L T Mahoney

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

Are you L T Mahoney?

Claim your profile

Publications (51)198.83 Total impact

  • Sonali S Patel, Larry T Mahoney, Trudy L Burns
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) account for 7% of all congenital cardiovascular malformations. The atrioventricular septum (AVS) is the portion of the septal tissue that separates the right atrium from the left ventricle; deficiency of the AVS contributes to the AVSD phenotype. A study of case and control families was performed to identify whether an intermediate phenotype consisting of a shortened AVS existed in relatives of children with AVSDs. AVS length (AVSL) was measured on the echocardiograms of clinically unaffected parents and siblings from families that were identified through children with nonsyndromic AVSDs and in families with no histories of congenital heart disease. No significant differences were seen between case and control family members in terms of gender, age, weight, and height. AVSLs were significantly shorter in case parents compared with control parents. Similar findings were noted within the sibling groups. There was significant evidence for two-component distributions in the case parent, case sibling, and control sibling groups after standardizing AVSL for age and body surface area. Heritability of AVSL standardized for age and body surface area was 0.82 and 0.71 in nonsyndromic case and control families, respectively. Evidence for two-component distributions from the analysis of AVSL standardized for age and body surface area for case parents and case siblings suggests the presence of an intermediate phenotype for nonsyndromic AVSD. The high heritability in the control families suggests that there may be polygenic involvement in the determination of AVSL. Broadening the definition of AVSD to include those with shortened AVSL may increase the power of genetic association and mapping studies to identify susceptibility genes for AVSD.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 04/2012; 25(7):782-9. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The safe lower limit of haematocrit or haemoglobin that should trigger a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has not been defined. The objective of this study was to examine the physiological effects of anaemia and compare the acute responses to transfusion in preterm infants who were transfused at higher or lower haematocrit thresholds. The authors studied 41 preterm infants with birth weights 500-1300 g, who were enrolled in a clinical trial comparing high ('liberal') and low ('restrictive') haematocrit thresholds for transfusion. Measurements were performed before and after a packed RBC transfusion of 15 ml/kg, which was administered because the infant's haematocrit had fallen below the threshold defined by study protocol. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, RBC count, reticulocyte count, lactic acid and erythropoietin were measured before and after transfusion using standard methods. Cardiac output was measured by echocardiography. Oxygen consumption was determined using indirect calorimetry. Systemic oxygen transport and fractional oxygen extraction were calculated. Systemic oxygen transport rose in both groups following transfusion. Lactic acid was lower after transfusion in both groups. Oxygen consumption did not change significantly in either group. Cardiac output and fractional oxygen extraction fell after transfusion in the low haematocrit group only. These study's results demonstrate no acute physiological benefit of transfusion in the high haematocrit group. The fall in cardiac output with transfusion in the low haematocrit group shows that these infants had increased their cardiac output to maintain adequate tissue oxygen delivery in response to anaemia and, therefore, may have benefitted from transfusion.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 11/2010; 96(4):F249-53. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A majority of the recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis and the development of cardiovascular disease have been derived from the study of older populations who have already manifested clinical symptoms. If risk factors can be identified earlier in life, such as genetic variation, preventive measures may be taken before overt symptoms of pathology have manifested, and when treatments may be most effective. In an effort to identify individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, we genotyped 732 members of the Muscatine Study Longitudinal Adult Cohort for candidate genetic markers associated with several pathogenetic processes. We identified age-adjusted increased risks for coronary artery calcium (OR 4.29; 95% CI 1.78, 10.31) and increased mean carotid artery intimal-medial thickness associated with the (-444)A>C promoter polymorphism of Leukotriene C4 Synthase (LTC4S) in women. There were no similar associations in men. LTC4S plays a key role in the process of inflammation as the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to cysteinyl-leukotrienes, important mediators of inflammatory responses. The (-444)C variant upregulates LTC4S mRNA expression, increasing the synthesis of proinflammatory leukotrienes. Our results support genetic variation modifying inflammatory pathways as an important mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2007; 27(2):394-9. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although many centers have introduced more restrictive transfusion policies for preterm infants in recent years, the benefits and adverse consequences of allowing lower hematocrit levels have not been systematically evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine if restrictive guidelines for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for preterm infants can reduce the number of transfusions without adverse consequences. We enrolled 100 hospitalized preterm infants with birth weights of 500 to 1300 g into a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 levels of hematocrit threshold for RBC transfusion. The infants were assigned randomly to either the liberal- or the restrictive-transfusion group. For each group, transfusions were given only when the hematocrit level fell below the assigned value. In each group, the transfusion threshold levels decreased with improving clinical status. We recorded the number of transfusions, the number of donor exposures, and various clinical and physiologic outcomes. Infants in the liberal-transfusion group received more RBC transfusions (5.2 +/- 4.5 [mean +/- SD] vs 3.3 +/- 2.9 in the restrictive-transfusion group). However, the number of donors to whom the infants were exposed was not significantly different (2.8 +/- 2.5 vs 2.2 +/- 2.0). There was no difference between the groups in the percentage of infants who avoided transfusions altogether (12% in the liberal-transfusion group versus 10% in the restrictive-transfusion group). Infants in the restrictive-transfusion group were more likely to have intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, and they had more frequent episodes of apnea, including both mild and severe episodes. Although both transfusion programs were well tolerated, our finding of more frequent major adverse neurologic events in the restrictive RBC-transfusion group suggests that the practice of restrictive transfusions may be harmful to preterm infants.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2005; 115(6):1685-91. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of a rapid full volume acquisition strategy using real-time (RT) 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (3DE) for measurement of left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) in children. A total of 19 healthy children (mean 10.6 +/- 2.8 years, 11 male and 9 female) were prospectively enrolled in this study. RT 3DE was performed using an ultrasound system to acquire full volume 3D dataset from the apical window with electrocardiographic triggering in 8 s/dataset. The images were processed offline using software. The LV endocardial and epicardial borders were traced manually to derive LV end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, mass, SV, and EF. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on a 1.5-T scanner using a breath hold 2-dimensional cine-FIESTA (fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition) sequence. All RT 3DE and MRI data were acquired successfully for analysis. Measurements of LV end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, mass, SV, and EF by RT 3DE correlated well by Pearson regression ( r = 0.86-0.97, P < .001) and agreed well by Bland-Altman analysis with MRI. The interobserver and intraobserver variability of RT 3DE measurements were less than 5%. This prospective study demonstrated that RT 3DE measurements of LV end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, mass, SV, and EF in children using rapid full volume acquisition strategy are feasible, accurate, and reproducible and are comparable with MRI measurements.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 05/2005; 18(4):299-305. · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2004; 43(5).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether differences in body mass index (BMI) and image section levels representing the proximal through the distal sections of the heart are associated with attenuation differences in images of calcium phantoms scanned during computed tomographic (CT) imaging of study subjects. Mean attenuation values for three calcium phantoms (each with a different calcium hydroxyapatite concentration), as measured at each of four different image section levels, were obtained for 691 participants in the Muscatine CT Vascular Calcium Study. The subjects were grouped according to sex-specific BMI quartiles, and the degree of attenuation in each phantom was investigated as a function of image section level and BMI quartile. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients and one-, two-, and three-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to examine the association between section level and BMI and the mean phantom attenuations. Attenuation was, for the most part, significantly associated with both section level (P <.005) and BMI quartile (P <.0025-.05). The degree of attenuation tended to decrease in images obtained at the more distal cardiac levels and to increase with increasing BMI quartile. Differences in attenuation related to BMI and image section level appear to have a significant effect on current calcium scoring methods.
