S C Pant

Defence Research and Development Organisation, Old Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (61)91.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with α-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    Vinay Lomash, Satish C Pant
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfur mustard (SM)-induced dermatotoxicity can be prevented by an immediate use of decontamination agents. However, practically due to the time lapse between decontamination and exposure, there is always a possibility of wound formation. In view of this, a hydrophilic decontamination formulation of CC-2 (DRDE/WH-03) was fortified with Aloe vera gel and betaine (DRDE/WH-01) for improving its wound healing ability. Swiss albino mice were exposed to SM percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once, and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-01, DRDE/WH-03, framycetin, and aloe gel were applied topically, daily for 7 days. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers on 3 and 7 days, respectively. DRDE/WH-01, framycetin, and aloe gel showed better reepithelialization, angiogenesis, and fibroplasia compared with DRDE/WH-03 and SM control. On the basis of histomorphologic scale, DRDE/WH-01, framycetin, and aloe gel were found to be equally efficacious. Up-regulation of interleukin-6 and infiltrating leukocytes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiogenesis, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-alpha with fibroplasia and reepithelialization were well correlated at various stages of the healing process. DRDE/WH-01 was equally effective as framycetin and has shown improved wound healing efficacy compared with DRDE/WH-03. Thus, DRDE/WH-01 can be recommended as a universal decontaminant and wound healant against vesicant-induced skin injury.
    Wound Repair and Regeneration 01/2014; 22(1):85-95. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalation toxicity of silicon dioxide aerosol (150, 300mg/m(3)) daily over a period of 28 days was carried out in rats. The changes in respiratory variables during the period of exposure were monitored using a computer programme that recognizes the modifications of the breathing pattern. Exposure to the aerosol caused a time dependent decrease in tidal volume, with an increase in respiratory frequency compared to the control. Biochemical variables and histopathological observation were noted at 28th day following the start of exposure. Biochemical markers of silica induced lung injury like plasma alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and angiotensine converting enzyme activities increased in a concentration dependent manner compared to control. Increase in the plasma enzymatic activities indicates endothelial lung damage, increased lung membrane permeability. Histopathological observation of the lungs confirmed concentration dependent granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and proteinacious degeneration. Aggregates of mononuclear cells with entrapped silica particles circumscribed by fibroblast were observed in 300mg/m(3) silica aerosol exposed group at higher magnification. Decrease in tidal volume and increase in respiratory frequency might be due to the thickening of the alveolar wall leading to a decreased alveolar volume and lowered elasticity of the lung tissue. The trends in histological and biochemical data are in conformity with the respiratory data in the present study. This study reports for the first time, the changes in respiratory variables during silica aerosol exposure over a period of 28 days.
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blistering in human and animals. In this study, we have presented closer views on pathogenesis of SM-induced skin injury in a mouse model. SM diluted in acetone was applied once dermally at dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg to Swiss albino mice. Skin was dissected out at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours, post-SM exposure for studying histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers, namely, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and interlukin 6 (IL-6). Histopathological changes were similar to other mammalian species and basal cell damage resembled the histopathological signs observed with vesication in human skin. Inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of injury was supported by differential expressions of IL-6 at various stages. Time-dependent expressions of eNOS played pivotal roles in all the events of wound healing of SM-induced skin lesions. TGF-α and FGF were strongly associated with keratinocyte migration, re-epithelialisation, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and cell differentiation. Further, quantification of the tissue leukocytosis and DNA damage along with semiquantitative estimation of re-epithelialisation, fibroplasia and neovascularisation on histomorphologic scale could be efficiently used for screening the efficacy of orphan drugs against SM-induced skin injury.
