[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfur mustard (SM)-induced dermatotoxicity can be prevented by an immediate use of decontamination agents. However, practically due to the time lapse between decontamination and exposure, there is always a possibility of wound formation. In view of this, a hydrophilic decontamination formulation of CC-2 (DRDE/WH-03) was fortified with Aloe vera gel and betaine (DRDE/WH-01) for improving its wound healing ability. Swiss albino mice were exposed to SM percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once, and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-01, DRDE/WH-03, framycetin, and aloe gel were applied topically, daily for 7 days. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers on 3 and 7 days, respectively. DRDE/WH-01, framycetin, and aloe gel showed better reepithelialization, angiogenesis, and fibroplasia compared with DRDE/WH-03 and SM control. On the basis of histomorphologic scale, DRDE/WH-01, framycetin, and aloe gel were found to be equally efficacious. Up-regulation of interleukin-6 and infiltrating leukocytes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiogenesis, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-alpha with fibroplasia and reepithelialization were well correlated at various stages of the healing process. DRDE/WH-01 was equally effective as framycetin and has shown improved wound healing efficacy compared with DRDE/WH-03. Thus, DRDE/WH-01 can be recommended as a universal decontaminant and wound healant against vesicant-induced skin injury.
Wound Repair and Regeneration 01/2014; 22(1):85-95. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhalation toxicity of silicon dioxide aerosol (150, 300mg/m(3)) daily over a period of 28 days was carried out in rats. The changes in respiratory variables during the period of exposure were monitored using a computer programme that recognizes the modifications of the breathing pattern. Exposure to the aerosol caused a time dependent decrease in tidal volume, with an increase in respiratory frequency compared to the control. Biochemical variables and histopathological observation were noted at 28th day following the start of exposure. Biochemical markers of silica induced lung injury like plasma alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and angiotensine converting enzyme activities increased in a concentration dependent manner compared to control. Increase in the plasma enzymatic activities indicates endothelial lung damage, increased lung membrane permeability. Histopathological observation of the lungs confirmed concentration dependent granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and proteinacious degeneration. Aggregates of mononuclear cells with entrapped silica particles circumscribed by fibroblast were observed in 300mg/m(3) silica aerosol exposed group at higher magnification. Decrease in tidal volume and increase in respiratory frequency might be due to the thickening of the alveolar wall leading to a decreased alveolar volume and lowered elasticity of the lung tissue. The trends in histological and biochemical data are in conformity with the respiratory data in the present study. This study reports for the first time, the changes in respiratory variables during silica aerosol exposure over a period of 28 days.
Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 07/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blistering in human and animals. In this study, we have presented closer views on pathogenesis of SM-induced skin injury in a mouse model. SM diluted in acetone was applied once dermally at dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg to Swiss albino mice. Skin was dissected out at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours, post-SM exposure for studying histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers, namely, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and interlukin 6 (IL-6). Histopathological changes were similar to other mammalian species and basal cell damage resembled the histopathological signs observed with vesication in human skin. Inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of injury was supported by differential expressions of IL-6 at various stages. Time-dependent expressions of eNOS played pivotal roles in all the events of wound healing of SM-induced skin lesions. TGF-α and FGF were strongly associated with keratinocyte migration, re-epithelialisation, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and cell differentiation. Further, quantification of the tissue leukocytosis and DNA damage along with semiquantitative estimation of re-epithelialisation, fibroplasia and neovascularisation on histomorphologic scale could be efficiently used for screening the efficacy of orphan drugs against SM-induced skin injury.
