M. Marzencki

Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (29)6.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This paper introduces a seismocardiography based methodology of predicting the start and the end of diastole to be used in diastolic timed vibrations (DTV), which provides non-invasive emergency treatment of acute coronary thrombosis by applying direct mechanical vibrations to the patient chest during diastole of heart cycles. It is proposed that seismocardiogram (SCG), in combination with electrocardiogram (ECG), provides a new means of diastole prediction. METHODS: An accelerometer was placed on the sternum of 120 healthy participants and 22 ischemic heart patients to record precordial accelerations created by the heart. The accelerometer signal was used to extract SCG and phonocardiogram (PCG). Two independent trained experts annotated the extracted signals based on the timings of the start and end of diastole. RESULTS: In the ischemic heart disease population by using 15 consecutive SCG cycles, the start and end of diastole was predicted in the upcoming cycles with 95 percentile error margin of 10.7ms and 5.8ms, respectively. These error margins were 7.4ms and 3.5ms, respectively, for normal participants. CONCLUSION: The results provide that prediction of the aortic valve closure point in the SCG signal helps start the vibrator in time to cover most of the isovolumic relaxation period. Also, through prediction of the mitral valve closure point in the SCG signal, safety of the technique can be assessed through prediction of the amount of unwanted vibrations applied during the isovolumic contraction period.
    Medical Engineering & Physics 01/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Marcin Marzencki, Skandar Basrour
    MEMS: Fundamental Technology and Applications, 01/2013: pages 131;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents and evaluates preferred patterns of vibrations and active breaking techniques for the Diastolic Timed Vibrator (DTV). DTV uses low frequency mechanical vibrations applied to the chest to help in clot dissolution in pre-hospitalization treatment of acute coronary ischemia. In this work, we argue that random and ramp type vibration patterns increase the performance of the DTV method. Furthermore, we present results for various methods of vibration stopping aiming at reduction of vibration overspill into the systole of heart cycle of the patient.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2011; 2011:2480-3.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a VHDL-AMS implementation of a physical model of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) piezoelectric microgenerator. Such an executable model acts as a bridge between specifications and fabricated devices. Usually, physical and geometrical parameters of electromechanical parts of a system are only considered in lower levels of the design flow, typically using finite-element tools, which, despite their accuracy, do not allow efficient optimization of the structure properties and dimensions. Thus, it would be very interesting to have a model of the entire harvesting system (the MEMS piezoelectric microgenerator cascaded with the electronic circuit) to perform efficient optimization. Some features like damping effects and process fluctuations have considerable impact on the performance of MEMS, especially the resonant structures. We propose a method of integrating such features early in the design flow, while keeping the simulation time reasonable. The resulting model is reusable, predictive (comparable to experimental results) and respects Kirchhoff laws. Consequently, it can be integrated in global simulation of multidomain and mixed signal systems like wireless sensor nodes.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 10/2010; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wearable devices are a novel method for sensing physiological parameters of subjects. Even though some of them are equipped with multiple sensors, usually each parameter is analyzed separately. It often leads to false alarm generation and thus limited acceptability of these systems. We propose not only to combine multi-sensor data available on the wearable device, but also to interface the wearable nodes with a mesh network of sensing devices deployed in the environment. Such solution enables context-sensitive analysis of the physiological data leading to correct situation assessment and reliable alarm generation. The wireless sensor network provides reliable and low power communication medium for the wearable devices. We base our system on ECG and acceleration data acquired by the wearable nodes along with descriptive localization and environmental data from the wireless sensor network. We present the architecture of the proposed system and an example implementation both indoors and outdoors. The proposed system is easy to implement, flexible and scalable which makes it suitable for large area deployments.
    Medical Measurements and Applications Proceedings (MeMeA), 2010 IEEE International Workshop on; 06/2010
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    Gerontechnology 01/2010; 9(2):102-103.
  • M. Marzencki, M. Defosseux, S. Basrour
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    ABSTRACT: Further advancement of ambient mechanical vibration energy harvesting depends on finding a simple yet efficient method of tuning the resonance frequency of the harvester to match the one dominant in the environment. We propose an innovative approach to achieve a completely passive, wideband adaptive system by employing mechanical nonlinear strain stiffening. We present analytical analysis of the underlying idea as well as experimental results obtained with custom fabricated MEMS devices. Nonlinear behavior is obtained through high built-in stresses between layers in these devices. We report experimentally verified frequency adaptability of over 36% for a clamped-clamped beam device at 2 g input acceleration. We believe that the proposed solution is perfectly suited for autonomous industrial machinery surveillance systems, where high amplitude vibrations that are necessary for enabling this solution, are abundant.
    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 01/2010; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A micro power generator harvesting vibration energy by resonant inertial oscillation of a piezoelectric laminated cantilever with proof mass was designed, fabricated, and characterized. The active part with 2 pm thick PZT on 5 mu m silicon was equipped with interdigitated electrodes to achieve higher voltages. A coupling constant k(2)=5% was derived from the difference in resonance frequencies at low and high impedance. At optimal load impedance, a voltage of 1.6 V and an output power of 1.4 mu W was measured with a 0.8x1.2 mm cantilever having an active area of 0.8x0.4 mm, excited with 2g at 870 Hz.
