Seth Hetherington

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, Michigan, United States

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Publications (8)31.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fluconazole prophylaxis has demonstrated efficacy in single and multicenter randomized controlled trials without side effects or emergence of resistance. Additional evidence based on incidence of invasive Candida infections, multicenter data, resistance, and safety is desired. We conducted a case-control analysis of efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis from a multicenter database from a neonatal infection study that included 2017 infants <1250 grams from 95 NICUs. Infants receiving intravenous antifungal prophylaxis were pre-identified during enrollment in the parent study. For each infant receiving antifungal prophylaxis (case), three infants not receiving antifungal (controls) were matched by birth weight (±50 g), by gestational age (±1 week), gender, and study site. Results: Fluconazole prophylaxis was administered to 127 patients [754±163 g birth weight (BW) and 25.4±1.7 weeks gestational age (GA)] and were compared with 399 control patients (756±163 g BW and 25.5±1.8 weeks GA). Invasive Candida infection occurred in 0.8% (1 of 127) infants who received fluconazole prophylaxis compared with 7.3% (29 of 399) of matched controls (p = 0.006). Candida bloodstream infection occurred in 0.8% (1 of 127) fluconazole prophylaxis infants compared with 5.5% (22 of 399) of matched controls (p = 0.02). There were no differences in late-onset sepsis due to gram-positive or gram-negative organisms, focal bowel perforation, necrotizing enterocolitis, cholestasis, or overall mortality. Fluconazole prophylaxis is safe and efficacious in preventing invasive Candida infections. Even in NICUs with a low incidence of invasive Candida infections, antifungal prophylaxis for high-risk infants is a proven and safe opportunity for infection prevention in these patients.
    Early human development 03/2014; 90 Suppl 1:S87-90. · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Seth Hetherington
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    ABSTRACT: Access to antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings has repeatedly demonstrated reduction in mortality. With more treatment options becoming available, the ability to optimize therapy will depend on population-specific clinical trial data. The role of nondrug factors for optimizing therapy and the potential for drug-related adverse events that are population-specific should not be underestimated.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2009; 28(1):41-2. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if INH-A21, an intravenous immune globulin (IGIV) derived from donors with high titers of antibody to surface adhesins of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus prevents late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, infants with birth weights 500 to 1250 g were randomized to receive up to four doses of INH-A21 (Veronate) or placebo. The primary objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of INH-A21 versus placebo for prevention of S. aureus LOS in VLBW infants. A total of 1983 infants from 95 neonatal intensive care units were randomized, and received at least one dose of study drug. S. aureus LOS developed in 50 of 989 (5%) and 60 of 994 (6%) infants who received placebo or INH-A21, respectively (P = .34). No differences were found in the frequencies of LOS caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Candida spp, or overall mortality. No adverse events were statistically significantly associated with INH-A21 infusions compared with placebo. INH-A21 failed to reduce the incidence of staphylococcal LOS or candidemia in premature infants.
    The Journal of pediatrics 10/2007; 151(3):260-5, 265.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two cohorts of four subjects requiring hemodialysis received tefibazumab (10 or 20 mg/kg). The mean elimination half-life was between 17 and 18 days, the average volume of distribution was 7.3 liters, and the average clearance was 12 ml/h for both dose groups. At a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight, plasma levels were 88 microg/ml at 21 days.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2006; 50(10):3499-500. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tefibazumab (Aurexis), a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the surface-expressed adhesion protein clumping factor A, is under development as adjunctive therapy for serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Sixty patients with documented S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) were randomized and received either tefibazumab at 20 mg/kg of body weight as a single infusion or a placebo in addition to an antibiotic(s). The primary objective of the study was determining safety and pharmacokinetics. An additional objective was to assess activity by a composite clinical end point (CCE). Baseline characteristics were evenly matched between groups. Seventy percent of infections were healthcare associated, and 57% had an SAB-related complication at baseline. There were no differences between the treatment groups in overall adverse clinical events or alterations in laboratory values. Two patients developed serious adverse events that were at least possibly related to tefibazumab; one hypersensitivity reaction was considered definitely related. The tefibazumab plasma half-life was 18 days. Mean plasma levels were <100 microg/ml by day 14. A CCE occurred in six patients (four placebo and two tefibazumab patients) and included five deaths (four placebo and one tefibazumab patient). Progression in the severity of sepsis occurred in four placebo and no tefibazumab patients. Tefibazumab was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to those of other monoclonal antibodies. Additional trials are warranted to address the dosing range and efficacy of tefibazumab.