International Wound Journal 06/2012; · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of 2- pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAMCl) and atropine with or without curcumin was investigated in dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate; DDVP) induced toxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to DDVP (2 mg/kg sub-cutaneously) once daily for the period of 21 days. Post DDVP exposure, rats were further treated with 2-PAMCl (50 mg/kg intramuscular, once daily) + atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m. once daily) with or without curcumin (200 mg/kg; oral; once daily) for further 21 days. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), while there was a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) activity on DDVP exposure of rats. These alterations were restored significantly by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine in DDVP exposed rats. Curcumin when co-supplemented with 2-PAMCl + atropine also significantly protected serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and restored brain AChE activity and 5-HT level in animals sub-chronically exposed to DDVP. Histopathological observations along with biochemical changes in rat blood and tissues revealed significant protection offered by 2-PAMCl + atropine against DDVP. The results indicate that DDVP-induced toxicity can be significantly protected by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine individually, however, curcumin co-supplementation with 2-PAMCl + atropine provides more pronounced protection, concerning particularly neurological disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blisters in human and animals. Remedies to SM-induced dermatotoxicity are still in experimental stage. Due to inevitable requirement of a wound-healing formulation against SM-induced skin lesions, efficacy of formulations including povidone iodine, Aloe vera gel, betaine or framycetin sulphate was evaluated in present study. SM was applied percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once on back region of Swiss albino mice; and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-02 (Defence Research and Development Establishment/ Wound Healant- 02, containing polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP], A. vera gel and betaine), Ovadine, Soframycin or A. vera gel were applied topically, daily for 3 or 7 days in different groups. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers. DRDE/WH-02 treated mice received highest score on the basis of histomorphologic scale and lowest number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to other groups. DRDE/WH-02 showed better wound healing as evidenced by widespread re-epithelialization, homogenous fibroplasias well supported by the expression of transforming growth factor-α, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and fibroblast growth factor. Upregulation of interleukin 6 in DRDE/WH-02-treated mice skin resulted in increased tissue leukocytosis and an early removal of tissue debris that initiated reparative process at faster rate compared to other groups. In conclusion, DRDE/WH-02 provided better healing effect and can be recommended as an effective wound healant against SM-induced skin injury.
Human & Experimental Toxicology 12/2011; 31(6):588-605. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was planned to design a mouse model for studying sulphur mustard (SM)-induced skin injury. SM was applied dermally at dose of 5 or 10 mg kg(-1) in polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) or acetone once. The changes in body weight, organ body weight indices (OBWI) and haematological and oxidative stress parameters were investigated over a period of 3-7 days and supported by histopathological observations. Exposure to SM in PEG-300 or DMSO resulted in a significant depletion in body weight, OBWI, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and elevation in hepatic lipid peroxidation, without affecting the blood GSH and hepatic oxidised glutathione (GSSG) levels. Interestingly, no aforesaid change was observed after dermal application of SM diluted in acetone. These biochemical changes were supported by the histological observations, which revealed pronounced toxic effect and damage to liver, kidney and spleen after dermal application of SM diluted in PEG-300 or DMSO. The skin showed similar microscopic changes after dermal application of SM in all the three diluents, however; the severity of lesions was found to be time and dose dependent. It can be concluded that dermal exposure of SM diluted in acetone can be used to mimic SM-induced skin toxicity without systemic toxicity in a mouse model.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 02/2011; 37(5):851-64. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrogen mustards (HN) and sulphur mustard (SM) are potent alkylating blister inducing chemical warfare agents. Single 1.0 LD50 dose produced a progressive fall in body weight from second day onwards in all groups of mustard agents exposed animals. Histological examination of spleen, liver skin and kidney revealed significant histopathological lesions in nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard. These lesions include granulovascular degeneration with perinuclear clumping of the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and renal parenchymal cells. Renal lesions were characterized by congestion and hemorrhage. The maximum toxic manifestation were noted in spleen and skin of HN-3 exposed mice while sulphur mustard reported maximum toxicity in liver and kidneys. The study suggests both nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard to be extremely toxic by percutaneous route based on histopathological observation and can contributed to earlier reported free radical generation by these toxicants.
Journal of Environmental Biology 11/2010; 31(6):891-905. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulphur mustard, [bis (2-chloroethyl)] sulphide (SM), is a bifunctional alkylating agent. SM forms sulphonium ion in the body which alkylates DNA and several other macromolecules, and induces oxidative stress. Although several antidotes have been screened for the treatment of systemic toxicity of SM in experimental animals none of them are recommended so far. In the search for more effective and less toxic antidotes, various combinations were tried against SM induced toxicity and skin lesions. SM exposed through percutaneous route was used to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of various combinations. Low dose of DRDE-07 (S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulphide), DRDE-30 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl propyl sulphide], DRDE-35 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl butyl sulphide] with amifostine combinations, were given orally 30 min prior to SM exposure. Significant depletion was observed in body weight, organ body weight index and hepatic GSH and GSSG content in mice after SM exposure. Pretreatment with low dose of different combinations of DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 with amifostine could recover biochemical alterations and histopathological changes caused by SM exposures.