    01/2009;
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    Maxime Defosseux, Marcin Marzencki, Skandar Basrour
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    ABSTRACT: Further development in the area of vibration energy harvesting is limited by the lack of efficient methods to adapt the harvester to its surroundings. To this end, we propose an innovative passive way of automatic passive resonance frequency tracking.We present a new approach employing mechanical non-linear behaviour of the system to track the vibration frequency peak. An analytical model representing these nonlinear harvesting systems has been developed and analysed. Experimental results obtained with custom fabricated MEMS devices show an experimentally verified frequency adaptability of over 36% for a clamped-clamped beam device at 2g (1g=9.81m.s-2) input acceleration. We believe that the proposed solution is perfectly suited for autonomous industrial machinery surveillance systems, where vibrations with high accelerations that are necessary for enabling this solution are abundant.
    MRS Proceedings. 12/2008; 1218.
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    ABSTRACT: We present three approaches to harvesting ambient energy, based on complementary physical effects in order to exploit three kinds of energy available for harvesting:Mechanical vibrationsMechanical vibration energy can be harvested with resonant mechanical structures excited by the vibrations; this scavenged energy is then transformed into electricity by piezoelectric materials. We propose to use thin piezoelectric layers deposited on the resonant structure.An on-chip integrated prototype, using a seismic mass at the end of a Si cantilever beam coated with a piezoelectric AlN film (overall volume 5 mm3), produces 30 nW of rectified power at 3 V under 0.4 g acceleration, which is enough to power a wireless sensor. Power conditioning electronics adapted to ultra-low voltage input is also proposed, which can efficiently charge a storage capacitor under very low accelerations. The fully micro-fabricated System on a Package combines a MEMS generator and ASIC power management circuit.Evolutions of ambient temperatureA permanent magnet is attached to a PZT/brass bimorph, and placed near a "thermo-magnetic" material (FeNi) which Curie temperature can be tuned around the ambient. During slow cooling or heating by the ambient air, the FeNi magnetic properties vary slowly and thus the attraction force between the FeNi and the NdFeB magnet varies slowly. Despite the slow global evolutions, the opposition between the linearity of the bimorph bending and the strong non-linearity of the magnetic attraction over distance leads to brutal clamping or release of the magnet around Tc: the piezo can then efficiently convert these fast deformations into electricity. Operational temperature range can be set by tuning the FeNi composition to obtain a predefined Curie point; hysteresis between the cooling/heating thresholds can be tuned by modifying the gap between the magnet and the FeNi.The cm-scale prototype generates a peak voltage of 35 V on release (T > Tc). For a discharge time of 0.1 s through a 1 MΩ load, the total energy harvested is 13.5 μJ per stroke, i.e. 1.35 mW of average power (respectively -14 V, 2.2 μJ and 0.22 mW on clamping when T < Tc). Output power is surprisingly constant for various load values tested. Scaling effects must now be addressed to assess the feasibility of an integrated MEMS generator and its potential efficiency.Low-frequency, large amplitude bending from human motion:A very light, flexible electro-active polymer membrane (50 x 30 mm, 31 μm thick) operates in a large frequency spectrum from quasi-static to dynamic range. It scavenges 0.1 mJ per cycle at 1 Hz, under 170 V and constant charge Q: 100 μW is enough to supply a low-power system.Improvements under investigation include achieving poling voltage with piezoelectric polymer or electrets polymer, using multi-stack scavengers to miniaturize the structure and to decrease the poling voltage V, and integration into textile.
    MRS Proceedings. 12/2008; 1218.
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    Hela Boussetta, S. Basrour, M. Marzencki
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed a top/down methodology for behavioral and structural modeling of multi-domain microsystems. Then, we validated this methodology through a study case : a piezoelectric microgenerator. We also proved the effectiveness of VHDL-AMS language not only for modeling in behavioral and structural levels but also in writing physical models that can predict the experimental results. Finally, we validated these models by presenting and discussing simulations results.
    06/2008;
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    M. Marzencki, Yasser Ammar, S. Basrour
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    ABSTRACT: We report in this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of a piezoelectric MEMS microgenerator. This device scavenges the energy of ambient mechanical vibrations characterized by frequencies in the range of 1 kHz. This component is made with Aluminum Nitride thin film deposited with a CMOS compatible process. Moreover we analyze two possible solutions for the signal rectification: a discrete doubler-rectifier and a full custom power management circuit. The ASIC developed for this application takes advantage of diodes with very low threshold voltage and therefore allows the conversion of extremely low input voltages corresponding to very weak input accelerations. The volume of the proposed generator is inferior to 1mm3 and the generated powers are in the range of 1$\mu$W. This system is intended to supply power to autonomous wireless sensor nodes.
    CoRR. 01/2008; abs/0802.3044.
