ABSTRACT: Although biphasic defibrillation waveforms appear to be superior to monophasic waveforms in terminating VF, their relative benefits in out-of-hospital resuscitation are incompletely understood. Prior comparisons of defibrillation waveform efficacy in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are confined to patients presenting in a shockable rhythm and resuscitated by first responder (basic life support). This effectiveness study compared monophasic and biphasic defibrillation waveform for conversion of ventricular arrhythmias in all OHCA treated with advance life support (ALS).
This prospective randomized controlled trial compared the rectilinear biphasic (RLB) waveform with the monophasic damped sine (MDS) waveform, using step-up energy levels. The study enrolled OHCA patients requiring at least one shock delivered by ALS providers, regardless of initial presenting rhythm. Shock success was defined as conversion at 5s to organized rhythm after one to three escalating shocks. We report efficacy results for the cohort of patients treated by ALS paramedics who presented with an initially shockable rhythm who had not received a shock from a first responder (MDS: n=83; RLB: n=86). Shock success within the first three ascending energy shocks for RLB (120, 150, 200J) was superior to MDS (200, 300, 360J) for patients initially presenting in a shockable rhythm (52% versus 34%, p=0.01). First shock conversion was 23% and12%, for RLB and MDS, respectively (p=0.07). There were no significant differences in return of spontaneous circulation (47% versus 47%), survival to 24h (31% versus 27%), and survival to discharge (9% versus 7%). Mean 24h survival rates of bystander witnessed events showed differences between waveforms in the early circulatory phase at 4-10 min post event (mean (S.D.) RLB 0.45 (0.07) versus MDS 0.31 (0.06), p=0.0002) and demonstrated decline as time to first shock increased to 20 min.
Shock success to an organized rhythm comparing step-up protocol for energy settings demonstrated the RLB waveform was superior to MDS in ALS treatment of OHCA. Survival rates for both waveforms are consistent with current theories on the circulatory and metabolic phases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Resuscitation 09/2005; 66(2):149-57. · 3.60 Impact Factor