    Radiology 01/2004; 230(1):198-205. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects and represent an increasing proportion of adolescent and adult patients followed by cardiologists. While many of these patients have undergone successful palliative or corrective surgery with excellent functional results, most of them still require careful follow-up. Further, even complex lesions may first be diagnosed in adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, cardiologists caring for adults need to become more familiar with these defects. Assessment of the patient with known or suspected congenital heart defects requires a careful history, physical examination, and noninvasive assessment. In addition, the catheterization laboratory remains a critical venue for diagnosis and, increasingly, therapy. Pressure measurements, oximetry, and angiography remain cornerstones of diagnosis in selected patients and a variety of interventional procedures have become viable therapeutic alternatives in both pre- and postoperative patients.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 03/2003; 58(2):219-31. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • K F Janz, J D Dawson, L T Mahoney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal studies from childhood through adolescence have the potential of defining maturational changes in cardiovascular risk factors and may provide insight into the prediction of future cardiovascular disease. We assessed aerobic fitness, muscular strength, vigorous and sedentary activity, maturation, blood pressure, lipids, and body composition in 125 healthy children for a period of five years (mean baseline age, 10.5 years). All subjects were in pre- or early-puberty at baseline. After adjusting for age and gender and considering the confounding effects of growth and maturation, we examined whether changes in fitness and activity during the first four years of our study could predict cardiovascular health outcomes at year-five of our study. Change in muscular strength explained 4 % of the variability in year-five systolic blood pressure. Change in aerobic fitness explained 11 % of year-five total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio and 5 % of year-five low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Changes in aerobic fitness and muscular strength explained 15 % of the variability in year-five adiposity and 15 % of the variability in year-five abdominal adiposity. Childhood health promotion programs that specifically target increases in physical fitness may help to reduce the increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2002; 23 Suppl 1:S15-21. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The value of a coronary artery disease prediction algorithm, the Framingham risk score (score), for detecting coronary artery calcium (CAC) was examined in 385 men and 472 women, aged 29 to 43 years. Scores were compared in subjects with and without CAC and were also used to predict presence of CAC. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were computed to compare different prediction models. The score model was compared with age only, natural logarithm of body mass index (lnBMI) only, and score plus lnBMI models. CAC was detected in 30% of men and 16% of women. The mean score was significantly higher in men and women with CAC. For every 2-point increase in the score, the odds of CAC increased by 30% in women and 20% in men. Significant associations between CAC status and risk factors were observed for age in women, and high- density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure in men and women. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the score was 0.67 and 0.57 for women and men, respectively. When lnBMI was added to the score model, the area increased to 0.76 in women (lnBMI p <0.0001, score p <0.005). For men, the area increased from 0.57 to 0.67, and the score was no longer significant (p >0.60) in the model with lnBMI (p <0.0001). Score predicts CAC in asymptomatic young adults. Inclusion of lnBMI in the score model adds significantly to the prediction of CAC in women and men. The lnBMI model has a greater predictive value than the score in this young population.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2001; 88(5):509-15. · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    K F Janz, J D Dawson, L T Mahoney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical fitness and physical activity tracking data enhance our understanding as to when children settle into their long-term exercise and fitness patterns and, therefore. provide insight as to when programs focusing on preventing sedentary adults behaviors should be initiated. In this paper, the tracking of physical fitness and physical activity was examined in a 5-yr population-based study of children and adolescents in Muscatine, IA. Study subjects (N = 126) were pre- or early-pubescent at baseline (mean age boys 10.8 yr and girls 10.3 yr). Physical fitness was measured using direct determination of oxygen uptake and maximal voluntary isometric contraction while physical activity was assessed via questionnaire. Boys classified as sedentary based on initial measurements of TV viewing and video game playing were 2.2 times more likely than their peers to also be classified as sedentary at follow-up. Tracking of most physical fitness and physical activity variables was moderate to high, indicating some predictability of early measurements for later values. Sedentary behavior tracked better in boys, whereas vigorous activity tended to track better in girls. These observations suggest that preventive efforts focused on maintaining physical fitness and physical activity through puberty will have favorable health benefits in later years.