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Publications (2)8.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for channeling long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into oxidative versus nonoxidative pathways is (are) poorly understood in the heart. Intracellular LCFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs) by a family of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs). Cytosolic thioesterase 1 (CTE1) hydrolyzes cytosolic LCFA-CoAs to LCFAs, generating a potential futile cycle at the expense of ATP utilization. We hypothesized that ACSL isoforms and CTE1 are differentially regulated in the heart during physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we report that the five known acsl isoforms (acsl1, acsl3, acsl4, acsl5, and acsl6) and cte1 are expressed in whole rat and mouse hearts, as well as adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARCs). Streptozotocin-induced insulin-dependent diabetes (4 wk) and fasting (</=24 h) both dramatically induced cte1 and repressed acsl6 mRNA, with no significant effects on the other acsl isoforms. In contrast, high-fat feeding (4 wk) induced cte1 without affecting expression of the acsl isoforms in the heart. Investigation into the mechanism(s) responsible for these transcriptional changes uncovered roles for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and insulin as regulators of specific acsl isoforms and cte1 in the heart. Culturing ARCs with oleate (0.1-0.4 mM) or the PPARalpha agonists WY-14643 (1 muM) and fenofibrate (10 muM) consistently induced acsl1 and cte1. Conversely, PPARalpha null mouse hearts exhibited decreased acsl1 and cte1 expression. Culturing ARCs with insulin (10 nM) induced acsl6, whereas specific loss of insulin signaling within the heart (cardiac-specific insulin receptor knockout mice) caused decreased acsl6 expression. Our data expose differential regulation of acsl isoforms and cte1 in the heart, where acsl1 and cte1 are PPARalpha-regulated genes, whereas acsl6 is an insulin-regulated gene.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 07/2006; 290(6):H2480-97. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian clocks are intracellular molecular mechanisms that allow the cell to anticipate the time of day. We have previously reported that the intact rat heart expresses the major components of the circadian clock, of which its rhythmic expression in vivo is consistent with the operation of a fully functional clock mechanism. The present study exposes oscillations of circadian clock genes [brain and arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (bmal1), reverse strand of the c-erbaalpha gene (rev-erbaalpha), period 2 (per2), albumin D-element binding protein (dbp)] for isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes in culture. Acute (2 h) and/or chronic (continuous) treatment of cardiomyocytes with FCS (50% and 2.5%, respectively) results in rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes with periodicities of 20-24 h. In contrast, cardiomyocytes cultured in the absence of serum exhibit dramatically dampened oscillations in bmal1 and dbp only. Zeitgebers (timekeepers) are factors that influence the timing of the circadian clock. Glucose, which has been previously shown to reactivate circadian clock gene oscillations in fibroblasts, has no effect on the expression of circadian clock genes in adult rat cardiomyocytes, either in the absence or presence of serum. Exposure of adult rat cardiomyocytes to the sympathetic neurotransmitter norephinephrine (10 microM) for 2 h reinitiates rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes in a serum-independent manner. Oscillations in circadian clock genes were associated with 24-h oscillations in the metabolic genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (pdk4) and uncoupling protein 3 (ucp3). In conclusion, these data suggest that the circadian clock operates within the myocytes of the heart and that this molecular mechanism persists under standard cell culture conditions (i.e., 2.5% serum). Furthermore, our data suggest that norepinephrine, unlike glucose, influences the timing of the circadian clock within the heart and that the circadian clock may be a novel mechanism regulating myocardial metabolism.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 11/2005; 289(4):H1530-41. · 4.01 Impact Factor