    International Wound Journal 06/2012; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of 2- pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAMCl) and atropine with or without curcumin was investigated in dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate; DDVP) induced toxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to DDVP (2 mg/kg sub-cutaneously) once daily for the period of 21 days. Post DDVP exposure, rats were further treated with 2-PAMCl (50 mg/kg intramuscular, once daily) + atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m. once daily) with or without curcumin (200 mg/kg; oral; once daily) for further 21 days. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), while there was a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) activity on DDVP exposure of rats. These alterations were restored significantly by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine in DDVP exposed rats. Curcumin when co-supplemented with 2-PAMCl + atropine also significantly protected serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and restored brain AChE activity and 5-HT level in animals sub-chronically exposed to DDVP. Histopathological observations along with biochemical changes in rat blood and tissues revealed significant protection offered by 2-PAMCl + atropine against DDVP. The results indicate that DDVP-induced toxicity can be significantly protected by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine individually, however, curcumin co-supplementation with 2-PAMCl + atropine provides more pronounced protection, concerning particularly neurological disorders.
    Interdisciplinary toxicology 03/2012; 5(1):1-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500–1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100–200 nm width near the base and 50–100 nm width at the tapered ends and ~25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 μg/mL nano CuO killed 3 × 108 CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 × 106 CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 μg/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research,. 01/2012; 14(Number 1):709.
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    ABSTRACT: Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blisters in human and animals. Remedies to SM-induced dermatotoxicity are still in experimental stage. Due to inevitable requirement of a wound-healing formulation against SM-induced skin lesions, efficacy of formulations including povidone iodine, Aloe vera gel, betaine or framycetin sulphate was evaluated in present study. SM was applied percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once on back region of Swiss albino mice; and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-02 (Defence Research and Development Establishment/ Wound Healant- 02, containing polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP], A. vera gel and betaine), Ovadine, Soframycin or A. vera gel were applied topically, daily for 3 or 7 days in different groups. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers. DRDE/WH-02 treated mice received highest score on the basis of histomorphologic scale and lowest number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to other groups. DRDE/WH-02 showed better wound healing as evidenced by widespread re-epithelialization, homogenous fibroplasias well supported by the expression of transforming growth factor-α, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and fibroblast growth factor. Upregulation of interleukin 6 in DRDE/WH-02-treated mice skin resulted in increased tissue leukocytosis and an early removal of tissue debris that initiated reparative process at faster rate compared to other groups. In conclusion, DRDE/WH-02 provided better healing effect and can be recommended as an effective wound healant against SM-induced skin injury.
    Human & Experimental Toxicology 12/2011; 31(6):588-605. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential arboviral vectors leading to high human fatality worldwide. Efforts in the present study were made to differentiate the eggs of A. aegypti and A. albopictus morphologically and morphometrically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphometrically, these species' eggs were 48.48% significantly different of the 33 attributes including egg dimensions, micropylar apparatus, dimensions and density of outer chorionic cells (OCCs), tubercles and width of exochorionic network. In comparison to A. aegypti eggs, A. albopictus eggs were significantly smaller and more tapered at the posterior end; however, the micropylar disc of A. aegypti was wider and had incomplete circular sectors whereas it was a narrower polygon without sectors in A. albopictus. These species were also significantly different with regards to OCC which enclose both large central and small peripheral tubercles. Specifically, the exochorionic networks in A. aegypti were interwoven, reticulated and extensively wide whereas they were narrow, prominent and solid-wall-like in A. albopictus. This feature may strengthen A. albopictus eggs against desiccation, when they are laid in containers. The morphometrical and morphological analysis of the egg's attributes of A. aegypti and A. albopictus may be helpful in understanding egg biology as well as in species confirmation.