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 08/2000; 32(7):1250-7. · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • D E Stephens, K F Janz, L T Mahoney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between adolescents' goal orientation in sport and their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during a graded exercise test. Subjects (N = 114; 56 boys) were randomly selected adolescents (ages 11 to 15 years) who were part of a 5-year longitudinal study of cardiac growth. RPE was measured during each of three submaximal stages throughout the graded exercise test and again during the maximal stage. A series of regression analyses showed that RPE for female subjects was significantly predicted by Task Orientation, Perceived Ability, and Intensity of Leisure Activity at Stage 1, Task Orientation and Perceived Ability at Stage 2, and by Intensity of Leisure Activity at Stage 3. Examination of the beta weights indicated that lower RPE for the girls was related to higher Task Orientation and lower Perceived Ability and more experience with higher Intensity of Leisure Activity. Results are discussed in light of the literature pertaining to goal orientation and ratings of perceived exertion.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 07/2000; 90(3 Pt 1):813-22. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    K F Janz, J D Dawson, L T Mahoney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During childhood, heart growth is closely associated with somatic growth including increases in body weight, fat-free body mass (FFM), and height. However, with age, greater variability in heart size in relationship to body size is observed, presumably attributable to the increased effect of cardiac workload. At this time, little is known as to what functional attributes (eg, aerobic fitness) contribute to cardiac workload and the relative contribution of these attributes to heart growth during childhood and adolescence. In this article, we report cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships among aerobic fitness, body size, blood pressure (BP), and left ventricular mass (LVM) through puberty including the predictors of heart growth during puberty and the tracking of LVM from pre-puberty to late and post-puberty. Describing the predictors of heart size and heart growth and establishing the likelihood that a large heart, relative to peers, may (or may not) remain a large heart should aid pediatricians in discerning between normal developmental increases in LVM and increases in LVM suggestive of excessive heart growth (left ventricular hypertrophy). Using a repeated-measures design, we assessed aerobic fitness, FFM, fatness, weight, height, sexual maturation, resting BP, peak exercise BP, and LVM in 125 healthy children (mean baseline age: 10.5 years) for a period of 5 years. All subjects were either in prepuberty or early puberty at the beginning of the study. At follow-up, 110 subjects attempted all research procedures (87% of the initial cohort). Using anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance, we measured FFM, fatness, weight, and height quarterly (once every 3 months) for a total of 20 examinations. Resting BP and LVM (2-dimensional echocardiography) were also assessed quarterly. Aerobic fitness, peak exercise BP, and sexual maturation (staging of secondary sex characteristics and, for boys, serum testosterone) were measured annually (5 examinations). The same field staff conducted all examinations. Statistical methods included Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r(s)) calculated to estimate how well the year 5 LVM was predicted by LVM at earlier years. We also categorized the LVM data into tertiles and reported the percentage who remained in the extreme tertiles in year 5, given they began in that tertile in year 1. Gender-specific stepwise multivariate analysis was used to evaluate predictors of follow-up LVM and predictors of changes in LVM. The latter model examined whether the variability in the changes in LVM, as quantified by subject-specific slopes, could be explained by changes in predictor variables, also quantified by subject-specific slopes. At baseline and at follow-up, boys tended to be taller, leaner, more aerobically fit, and had greater LVM than girls. Rate of change for these variables was also greater in boys than girls. For example, LVM increased 62% in boys and 48% in girls. At year 5, subjects had advanced at least 1 stage in genital or breast development and over 80% of the subjects were in late- or post-puberty. Significant and strong tracking of heart size (r(s) =.65-.87) was observed. The likelihood that a subject would be in an extreme tertile for heart size at follow-up was approximately doubled if he or she started there at baseline. In boys, baseline FFM explained 54% of the variability in follow-up LVM. Change in aerobic fitness and change in FFM explained 55% of the variability in change in LVM. In girls, baseline aerobic fitness and fatness explained 45% of the variability in follow-up LVM. Because FFM did not enter in this model, we constructed an alternative model in which baseline aerobic fitness adjusted for FFM was entered. Using this approach, 43% of the variability in follow-up LVM was explained by baseline FFM, fatness, and adjusted aerobic fitness. Change in FFM explained 58% of the variability in change in LVM. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
    PEDIATRICS 06/2000; 105(5):E63. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • P H Davis, J D Dawson, L T Mahoney, R M Lauer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are used as 2 markers of early atherosclerosis. Our objectives were to assess whether increased IMT and CAC are related and to determine the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid IMT in young adults. A sample of 182 men and 136 women aged 33 to 42 years living in Muscatine, Iowa, underwent B-mode carotid ultrasound to determine the mean of 12 measurements of maximal carotid IMT. CAC was defined as calcification in the proximal coronary arteries in >/=3 contiguous pixels with a density of >/=130 HU. The mean IMT was 0.788 mm (SD 0.127) for men and 0.720 mm (SD 0.105) for women. CAC was present in 27% of men and 14% of women and was significantly associated with IMT in men (P<0.025) and women (P<0.005). With multivariate analysis, after adjustment for age, significant risk factors for carotid IMT were LDL cholesterol (P<0.001) and pack-years of smoking (P<0.05) in men and LDL cholesterol (P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.01) in women. These risk factors remained significant after CAC was included in the multivariate model. There is an association between increased carotid IMT and CAC and between cardiovascular risk factors and increased IMT in young adults. Carotid IMT may provide information in addition to CAC that can be used to identify young adults with premature atherosclerosis.
