[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spoligotyping and exact tandem repeat (ETR) analysis of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae isolated strains has been routinely carried out in Italy since 2000 to obtain a database of genetic profiles and support traditional epidemiological investigations. In this study, we characterized 1,503 M. bovis and 57 M. caprae isolates obtained from 2000 to 2006 in 747 cattle herds mainly located in northern Italy. We identified 81 spoligotypes and 113 ETR profiles, while the combination of spoligotyping/ETR analysis differentiated 228 genotypes, with genotypic diversity indices of 0.70 (spoligotyping), 0.94 (ETR-A to -E typing), and 0.97 (spoligotyping/ETR-A to -E typing), respectively. Despite the high degree of resolution obtained, the spoligotyping/ETR methods were not discriminative enough in the case of genotypes characterized by the combination of SB0120, the predominant spoligotype in Italy, with the most common ETR profiles. To obtain a more informative subset of typing loci, 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) markers were evaluated by analyzing a panel of 100 epidemiologically unrelated SB0120 isolates. The panel was differentiated into 89 profiles with an overall genotypic diversity of 0.987 that could be also achieved by using a minimal group of 13 loci: ETR-A, -B, and -E; MIRU 26 and 40; and VNTR 2163a, 2163b, 3155, 1612, 4052, 1895, 3232, and 3336. The allelic diversity index and the stability of single loci was evaluated to provide the most discriminative genotyping method for locally prevalent strains.
Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2009; 47(3):636-44. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important infectious diseases in subjects with HIV infection. Although effective therapy is available for both conditions, there are major problems in the concurrent treatment of HIV and TB co-infection. In this article the knowledge available on drug-drug interactions between anti-HIV and anti-TB compounds is analysed, particularly with regard to pharmacological interactions secondary to interference with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Within the same setting, facts and possible interpretations of the problems encountered in terms of tolerance and safety of the concurrent treatment of TB and HIV are also reviewed. Current guidelines, as well as additional possible strategies to be adopted in this particular co-morbidity setting are discussed.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 10/2005; 4(5):821-36. · 2.62 Impact Factor