    Arthropod structure & development 09/2011; 40(5):479-83. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was planned to design a mouse model for studying sulphur mustard (SM)-induced skin injury. SM was applied dermally at dose of 5 or 10 mg kg(-1) in polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) or acetone once. The changes in body weight, organ body weight indices (OBWI) and haematological and oxidative stress parameters were investigated over a period of 3-7 days and supported by histopathological observations. Exposure to SM in PEG-300 or DMSO resulted in a significant depletion in body weight, OBWI, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and elevation in hepatic lipid peroxidation, without affecting the blood GSH and hepatic oxidised glutathione (GSSG) levels. Interestingly, no aforesaid change was observed after dermal application of SM diluted in acetone. These biochemical changes were supported by the histological observations, which revealed pronounced toxic effect and damage to liver, kidney and spleen after dermal application of SM diluted in PEG-300 or DMSO. The skin showed similar microscopic changes after dermal application of SM in all the three diluents, however; the severity of lesions was found to be time and dose dependent. It can be concluded that dermal exposure of SM diluted in acetone can be used to mimic SM-induced skin toxicity without systemic toxicity in a mouse model.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 02/2011; 37(5):851-64. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen mustards (HN) and sulphur mustard (SM) are potent alkylating blister inducing chemical warfare agents. Single 1.0 LD50 dose produced a progressive fall in body weight from second day onwards in all groups of mustard agents exposed animals. Histological examination of spleen, liver skin and kidney revealed significant histopathological lesions in nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard. These lesions include granulovascular degeneration with perinuclear clumping of the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and renal parenchymal cells. Renal lesions were characterized by congestion and hemorrhage. The maximum toxic manifestation were noted in spleen and skin of HN-3 exposed mice while sulphur mustard reported maximum toxicity in liver and kidneys. The study suggests both nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard to be extremely toxic by percutaneous route based on histopathological observation and can contributed to earlier reported free radical generation by these toxicants.
    Journal of Environmental Biology 11/2010; 31(6):891-905. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulphur mustard, [bis (2-chloroethyl)] sulphide (SM), is a bifunctional alkylating agent. SM forms sulphonium ion in the body which alkylates DNA and several other macromolecules, and induces oxidative stress. Although several antidotes have been screened for the treatment of systemic toxicity of SM in experimental animals none of them are recommended so far. In the search for more effective and less toxic antidotes, various combinations were tried against SM induced toxicity and skin lesions. SM exposed through percutaneous route was used to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of various combinations. Low dose of DRDE-07 (S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulphide), DRDE-30 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl propyl sulphide], DRDE-35 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl butyl sulphide] with amifostine combinations, were given orally 30 min prior to SM exposure. Significant depletion was observed in body weight, organ body weight index and hepatic GSH and GSSG content in mice after SM exposure. Pretreatment with low dose of different combinations of DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 with amifostine could recover biochemical alterations and histopathological changes caused by SM exposures.
    Indian journal of experimental biology 07/2010; 48(7):752-61. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent hyperglycaemia results in oxidative stress along with the generation of oxygen free radicals and appears to be an important factor in the production of secondary complications in diabetes. The aim of this work was to evaluate markers of oxidative stress in heart tissue along with the protective, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of 30%Aloe vera gel in diabetic rats. Streptozocin was given as a single intravenous injection and 30%Aloe vera gel was given in two doses for 20 days, orally. Blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood reduced glutathione, serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum creatine kinase levels were measured on day 21 after drug treatment. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were recorded at the end of the study. Different biochemical variables were evaluated in the heart tissue, including thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase in diabetic and in Aloe vera-treated diabetic rats. In streptozocin diabetic rats, the TBARS level was increased significantly, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione significantly decreased, and the catalase level was significantly increased. Aloe vera 30% gel (200 mg/kg) treatment in diabetic rats reduced the increased TBARS and maintained the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity up to the normal level. Aloe vera gel increased reduced glutathione by four times in diabetic rats. Aloe vera gel at 200 mg/kg had significant antidiabetic and cardioprotective activity.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 01/2010; 62(1):115-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Monocrotophos (dimethyl(E)-1-methyl-2-(methyl carbamoyl) vinyl phosphate, MCP), a substituted vinyl phosphate, is a potent systemic toxicant and used for control of variety of pests. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of monocrotophos and time-dependent repair of the damaged DNA in rats, using single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. The involvement of oxidative stress was also examined by estimation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the tissues of MCP exposed rats. The rats were given oral exposure of 4.5 and 9 mg MCP/kg body weight once as well as 0.3 and 0.6 mg MCP/kg body weight for 60 days. A dose-dependent increase was recorded in the levels of TBARS in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain of MCP exposed rats. Cytotoxicity of MCP is evident from the histopathological studies of rat tissues. The level of DNA damage was estimated by scoring 50 cells per animal, dividing into five types, Types 0, I, II, III and IV. The results clearly indicated that exposure to MCP, acutely or chronically, caused a dose-dependent increase in the number of damaged nuclei of Types II, III and IV in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain of rats. When the DNA damage was studied 48 and 72 h post MCP treatment, a significant reduction in the number of types III and IV nuclei was observed in all the tissues indicating a time-dependent repair. From the present study, it can be concluded that oxidative stress may be involved in the toxicity of MCP and MCP induces DNA damage in all the rat tissues exhibiting genotoxic potential in vivo.
    Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in egg surface morphology and morphometrics of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes of the Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jamnagar, and Bathinda strains were correlated with geographical distribution in different ecological regions of India. We report the geographic variation in Cx. quinquefasciatus based on 44 attributes of micropylar and conical-shaped regions of eggs, including micropylar apparatus (corolla, disc, and mound), micropylar tubercles, and the exochorionic tubercle, pores, and network in anterior, middle, and posterior regions. No remarkable differences were observed in the surface morphology of eggs of these strains except the absence of small tubercles in the anterior and middle region of the JMN strain. However, a statistical analysis indicated significant morphometric variations in 66% of the attributes of the eggs. The cluster analysis of all egg attributes showed that the JD, BKN, and BTH strains are closer to each other than the JMN strain. The positive correlation (r = 0.95) also indicated an effect of geographical distribution on morphometry of various egg attributes of these strains. The present study suggests that ecological variation may have affected the morphometric attributes of the egg of four strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus from different geographical areas.
    Journal of Vector Ecology 12/2009; 34(2):191-9. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nano fuller's earth was prepared by milling and subsequent sonication of clay. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA -Nano clay composite films were prepared by solution casting method. The films were characterized for their structural, mechanical, and thermal properties using electron microscopes (SEM, TEM), Tensile Tester, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. The nanocomposite films showed improvement in mechanical properties, viscoelastic behavior as well as resistance towards thermal degradation. Uniform distribution of clay due to intimate interaction between clay and polymer appears to be the cause for improved properties. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 10/2009; 115(5):3005 - 3012. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sensilla and sensory mechanism play a significant role in hostseeking and oviposition behaviour of mosquitoes, which enable them to transmit various diseases to humans. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) has emerged as a major vector of Chikungunya virus in the recent epidemics in most parts of southern India. Studies on the sensory structures of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn) are comprehensive; whereas information on the sensillary systems of Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus is inadequate. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to observe various types of sensilla located on the antenna, maxillary palp, labial palp, tarsi and ovipositor of Ae. albopictus using scanning electron microscopy. The antennae, maxillary palpi, labellum, tarsi and ovipositor of 10 different female mosquito of Ae. albopictus were fixed individually in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution, washed twice and dehydrated with ascending grades of ethanol. Samples were cleared with xylene, air-dried, mounted on stubs, gold coated in an ion-sputtering unit and the sensilla were viewed between 5 and 10 KV using FEI-Quanta 400-EDAX scanning electron microscope. ANOVA revealed significant differences in the morphometric features of various sensilla. In the antenna Sensilla trichoidea are numerously distributed in all flagellar segments revealed four distinct subtypes. Two types of grooved peg sensilla were observed. Sensilla coeloconica was observed in the terminal flagellum of antenna and tarsomeres with large variation in diameter. Sensilla chaetica are distributed throughout the body and revealed greater variation in morphology and morphometric parameters. The significant difference among various types of sensilla would possibly reveal their functions. The porous sensilla are olfactory and contact chemoreceptors while the aporous sensilla would play the role of mechanoreception. Sensilla coeloconica on the antenna, tarsus showed major differences with Ae. aegypti. The ovipositor sensilla revealed three types of chaetica arranged in rows but has not been reported earlier with other mosquito species.