    Circulation 08/1999; 100(8):838-42. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate method to "normalize" oxygen uptake (VO2) for body size in children and adolescents. We examined allometric scaling factors for a cohort of 126 children (mean age at baseline = 10.3 yr) participating in a 5-yr follow-up study. Each year for 5 yr we measured peak VO2, submaximal VO2, body mass, height, body composition, and sexual maturation. We sorted the 5-yr data set by sexual maturation and gender and then used the generalized estimating equation method to estimate regression parameters that described the influence of log transformed body mass on log transformed VO2. All analyses were repeated using log transformed fat-free body mass (FFM) in lieu of log transformed body mass. Models using FFM appeared better at eliminating the effect of body size on VO2. In boys a univariate model with a FFM exponent of 0.91 and in girls a univariate model with a FFM exponent of 0.87 satisfactorily normalized peak VO2. However, we could not identify a common body size exponent for both boys and girls. Results support the use of allometric scaling of VO2 as a function of FFM for maturing boys and girls but indicate that the effects of maturation on the relationship between VO2 and body size differ between boys and girls.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 10/1998; 30(9):1436-44. · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal analysis of scaling V˙O2 for differences in body size during puberty: the Muscatine Study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 1436-1444, 1998. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate method to "normalize" oxygen uptake (V˙O2) for body size in children and adolescents. Methods: We examined allometric scaling factors for a cohort of 126 children (mean age at baseline = 10.3 yr) participating in a 5-yr follow-up study. Each year for 5 yr we measured peak V˙O2, submaximal V˙O2, body mass, height, body composition, and sexual maturation. We sorted the 5-yr data set by sexual maturation and gender and then used the generalized estimating equation method to estimate regression parameters that described the influence of log transformed body mass on log transformed V˙O2. All analyses were repeated using log transformed fat-free body mass (FFM) in lieu of log transformed body mass. Results: Models using FFM appeared better at eliminating the effect of body size on V˙O2. In boys a univariate model with a FFM exponent of 0.91 and in girls a univariate model with a FFM exponent of 0.87 satisfactorily normalized peak V˙O2. However, we could not identify a common body size exponent for both boys and girls. Conclusions: Results support the use of allometric scaling of V˙O2 as a function of FFM for maturing boys and girls but indicate that the effects of maturation on the relationship between V˙O2 and body size differ between boys and girls.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 08/1998; 30(9):1436-1444. · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • K F Janz, L T Mahoney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the tracking of aerobic fitness during puberty and its relationship to changes in body composition and indexes of growth, the authors of this study measured body fat, echocardiographic left ventricular mass (LVM), fat-free mass (FFM), height, physical activity, resting blood pressure, sexual maturation, and maximal aerobic fitness (VO2peak) in 123 children (ages 7-12 years). Measures were repeated 3 years later. Tracking was assessed by Spearman rank correlation coefficients between baseline and follow-up data. Predictors of changing aerobic fitness were examined using stepwise regression. Significant tracking of aerobic fitness was observed with correlations ranging from .70-.75. Increased FFM and increased LVM explained 51% of the variability in improved aerobic fitness (ml.min-1) in boys. Increased FFM and increased height explained 26% of the variability in improved aerobic fitness (ml.min-1) in girls. During puberty, children who gain the greatest amount of lean tissue (including cardiac) experience the greatest improvements in aerobic fitness (ml.min-1). Measures of aerobic fitness prior to and during early puberty tend to predict aerobic fitness during puberty.
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 04/1997; 68(1):1-9. · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • ACC Current Journal Review 01/1997; 6(3):51-54.
  • K. F. Janz, T. L. Bums, J. D. Witt, L. T. Mahoney
    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/1997; 29.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in young adult men and women and to examine the association between the presence of coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life. Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting coronary artery calcification, a marker of the atherosclerotic process. Coronary artery calcification is associated with coronary risk factors in older adults. Subjects (197 men, 187 women) had coronary risk factors measured in childhood (mean age 15 years) and twice during young adult life (mean ages 27 and 33 years). Each underwent an electron beam computed tomographic study at their second young adult examination. The prevalence of coronary artery calcification was 31% in men and 10% in women. Increased body size, increased blood pressure and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were the coronary risk factors that showed the strongest association with coronary artery calcification. Significant odds ratios for coronary artery calcification, using standardized risk factor measurements at a mean age of 33 years in men and women, respectively, were 6.4 and 13.6 for the highest decile of body mass index, 6.4 and 6.4 for the highest decile of systolic blood pressure and 4.3 and 4.7 for the lowest decile of HDL cholesterol. Coronary artery calcification is more prevalent in men in this young adult population. Coronary risk factors measured in children and young adults are associated with the early development of coronary artery calcification. Increased body mass index measured during childhood and young adult life and increased blood pressure and decreased HDL cholesterol levels measured during young adult life are associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification in young adults.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/1996; 27(2):277-84. · 14.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
198.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1982–2004
    • University of Iowa
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Neurology
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1979–1985
    • University of Iowa Children's Hospital
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States