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    H. Boussetta, M. Marzencki, Y. Ammar, S. Basrour
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe a novel top/down methodology for behavioral and structural modeling of multi domain microsystems. The study case is an integrated power harvesting circuit used for supplying power to nodes in wireless sensor networks. The system includes an analog circuit, a piezoelectric MEMS generator and a storage capacitor. The classical validation of such systems by separate simulation of each element: FEM analysis for mechanical part and traditional circuit-simulators for electrical part does not offer the possibility to predict the behavior of the complete system. To overcome such limitations, we propose to use a simulation environment based on VHDL-AMS and SPICE languages.
    Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Workshop, 2007. BMAS 2007. IEEE International; 10/2007
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a design, fabrication and experimental test results of MEMS mechanical vibration energy scavenging devices for micro power generation. There is a growing need for such structures in the field of wireless sensor networks, where increasing the autonomy of nodes is a crucial issue. In our case, the transduction is performed using the piezoelectric effect and the devices are entirely made using microfabrication techniques. Two different piezoelectric materials are used for fabrication: PZT that shows high coupling coefficient, but very complicated fabrication process and AlN, not generating as much power but much easier to deposit, compatible with standard CMOS process and not toxic. We present a comparison of performances of these two types of devices.
    Proc. of Nanotech 2007; 01/2007
  • M Marzencki, Y Ammar, S Basrour
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report in this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of a piezoelectric MEMS microgenerator. This device scavenges the energy of ambient mechanical vibrations characterized by frequencies in the range of 1 kHz. This component is made with Aluminum Nitride thin film deposited with a CMOS compatible process. Moreover we analyze two possible solutions for the signal rectification: a discrete doubler-rectifier and a full custom power management circuit. The ASIC developed for this application takes advantage of diodes with very low threshold voltage and therefore allows the conversion of extremely low input voltages corresponding to very weak input accelerations. The volume of the proposed generator is inferior to 1mm3 and the generated powers are in the range of 1µW. This system is intended to supply power to autonomous wireless sensor nodes.
    Proceedings of Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP'07), Stresa Italy, April 25-27; 01/2007
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    Marcin Marzencki, Yasser Ammar, Skandar Basrour
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel ambient energy scavenging system for powering wireless sensor nodes. It uses a MEMS generator and an ASIC power management circuit. The system is created as a System on a Package with all components fabricated entirely using microfabrication techniques. Its performance is compared with standard approaches using a resistive load or discrete Schottky diodes. The electromechanical transduction is performed using the piezoelectric effect of aluminium nitride thin films. The reported experimental results prove the possibility of exploiting very low amplitude signals delivered by the generator for charging a storage capacitor. It is also shown that a system of 5 mm3 can endlessly power a simple wireless sensor node; while a lithium polymer thin film battery of the same volume can do so only for less than 2 months.
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to deal with a new approach for the modelling and the simulation of mixed-signal multi-domain microsystems (MSMD) in the MATLABreg/Simulinkreg environment. MSMD are systems mixing different domains such as analog and digital electronics, radio-frequency modules, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) and others on the same chip (system-on-chip: SoC) or in the same package (system-on-package: SoP). The heterogeneity of such systems can be seen at different abstraction levels. In fact this heterogeneity is mainly due to the multiphysic domains and also to the nature of the signals available on the chip. The creation of a virtual prototype of such microsystems is very useful because it allows to significantly shorten the design cycle and to reduce the design cost. Due to different domains, the mixed signals, the several non-linearities of the electrical components or MEMS devices and the interdependences of their subsystems, it is very complex to make a global simulation and optimization with traditional approaches and with the same simulator. Several modelling languages can be used, for example SPICE and VHDL-AMS, but one of the major disadvantages of these languages concerns the convergence of the simulation. MATLABreg/Simulinkreg is a powerful environment where several subsystems can be modelled with analytical equations, electrical circuits, etc. In this paper, we apply our approach to model and to simulate a self powered micro systems (SPMS) in this simulation environment. Several simulation results, made with different abstraction levels, have been compared and are in very good agreement. Moreover, we report in this paper cosimulation results obtained with Simulinkreg/SMASHtrade software. These results will prove the efficiency of our approach for the design of microsystems
    Thermal, Mechanical and Multiphysics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems, 2006. EuroSime 2006. 7th International Conference on; 05/2006
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    ABSTRACT: The development of micro-machined ultrasonic transducers on silicon opens new application fields for Si-based acoustic sensors operating in air or in liquids. In this work, we describe the fabrication of piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasonic transducers (pMUT) first dedicated to ultrasonic imaging applications that may be used as a mechanical to electrical energy transformer for energy scavenging purpose [1]. We report on the fabrication of PZT/Si piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasonic transducers (pMUTs) first designed for acoustic applications and on tests of these devices as scavenging energy experiment.
    Integrated Ferroelectrics 01/2006; 80:305-315. · 0.38 Impact Factor
  • M Marzencki, S Basrour
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a detailed model of a resonant power harvesting device using the piezoelectric effect to convert the energy of ambient mechanical vibrations into useful electrical energy. The model treats the two most common cases of piezoelectric device configurations: a symmetric bimorph (macro devices) and an asymmetric bimorph (MEMS devices). In comparison with previously presented solutions for such structures, many significant improvements have been introduced and a good agreement with FEM simulation has been found.
    Proc. of 20th Eurosensors Conference; 01/2006