    Journal of vector borne diseases 06/2009; 46(2):125-35. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.
    Toxicology mechanisms and methods 02/2009; 19(2):169-82. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 is an important vector of Japanese encephalitis and Bancroftian filariasis, respectively in India and South East Asian countries. In this paper, we are describing the surface morphology and morphometrics of the egg of C. tritaeniorhynchus in comparison with C. quinquefasciatus for the first time. The results indicated that eggs of both the species appears to be similar to great extent in surface morphology, however, morphometrics provide 56.81% demarking attributes out of 44 attributes at various significant levels (p < 0.05-0.001), i.e., egg length, width and ratio of length/width, attributes of micropylar apparatus including corolla, disc, mound, tubercles size, and length of tubercular rows in micropylar region, size and density of tubercles, exochorionic pore in conical-shaped regions of eggs, and size of tubercular wheel units. Structurally, the additional presence of large tubercles strengthens the micropylar region to bear various collapsing forces in these species.
    Parasitology Research 09/2008; 104(1):173-6. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the protective value of quercetin, gossypin, Hippophae rhamnoides (HR) flavone and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity of percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM) in mice. Quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered just before percutaneous administration of SM and protection against the SM lethality was evaluated. In another experiment quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate were administered against 2 LD(50) SM. The animals were sacrificed seven days post SM administration and various biochemical parameters were estimated. The protection against the lethality of SM was very good with the flavonoids (quercetin = 4.7 folds; gossypin = 6.7 folds and HR flavone = 5.6 folds), compared to no protection with tocopherol acetate (0.7 fold). SM (2 LD(50)) showed decrease in reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels, and an increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA). Oxidative stress enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. The total antioxidant status was also significantly decreased. Additionally, there was a significant increase in red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin content. All the flavonoids significantly protected the GSH, GSSG and MDA, and also the hematological variables. Tocopherol acetate failed to offer any protection in those parameters. Gossypin protected glutathione peroxidase, while HR flavone protected both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase significantly. The decrease in body weight induced by SM and the histological lesions in liver and spleen were also significantly protected by the flavonoids but not by tocopherol acetate. The present study supports that SM induces oxidative stress and flavonoids are promising cytoprotectants against this toxic effect.
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 40(3):114-20. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insects perceive the external world through visual, acoustic, chemical and tactile cues. Among various cues an insect deploys to sense the environment from where it initiate the life cycle, chemical cues plays a very critical role. These chemical sensors namely sensilla are located on various parts of the insect body were viewed through scanning electron microscope. Anopheles stephensi Liston antenna housed grooved peg, short trichoid sensilla. Capitate peg sensilla were found on the maxillary palp. In the labial palp small trichoid sensilla of type A, B & C of various sizes were observed. The lower flap of the ovipositor had two long chemo sensilla with smooth surface which could be playing role in the contact chemoreception of water surface to find the suitability of the oviposition substrate. Similar types of sensilla were observed in Aedes aegypti (L.), the vector of dengue and chikungunya. Coeloconic sensillum of 1-7 m dia, were observed in the terminal flagellum of the antenna, at the joints of tarsal segment giving evidence for short range olfaction in this species. In the maxillary palp capitate peg sensilla of 14 m length with typical spoon shape was also observed. In labial palp (3-37 m ) and ovipositor (14-55 m ) chemo sensilla with smooth surface have been observed. The present investigation will give deep insight into the sensilla responsible for olfaction and contact chemoreception and further to understand the chemosensory mechanisms of mosquito vectors
    Recent Trends in Biodiversity and BiotechnologyRecent Trends in Biodiversity and Biotechnology; 01/2007