populations in both populations, indicating a continuum of clonally related plasma cell subtypes of which CD138+19+ plasma blasts are most abundant.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 12/2007; 192(1-2):226-34. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A characteristic feature of the CNS inflammatory response in multiple sclerosis (MS) is the intrathecal synthesis of IgG and the presence of oligoclonal bands. A strong correlation between CD138(+) plasma blast numbers in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CeSF) and intrathecal IgG synthesis suggests that these cells are the major Ab-secreting cell type in MS CeSF. Sequencing of V regions from CD138(+) cells in MS CeSF has revealed somatically mutated and expanded IgG clonotypes consistent with an Ag-targeted response. In the present study, single-cell RT-PCR analysis of CD138(+) cells from 11 MS patients representing differing clinical courses and stages of disease identified expansion of CD138(+) cells with functionally rearranged V(H)4 gene segments as an overriding feature of MS CeSF repertoires. V(H)4 dominance was attributed to the preferential selection of specific V(H)4 genes, particularly gene segment V(H)4-39, which displayed a significant enrichment in CeSF compared with MS peripheral blood B cells. A modest increase in V(H)4 prevalence among MS peripheral blood IgG memory cells was also noted, suggesting that factors shaping the CD138 repertoire in CeSF might also influence the peripheral IgG memory cell pool. These results indicate a highly restricted B cell response in MS. Identifying the targets of CeSF plasma cells may yield insights into disease pathogenesis.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2007; 179(9):6343-51. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-time immuno-PCR (RT-IPCR) is a powerful technique that combines ELISA with the specificity and sensitivity of PCR. RT-IPCR of phage-displayed peptides exploits the unique physical associations between phenotype (the displayed peptide) and genotype (the encoding DNA) within the same phage particle. Previously, we identified phage peptides specific for recombinant antibodies (rAbs) prepared from clonally expanded plasma cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) brain. Herein, we applied phage-mediated RT-IPCR to study reactivity of these specific phage peptides for the rAbs. Compared to standard ELISA, which required greater than 10(4) or 10(5) phage particles to detect binding to rAbs, RT-IPCR detected binding with as few as 100 phage particles. RT-IPCR was also superior to ELISA in determining relative affinities of rAbs for phage peptides and was effective in screening MS CSF for IgG reactivity to phage peptides. Phage-mediated RT-IPCR is a rapid, high-throughput technology that avoids the requirement for synthetic peptides and will facilitate the identification of candidate peptides that react with the IgG in MS CSF.
Journal of Immunological Methods 10/2007; 326(1-2):33-40. · 2.23 Impact Factor