[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fixed dose combination abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (ABC/3TC/ZDV) among HIV-1 and tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected patients was evaluated and outcomes between early vs. delayed initiation were compared. In a randomized, pilot study conducted in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, HIV-infected inpatients with smear-positive TB and total lymphocyte count <1200/mm(3) were randomized to initiate ABC/3TC/ZDV either 2 (early) or 8 (delayed) weeks after commencing antituberculosis therapy and were followed for 104 weeks. Of 94 patients screened, 70 enrolled (41% female, median CD4 count 103 cells/mm(3)), and 33 in each group completed 104 weeks. Two deaths and 12 serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed in the early arm vs. one death, one clinical failure, and seven SAEs in the delayed arm (p = 0.6012 for time to first grade 3/4 event, SAE, or death). CD4 cell increases were +331 and +328 cells/mm(3), respectively. TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (TB-IRIS) were not observed in any subject. Using intent-to-treat (ITT), missing = failure analyses, 74% (26/35) vs. 89% (31/35) randomized to early vs. delayed therapy had HIV RNA levels <400 copies/ml at 104 weeks (p = 0.2182) and 66% (23/35) vs. 74% (26/35), respectively, had HIV RNA levels <50 copies/ml (p = 0.6026). In an analysis in which switches from ABC/3TC/ZDV = failure, those receiving early therapy were less likely to be suppressed to <400 copies/ml [60% (21/35) vs. 86% (30/35), p = 0.030]. TB-IRIS was not observed among the 70 coinfected subjects beginning antiretroviral treatment. ABC/3TC/ZDV was well tolerated and resulted in steady immunologic improvement. Rates of virologic suppression were similar between early and delayed treatment strategies with triple nucleoside regimens when substitutions were allowed.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 12/2009; 25(12):1277-85. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data exist on the relative importance of individual Cryptosporidium species in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cryptosporidiosis. We characterized 127 inpatients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Tanzania for their CD4 cell count and by stool analysis, including Cryptosporidium immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Cryptosporidium was detected in patients both with and without diarrheal symptoms (defined as > or = 3 liquid stools/day, 11 of 61 versus 11 of 66; P = not significant) and was a marker for low CD4 cell count (median = 124/microL versus 212/microL in Cryptosporidium-negative patients; P < 0.04). Cryptosporidium hominis was the predominant species in this region and was associated with a longer duration of symptoms, a higher rate of asymptomatic infection, and a lower CD4 cell count versus C. parvum-infected patients (P < 0.05). This study suggests there may be important differences in the natural history of Cryptosporidium infection in HIV-infected persons depending on parasite species.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2005; 73(3):520-2. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hospitalized patients with HIV infection are among the most likely to benefit from the expanding availability of anti-retroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Between 1990 and 2000, 3667 people known to be HIV-infected were admitted to Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, northen Tanzania. The level of inpatient mortality among these patients varied from 15%-21%, and the proportion of the HIV-infected patients admitted who were female increased significantly, from 45% at the start of the study period to 52% at the end (P <0.001). When the medical records for 1683 of the HIV-infected patients who had been admitted between 1996 and 2001 were reviewed, the most prevalent diagnoses on admission were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis (21%), malaria (14%) and gastro-enteritis/diarrhoea (12%) among the adults, and non-tubercular pulmonary infection (21%), pulmonary tuberculosis (19%) and gastro-enteritis/diarrhoea (12%) among the children. The crude odds ratios (OR) for inpatient death were greatest for adults presenting with meningitis [OR=3.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-6.7], septicaemia (OR=2.9; CI=1.2-7.3) or renal disease (OR=2.6; CI=1.2-5.7), and mortality was higher for men than for women (OR=1.4; CI=1.1-1.8). A single-day, point-prevalence survey in September 2001, among the KCMC's inpatients, identified HIV infection in 21% of those surveyed, many (44%) of the patients found positive being previously unaware of their infection. HIV infection remains a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in Moshi. A policy of routine testing would increase the number of HIV infections detected, allowing improvements in case management and in the prevention of infection.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 04/2004; 98(2):171-9. · 1.31 Impact Factor