Indian journal of experimental biology 07/2010; 48(7):752-61. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocrotophos (dimethyl(E)-1-methyl-2-(methyl carbamoyl) vinyl phosphate, MCP), a substituted vinyl phosphate, is a potent systemic toxicant and used for control of variety of pests. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of monocrotophos and time-dependent repair of the damaged DNA in rats, using single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. The involvement of oxidative stress was also examined by estimation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the tissues of MCP exposed rats. The rats were given oral exposure of 4.5 and 9 mg MCP/kg body weight once as well as 0.3 and 0.6 mg MCP/kg body weight for 60 days. A dose-dependent increase was recorded in the levels of TBARS in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain of MCP exposed rats. Cytotoxicity of MCP is evident from the histopathological studies of rat tissues. The level of DNA damage was estimated by scoring 50 cells per animal, dividing into five types, Types 0, I, II, III and IV. The results clearly indicated that exposure to MCP, acutely or chronically, caused a dose-dependent increase in the number of damaged nuclei of Types II, III and IV in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain of rats. When the DNA damage was studied 48 and 72 h post MCP treatment, a significant reduction in the number of types III and IV nuclei was observed in all the tissues indicating a time-dependent repair. From the present study, it can be concluded that oxidative stress may be involved in the toxicity of MCP and MCP induces DNA damage in all the rat tissues exhibiting genotoxic potential in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.
Toxicology mechanisms and methods 02/2009; 19(2):169-82. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the protective value of quercetin, gossypin, Hippophae rhamnoides (HR) flavone and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity of percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM) in mice.
Quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered just before percutaneous administration of SM and protection against the SM lethality was evaluated. In another experiment quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate were administered against 2 LD(50) SM. The animals were sacrificed seven days post SM administration and various biochemical parameters were estimated.
The protection against the lethality of SM was very good with the flavonoids (quercetin = 4.7 folds; gossypin = 6.7 folds and HR flavone = 5.6 folds), compared to no protection with tocopherol acetate (0.7 fold). SM (2 LD(50)) showed decrease in reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels, and an increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA). Oxidative stress enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. The total antioxidant status was also significantly decreased. Additionally, there was a significant increase in red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin content. All the flavonoids significantly protected the GSH, GSSG and MDA, and also the hematological variables. Tocopherol acetate failed to offer any protection in those parameters. Gossypin protected glutathione peroxidase, while HR flavone protected both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase significantly. The decrease in body weight induced by SM and the histological lesions in liver and spleen were also significantly protected by the flavonoids but not by tocopherol acetate.
The present study supports that SM induces oxidative stress and flavonoids are promising cytoprotectants against this toxic effect.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 40(3):114-20. · 0.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides L. leaf (HL-EOH), water and ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides fruit (HF-W and HF-EOH), and H. rhamnoides flavone from fruit (HR-flavone) were evaluated against percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent. The animals administered with SM (9.7, 19.3 and 38.7 mg/kg) died at various days depending upon the dose and there was a significant reduction in the body weight. The H. rhamnoides extracts (1 g/kg; 3 doses; po) significantly protected the lethality, with a protective index of 2.4, 1.7, 1.7 and 2.2 for HL-EOH, HF-W, HF-EOH and HR-flavone respectively. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutalthione (GSSG) levels were reduced, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was elevated after percutaneous administration of SM. Oral administration of HL-EOH and HR-flavone significantly protected the body weight loss. Recovery in the levels of GSH, GSSG and MDA were also observed following oral administration of HL-EOH and HR-flavone. All the extracts were non-toxic and the LD50 was more than 5 g/kg. The present study shows that percutaneous administration of SM induces oxidative stress and ethanolic extract of leaf of H. rhamnoides and H. rhamnoides flavone from fruit can significantly protect it.
