Publications (2)5.79 Total impact
Article: Program death-1 engagement upon TCR activation has distinct effects on costimulation and cytokine-driven proliferation: attenuation of ICOS, IL-4, and IL-21, but not CD28, IL-7, and IL-15 responses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The program death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands, PD-1 ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2, define a novel regulatory pathway with potential inhibitory effects on T, B, and monocyte responses. In the present study, we show that human CD4(+) T cells express PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 upon activation, and Abs to the receptor can be agonists or antagonists of the pathway. Under optimal conditions of stimulation, ICOS but not CD28 costimulation can be prevented by PD-1 engagement. IL-2 levels induced by costimulation are critical in determining the outcome of the PD-1 engagement. Thus, low to marginal IL-2 levels produced upon ICOS costimulation account for the greater sensitivity of this pathway to PD-1-mediated inhibition. Interestingly, exogenous IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 but not IL-4 and IL-21 can rescue PD-1 inhibition, suggesting that among these cytokines only those that activate STAT5 can rescue PD-1 inhibition. As STAT5 has been implicated in the maintenance of IL-2Ralpha expression, these results suggest that IL-7 and IL-15 restore proliferation under conditions of PD-1 engagement by enhancing high-affinity IL-2R expression and hence, IL-2 responsiveness.The Journal of Immunology 02/2003; 170(2):711-8. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: In vitro potency, pharmacokinetic profiles, and pharmacological activity of optimized anti-IL-21R antibodies in a mouse model of lupus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using phage display, we generated a panel of optimized neutralizing antibodies against the human and mouse receptors for interleukin 21 (IL-21), a cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of autoimmune disease. Two antibodies, Ab-01 and Ab-02, which differed by only four amino acids in V(L) CDR3, showed potent inhibition of human and mouse IL-21R in cell-based assays and were evaluated for their pharmacological and pharmacodynamic properties. Ab-01, but not Ab-02, significantly reduced a biomarker of disease (anti-dsDNA antibodies) and IgG deposits in the kidney in the MRL-Fas(lpr) mouse model of lupus, suggesting that anti-IL-21R antibodies may prove useful in the treatment of lupus. Ab-01 also had a consistently higher exposure (AUC(0-infinity)) than Ab-02 following a single dose in rodents or cynomolgus monkeys (2-3-fold or 4-7-fold, respectively). Our data demonstrate that small differences in CDR3 sequences of optimized antibodies can lead to profound differences in in vitro and in vivo properties, including differences in pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetic profiles. The lack of persistent activity of Ab-02 in the MRL-Fas(lpr) mouse lupus model may have been a consequence of faster elimination, reduced potency in blocking the effects of mouse IL-21R, and more potent/earlier onset of the anti-product response relative to Ab-01.mAbs 2(3):335-46.