[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study presents the chemical composition of dry deposition by using dry deposition plate and water surfaces sampler during daytime and nighttime sampling periods at a near highway traffic sampling site. In addition, the characterization for mass and water soluble species of total suspended particulate (TSP), PM2.5 and PM10 were also studied at this sampling site during August 22 to October 31 of 2006 around central Taiwan. The samples collected were analyzed by using Ion Chromatography (DIONEX 100) for the ionic species analysis. Results of the particulate dry deposition fluxes are higher in the water surfaces sampler than that of the dry deposition plate. In other words, the results also indicated that water surface can absorb more ambient dry deposition inorganic pollutants than that of dry deposition plate in this study. The results obtained in this study indicated that the ionic species of Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) occupied about average 60-70% downward flux out of total ionic species for either dry deposition plate or water surfaces sampler during August to October of 2006 at this near highway traffic sampling site.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 02/2008; 146(1-3):441-51. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes the chemical composition of dry deposition collected at a highway traffic site in central Taiwan during daytime and nighttime periods by using a dry deposition plate (DDP) and water surface sampler (WSS). In addition, the characterization for mass and water-soluble species of total suspended particulate (TSP), both PM2.5 and PM10, was studied at the study site from August 22 to November 30, 2006. Dry deposition fluxes of ambient air particulates and inorganic species (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3− and SO42−) were analyzed by Ion Chromatography (DIONEX-100).Results of the particulate dry deposition fluxes and mass concentrations are higher in the water surface sampler with respect to the dry deposition plate used in this study. Statistical results also showed the average dry deposition flux of the ionic species (Na+, NH4+, K+, Cl−, NO3− and SO42−) obtained by the DDP and WSS displayed significant differences. Also, the average concentrations of Mg2+ and, Ca2+ were statistically the same at this study site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in dry deposition flux, total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particles (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5), coarse particles (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5–10 μm, PM2.5–10), and dry deposition velocity, at the Taichung Harbor sampling sites in central Taiwan during February to December of 2004. Also the average dry deposition velocities (for TSP) for metallic elements Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Mg were 2.6, 1.0, 1.9, 0.2, 1.7, 0.6 and 1.4 (cm s− 1), respectively, at the harbor sampling site. In addition, metallic element concentrations and compositions in fine and coarse particulate for air sampling were also analyzed in this study. The average total suspended particulate concentrations with metallic elements Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Mg were 116.3, 119.4, 148.8, 139.9, 46.1, 24.4 and 88.5 ng m− 3, respectively. The average ratios of coarse to fine for metallic elements Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Mg were about 1.9, 2.7, 3.8, 2.9, 1.6, 2.5 and 2.1, respectively. The results reflected that coarse particulate concentrations of metallic elements were the major species at the Taichung harbor sampling site. The results also identified dust, vehicle emissions and marine salt as the sources of fine particulates at Taichung Harbor near the Taiwan Strait. Most of the flux is due to particles larger than 2.5 μm in size due to their high deposition velocities. The result also indicates that the best approach to estimate overall dry deposition is by using either coarse particle or total particle concentrations.
Atmospheric Research 01/2006; · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The characterization for watersoluble species of dry deposition flux, total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5 microm, PM2.5), coarse particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), and dry deposition velocity were studied at Taichung Harbor sampling sites of central Taiwan during February-August 2004. The average downward dry deposition flux, TSP, PM10 concentrations obtained in Taichung Harbor were about 0.51, 0.3, and 3.4 times more than those values obtained by traffic sampling site in central Taiwan. Average dry deposition velocity for mass, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were 9, 3.8, 0.3, 0.25, 0.46, 0.18, 0.51 and 2.28 cm respectively at the harbor sampling site. In general, average particle mass dry deposition velocity was about 1.8 times more than those values obtained at the traffic sampling site. Chemical analysis, also indicated that three major soluble inorganic species concentrations (sulfate+nitrate+ammonium) accounted for 59.8% and 80.6% of the PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) mass concentrations, respectively at the Taichung Harbor sampling site.
Toxicology and Industrial Health 10/2005; 21(7-8):177-87. · 1.56 Impact Factor