Indian journal of experimental biology 11/2006; 44(10):821-31. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a vicinal thiol chelating agent and an analogue of a conventional metal chelating agent, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has recently been gaining recognition to be more effective chelating agent than DMSA in mobilizing lead, mercury and arsenic. However, very little information is available on the toxicological properties of this chelator. In the present study, MiADMSA was administered to pregnant female rats from day 14 of gestation to day 21 of lactation at different doses through oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes to examine the toxicity in the pups and dams. Results suggested that MiADMSA had no effect on period of gestation, litter-size, sex ratio, and viability and lactation. No skeletal defects were observed following the administration of the chelator. However, MiADMSA administration produced few signs of oxidative stress in dams particularly at the higher doses (100 and 200mg/kg) as evident from increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in RBCs and decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. Administration of MiADMSA also caused some alterations in the essential metal concentration in the soft tissues especially tissue copper loss in lactating mothers and pups, which would be of some concern. Apart from copper, changes were also observed in the tissue zinc concentrations in mothers and pups following MiADMSA administration. The study thus suggests that the chelator is relatively safe during late gestation and it does not cause any major alteration in the mothers and the developing pups. However, detailed studies with MiADMSA, post-toxic metal exposure in pregnant animals may provide useful information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfur mustard (SM), chemically bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. Although several antidotes have been reported for the systemic toxicity of SM in experimental animals none of them are approved so far and decontamination of SM immediately by physical or chemical means is recommended as the best protection. Two compounds amifostine [S-2(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate] and DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulfide] gave very good protection as an oral prophylactic agent against SM the in mouse model, but in the rat model the protection was only moderate. In the search for more effective and less toxic compounds, a number of analogues of DRDE-07 were synthesised and their protective efficacy was evaluated in mouse and rat models. The LD50 of S-aryl substitution was between 1 and 2 g kg(-1) and S-alkyl substitution was more than 2 g kg(-1). In the mouse model, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 gave about 20 fold protection, and DRDE-23 and DRDE-38 gave less protection of 4.8 and 9.0 fold respectively, against percutaneously administered SM. In the rat model, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10 and DRDE-21 gave about two fold protection. Percutaneously administered SM (19.33 mg kg(-1)) significantly depleted the hepatic GSH content in mice. Pretreatment with DRDE-21 significantly elevated the levels. A 4.4 fold increase in % DNA fragmentation was observed 7 days after SM administration (19.33 mg kg(-1)) in mice. Pretreatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 significantly protected the mice from SM induced DNA damage. The histopathological lesions in liver and spleen induced by percutaneously administered SM was reduced by pretreatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10 and DRDE-21. These analogues may prove as prototypes for the designing of more effective prophylactic drug for SM.
Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2006; 26(2):115-25. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic toxicity of cyanide in humans and animals has been previously described. Alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) and sodium thiosulfate (STS) are known to confer remarkable protection against acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. Their efficacy against sub-acute or chronic cyanide exposure is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) in female rats following oral administration of 7.0 mg/kg (0.5 LD50) for 14 d. The effect of alpha-KG (oral; 1.0 g/kg) and/or STS (intraperitoneal, 1.0 g/kg) on cyanide toxicity was also evaluated. Various hematological and biochemical indices were determined after 7 d of treatment and additional parameters like organ-body weight index (OBI) and histology of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen were performed after 14 and 21 d (recovery group) of cyanide exposure. Sub-acute exposure of KCN did not produce any significant change in body weight of the animals, OBI, hematology and the levels of blood urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). The levels of temporal glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSSG were unaffected. However, in KCN treated animals elevated levels of blood glucose and reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase were observed. Activities of cytochrome c oxidase in the brain and rhodanese in the liver were diminished. Reduced levels of GSH and enhanced levels of MDA in brain were observed. Increased levels of blood thiocyanate were observed in all the treatments of KCN. Additionally, KCN also produced various histological changes in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Although, treatment of alpha-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both interventions afforded to maximum protection. This study indicates a promising role of alpha-KG and STS for the treatment of prolonged cyanide exposures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic arsenic toxicity is a widespread problem, not only in India and Bangladesh but also in various other regions of the world. Exposure to arsenic may occur from natural or industrial sources. The treatment that is in use at present employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), which facilitate its excretion from the body. However, these chelating agents are compromised with number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature, particularly for their use in cases of chronic poisoning. During chronic exposure, arsenic gains access into the cell and it becomes mandatory for a drug to cross cell membrane to chelate intracellular arsenic. To address this problem, analogs of DMSA having lipophilic character, were examined against chronic arsenic poisoning in experimental animals. In the present study, therapeutic efficacy of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) were compared in terms of reducing arsenic burden, as well as recovery in the altered biochemical variables particularly suggestive of oxidative stress. Adult male Wistar rats were given 100-ppm arsenic for 10 weeks followed by chelation therapy with the above chelating agents at a dose of 50 mg/Kg (orally) once daily for 5 consecutive days. Arsenic exposure resulted in marked elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood, inhibition of ALAD activity and depletion of GSH. These changes were accompanied by significant decline in blood hemoglobin level. MiADMSA was the most effective chelator in reducing ROS in red blood cells, and in restoring blood ALAD compared to two other chelators. Brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased, while ROS and TBARS increased significantly following arsenic exposure. There was a significant increase in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) with a corresponding decline in its substrate i.e. glutathione. Among all the three chelators, MiADMSA showed maximum reduction in the level of ROS in brain. Additionally, administration of MiADMSA was most effective in counteracting arsenic induced inhibition in brain ALAD, SOD and GPx activity. Based on these results and in particular higher metal decorporation from blood and brain, we suggest MiADMSA to be a potential drug of choice for the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning. However, further studies are required for the choice of appropriate dose, duration of treatment and possible effects on other major organs.