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2006; 50(8):2751-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prophylactic administration of intravenous immunoglobulin has been inconsistent in reducing the risk of sepsis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants presumably because of varying titers of organism specific IgG antibodies. INH-A21 is an intravenous immunoglobulin from donors with high titers of antistaphylococcal antibodies. This dose-ranging study explored safety and preliminary activity of INH-A21 for prevention of staphylococcal sepsis in VLBW infants. This was a multicenter, double blind, group-sequential study. Infants with birth weights 500-1250 g were randomized to receive up to 4 doses of placebo, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg or 750 mg/kg INH-A21. Safety and frequencies of sepsis were compared across treatment groups. All treatment groups had similar mean gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score and maternal use of antibiotics. Randomizations to 250 mg/kg (N = 94) and 500 mg/kg (N = 96) doses were terminated after interim analyses demonstrated a low probability of finding a difference when compared with placebo. Infants randomized to the INH-A21 750 mg/kg group (N = 157) had fewer episodes of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis [relative risk (RR), 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12-1.12; P = 0.14], candidemia (RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.09-1.22; P = 0.09) and mortality (RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.25-1.61; P = 0.27) when compared with the placebo-treated cohort (N = 158). No dose-related trends were observed for adverse events or morbidities associated with prematurity. INH-A21 750 mg/kg demonstrated potential to reduce sepsis caused by S. aureus, candidemia and mortality in VLBW infants. Although statistical significance was not reached, based on the magnitude of the estimated differences, the efficacy and safety of INH-A21 750 mg/kg should be evaluated in an adequately powered, well-controlled study.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/2005; 24(10):858-66. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nosocomial or late-onset sepsis is a common complication among premature infants, with a frequency inversely correlated with birth weight. Increased susceptibility to infection is due in part to an immature humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of a donor-selected specific intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) preparation, INH-A21 (Veronate), for prevention of sepsis in premature infants. Thirty-six infants weighing between 500 and 1,250 g during the first postnatal week were eligible to begin a series of up to four intravenous infusions of 500 or 750 mg/kg of body weight INH-A21. Blood samples were analyzed for antibodies against the Ser-Asp dipeptide repeat G (SdrG) and clumping factor A (ClfA) surface proteins of staphylococci. Sparse sampling and population PK analyses were performed to derive PK parameters. Following administration of the 500- and 750-mg/kg doses, the estimated average steady-state levels of anti-ClfA were 6.1 U/ml and 9.2 U/ml, respectively, and those of anti-SdrG were 5.2 U/ml and 7.7 U/ml, respectively. The elimination half-lives for anti-ClfA and anti-SdrG were 719 h and 701 h, respectively, and the clearances were 0.18 ml/h and 0.21 ml/h, respectively. In the final model, the values of the PK parameters were independent of gestational age. Both doses of INH-A21 were well tolerated, and the safety profile was similar to those of other IVIG preparations. These results suggest that a shorter dosing interval should be utilized between the first and second doses to achieve and maintain higher titers of anti-ClfA and anti-SdrG antibodies. Further studies examining INH-A21 for the prevention of late-onset sepsis in infants within the weight range studied are warranted.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2005; 49(10):4121-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tefibazumab (Aurexis) is a humanized monoclonal antibody being evaluated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. This open-label, dose escalation study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of tefibazumab in 19 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 69 years. Each subject received a single administration of tefibazumab at a dose of 2, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of body weight infused over 15 min. Plasma samples for pharmacokinetic assessments were obtained before infusion as well as 1, 6, 12, and 24 h and 3, 4, 7, 21, 28, 42, and 56 days after dosing. Plasma concentrations of tefibazumab were detected 1 h after the end of the infusion, with a mean maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)) of 59, 127, 252, and 492 microg/ml following doses of 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The median time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (T(max)) was 1.0 h for each dose. The mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) was approximately 22 days. The volume of distribution (V) was 4.7, 6.7, 7.2, and 7.2 liters after doses of 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Clearance (CL) was 6.0, 9.2, 10.2, and 9.9 ml/hr, respectively. At the highest dose, plasma levels of tefibazumab were >100 microg/ml for 21 days. On day 56, the mean plasma concentrations were 6.3, 10.0, 16.4, and 30.5 microg/ml for the 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Tefibazumab exhibited linear kinetics across doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. No anti-tefibazumab antibodies were detected after dosing in any subject. There were no serious adverse events, and tefibazumab was well tolerated over the entire dose range.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2005; 49(3):959-62. · 4.57 Impact Factor