ABSTRACT: Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a clinically useful motion-sparing procedure for the treatment of certain degenerative conditions of the wrist. Clinical outcome studies after PRC have shown that wrist flexion-extension averages approximately 60% of that of the contralateral wrist. The purpose of this study was to determine how the kinematics of the wrist are altered after PRC.
Eight fresh-frozen cadaver forearms were scanned with computed tomography before and after PRC. Forearms were scanned in 5 different wrist positions (neutral, extension, flexion, radial deviations, and ulnar deviation). Wrists were positioned dynamically and then held statically in a custom fixture through forces applied to the 4 wrist flexor/extensor tendon groups. Three-dimensional computer models of the radius, lunate, and capitate were generated from the computed tomographic images, and the kinematics of the capitate and lunate were calculated relative to the neutral position. For the intact wrist, the motion of the capitate was calculated relative to both the lunate (midcarpal motion) and the radius (overall wrist motion) and the motion of the lunate was calculated relative to the radius (radiocarpal motion). After PRC, only the movement of the capitate relative to the radius was calculated, which represents radiocapitate and overall wrist motion. All motions were plotted in 3 dimensions for purposes of qualitative visualization.
After PRC, the capitate articulated with the lunate fossa of the radius for all positions in all samples. Overall wrist motion decreased 28%, 30%, 40%, and 12% in flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation, respectively. Motion at the radiocarpal joint after PRC, however, was greater compared with motion at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints of the intact wrist during flexion and extension. This was not the case in radial deviation because of impingement of the trapezoid on the radial styloid. In radial and ulnar deviation, motion of the capitate head changed from predominantly rotational in the intact wrist (midcarpal joint) to a combination of rotation and translation after PRC (radiocarpal joint).
Removal of the proximal carpal row decreased normal wrist flexion and extension. Although ulnar deviation was preserved, radial deviation was limited by impingement of the trapezoid on the radial styloid. Radiocapitate range of motion after PRC was greater than capitolunate range of motion in the intact wrists. Compared with previously published requirements, wrist range of motion observed after PRC was sufficient for activities of daily living.
The Journal Of Hand Surgery 02/2007; 32(1):37-46. · 1.35 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To apply carpal kinematic analysis using noninvasive medical imaging to investigate the midcarpal and radiocarpal contributions to wrist flexion and extension in a quasidynamic in vitro model.
Eight fresh-frozen cadaver wrists were scanned with computed tomography in neutral, full flexion, and full extension. Body-mass-based local coordinate systems were used to track motion of the capitate, lunate, and scaphoid with the radius as a fixed reference. Helical axis motion parameters and Euler angles were calculated for flexion and extension.
Minimal out-of-plane carpal motion was noted with the exception of small amounts of ulnar deviation and supination in flexion. Overall wrist flexion was 68 degrees +/- 12 degrees and extension was 50 degrees +/- 12 degrees. In flexion, 75% of wrist motion occurred at the radioscaphoid joint, and 50% occurred at the radiolunate joint. In extension, 92% of wrist motion occurred at the radioscaphoid joint, and 52% occurred at the radiolunate joint. Midcarpal flexion/extension between the capitate and scaphoid was 0 degrees +/- 5 degrees in extension and 10 degrees +/- 13 degrees in flexion. Midcarpal flexion/extension between the capitate and lunate was larger, with 15 degrees +/- 11 degrees in extension and 22 degrees +/- 19 degrees in flexion.
The capitate and scaphoid tend to move together. This results in greater flexion/extension for the scaphoid than the lunate at the radiocarpal joint. The lunate has greater midcarpal motion between it and the capitate than the scaphoid does with the capitate. The engagement between the scaphoid and capitate is particularly evident during wrist extension. Out-of-plane motion was primarily ulnar deviation at the radiocarpal joint during flexion. These results are clinically useful in understanding the consequences of isolated fusions in the treatment of wrist instability.
The Journal Of Hand Surgery 10/2006; 31(7):1142-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Carpal kinematics have been studied widely yet remain difficult to understand fully. The noninvasive measurement of carpal kinematics through medical imaging has become popular. Studies have shown that with radial deviation the scaphoid and lunate flex whereas the capitate moves radiodorsally relative to the lunate. This study investigated the midcarpal and radiocarpal contributions to radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist. This was accomplished through noninvasive characterization of the scaphoid, lunate, and capitate using 3-dimensional medical imaging of the wrist in radial and ulnar deviation.
Eight fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric wrists were used in an experimental set-up that positioned the wrist through spring-scale actuation of the 4 wrist flexor and extensor tendon groups. The wrists were scanned by computed tomography in neutral and full radial and ulnar deviation. Body mass-based local coordinate systems were used to track the motion of the capitate, lunate, and scaphoid with the radius as a fixed reference. Helical axis motion and Euler angles were calculated from neutral to radial and ulnar deviation for the capitate relative to the radius, lunate, and scaphoid and for the lunate and scaphoid relative to the radius.
The capitate, scaphoid, and lunate moved in a characteristic manner relative to the radius and to one another. Radial and ulnar deviation occurred primarily in the midcarpal joint. Midcarpal motion accounted for 60% of radial deviation and 86% of ulnar deviation. In radial deviation the proximal row flexed and the capitate extended; the converse was true in ulnar deviation.
Radioulnar deviation (in-plane motion) occurred mostly through the midcarpal joint, with a lesser contribution from the radiocarpal joint. The results of our study agree with previous investigations that found the scaphoid and lunate flex in radial deviation (out-of-plane motion) relative to the radius whereas the capitate extends (out-of-plane motion) relative to the scaphoid/lunate (with the converse occurring in ulnar deviation). Our study shows how these out-of-plane motions combine to produce in-plane wrist radioulnar deviation. The use of 3-dimensional visualization greatly aids in the understanding of these motions. The results of our study may be useful clinically in understanding the consequences of isolated midcarpal fusions in the treatment of wrist instability.
The Journal Of Hand Surgery 10/2005; 30(5):937-42. · 1.35 Impact Factor