Life Sciences 10/2005; 77(18):2324-37. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfur mustard (SM), chemically 2,2'-dichloro diethyl sulphide, is an incapacitating and extremely toxic chemical warfare agent. It causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. While screening various antidotes against its toxicity, we observed that SM was more toxic through percutaneous (p.c.) route compared to oral (p.o.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes. The LD(50) of SM in female mice was found to be 5.7, 8.1 and 23.0 mg/kg through p.c., p.o., and s.c. routes, respectively. The body weight of the animals was monitored and it was found that percentage body weight loss was more in the p.c. route. There was significant DNA fragmentation in liver in all the three routes evaluated at 19.3 mg/kg dose of SM. The depletion of hepatic GSH content was found to be more in the p.c. route of exposure compared to s.c. route. There was significant reduction in WBC count in all the three routes of exposure. Histopathological evaluation of lung, liver, and spleen also showed that the damage was more in the p.c. route and severity of lesions was dependent on the dose of exposure. The most affected organ was liver by all the three routes. LD(50) was also determined in male rats and it was found to be 2.4, 2.4, and 3.4 mg/kg through p.c., p.o. and s.c. routes respectively. Since skin contains maximum number of metabolically active and rapidly dividing cells, differential metabolism of SM cannot be ruled out. Probably, this is the first report of a chemical showing more toxicity through p.c. route compared to s.c. route.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2005; 202(2):180-8. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Sulphur mustard (SM), chemically 2,2′-dichloro diethyl sulphide, is an incapacitating and extremely toxic chemical warfare agent, and causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. SM forms sulphonium ion in the body that alkylates DNA and several other macromolecules, and induces oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera L. gel against SM-induced systemic toxicity and skin lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aloe vera gel was given (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) orally to mice as three doses, one immediately after SM administration by percutaneous route, and the other two doses on the next two days. Protective index was calculated with and without Aloe vera gel treatment. Aloe vera gel was also given orally as three doses with 3 LD50 SM and the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histological evaluation, 7 days after SM administration. In another set of experiment Aloe vera gel was liberally applied on the SM administered skin site and the animals were sacrificed after 14 days to detect its protective effect on the skin lesions induced by SM. RESULTS: The protection given by Aloe vera gel was marginal. 1000 mg/kg dose of Aloe vera gel gave a protection index of 2.8. SM significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and WBC count, and significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, RBC count and Hb concentration. Aloe vera gel offered protection only in the increase of MDA level by SM. Severe damage was observed in the histology of liver, spleen and skin following SM administration, and 1000 mg/kg of Aloe vera gel partially protected the lesions. However, topical application of Aloe vera gel showed better protection of the skin lesions induced by SM. CONCLUSION: The study shows that percutaneous administration of SM induces oxidative stress and oral administration of Aloe vera gel could only partially protect it. Topical application of Aloe vera gel may be beneficial for protecting the skin lesions induced by SM.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology (ISSN: 0253-7613) Vol 37 Num 2. 01/2005;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclic peptide toxins microcystins and nodularins are the most common and abundant cyanotoxins present in diverse water systems. They have been the cause of human and animal health hazards and even death. Over 60 microcystin variants have been reported so far. We report here the results of our study on comparative toxicity evaluation of three most predominant microcystins, MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR in mice. The mice were administered one LD(50) dose of MC-LR, RR and YR (43, 235.4 and 110.6 micro g/kg body weight, respectively), and biochemical and histological variables were determined at 30 min post-treatment and mean time to death (MTD). Significant increase in liver body weight index was induced by all three variants. There was marginal increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes viz. AST, ALT and gamma-GT at 30 min post-treatment but 3-4 fold increase was observed at MTD. In contrast, enhanced LDH leakage, DNA fragmentation and depletion of hepatic glutathione was observed at 30 min post treatment in all three variants. There was no change in levels of serum protein, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio. Liver histology showed time dependent severe pathological lesions like congestion, haemorrhage, portal mononuclear cell infiltration and obliteration of chromatin material. Lung lesions were predominantly in bronchi and parenchyma. Though qualitatively lesions were identical in all three microcystin variants, degree of liver and lung lesions varied quantitatively with the toxin. The breathing pattern and respiratory frequency of the mice after i.p. administration of the toxin showed uniform pattern for 90 min followed by abrupt change in the respiratory pattern and instantaneous death. Based on biochemical and histological studies, MC-LR was found to be the most potent toxin followed by MC-YR and MC-RR.