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ABSTRACT: Areca (betel) was recently proved a carcinogenic substance by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the signaling impact of areca in oral keratinocyte is still obscure. Mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamilies, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38, together with transcription factor NF-kappaB, are important signaling elements. We examined the activation of these signaling pathways in OECM-1 and SAS oral keratinocytes, treated with ripe areca nut extract (ANE). In both cells, a rapid increase in JNK1 activity at 0.5 hr was noted following treatment of ANE. ERK was profoundly activated during 0.5-2 hr in OECM-1 cells. Contrasting p38 activity was noted in these 2 cells. In both cells, ANE also activated NF-kappaB pathway in a biphasic manner, particularly for SAS cells. NF-kappaB was activated by approximately 2- to 4-fold at 0.5-1 hr and a plateau or slight decrease of activity existed between 1 and 6 hr. Later, another higher episode of NF-kappaB activity was raised. This was accompanied with the rapid degradation in cytosolic IkappaBalpha as well as an increase of nuclear NF-kappaB in both cells. ANE treatment did not activate epidermal growth factor receptor signaling system, but blockage of NF-kappaB activation rendered the suppression of ANE-modulated COX-2 upregulation in OECM-1. This study identified that ANE affected interactive signaling systems in oral keratonocytes that could be the pathogenetic basis for areca.
International Journal of Cancer 10/2005; 116(4):526-35. · 6.20 Impact Factor