Jean-Marie Degroodt

Belgian Scientific Institute for Public Health, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (8)19.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide dietary intakes from selected foods are estimated in this work for Brazilian adolescents from São Paulo State. The exposure assessment was carried out by combining levels of acrylamide in foods determined analytically by an accredited LC–MS/MS method, with individual food consumption data, using a deterministic approach. Data on food consumption were generated using 24 h recall applied to 578 individuals aged from 11 to 17 years, between July and August 2001. The mean and maximum acrylamide intakes were estimated to be 0.12 and 1.92 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. At 50th, 95th and 97.5th percentiles, the average intakes were 0.04, 0.55 and 0.77 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. Boys presented exposure levels lower than girls, while the acrylamide intake by younger adolescents (11–14 years) was higher compared to the older group (15–17 years). The foods that contributed most to acrylamide exposure were French fries, French bread, water and salt biscuit and coffee.
    LWT - Food Science and Technology. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: A modified sample preparation for acrylamide determination in difficult matrices such as cocoa and coffee by a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method is presented in this work. For the sample pretreatment, different solvents, purification steps, and solid-phase extraction cartridges were evaluated. The analyses were carried out on a μ-Bondapak C18 column using acrylamide-D3 as internal standard. For identification and confirmation of acrylamide, relative retention time and two diagnostic ions were monitored. Good performance of the method was achieved by introducing a protein precipitation step with Carrez I and II solutions and a liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate in combination with solid-phase extraction during the sample clean-up. A limit of detection of 10μg/kg, a limit of quantitation of 20μg/kg, mean recoveries ranging from 93 to 99%, coefficients of variation of 3.4% for repeatability, and from 1.7 to 10.8% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during a laboratory validation procedure.
    Food Analytical Methods 02/2008; 1(1):49-55. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen produced during food preparation, including frying of potato products. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on tuber composition and its acrylamide generation potential.RESULTS: The chemical composition of potato varieties used respectively for French fry (Bintje and Ramos) and crisp (Lady Rosetta and Saturna) production was studied throughout a storage period of 9 months during two growing seasons (2003 and 2004), in addition to their acrylamide generation potential during preparation of French fries. A significant impact of variable climatological conditions on the reducing sugar, dry matter, total free amino acid and free asparagine contents of tubers was observed. Exceptionally warm summers gave rise to a lower reducing sugar content (expressed on a dry matter basis) and thus a lower susceptibility to acrylamide generation during frying.CONCLUSION: It cannot be excluded that potato growers and the potato-processing industry are confronted with some harvests that are more prone to acrylamide generation than others owing to climatological variability, thus confirming the importance of a multifactorial approach to mitigate acrylamide generation in potato products. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2008; 88(2):313 - 318. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitroimidazoles (Ronidazole, Dimetridazole, Metronidazole, Ipronidazole) and their hydroxy metabolites are banned substances with antibiotic and anticoccidial activity. They are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. Since nitroimidazoles showed an inhomogeneous distribution and a rapid degradation in incurred muscle samples, plasma is the preferred target matrix for residue analysis. The analytical method of Polzer et al. [J. Polzer, C. Stachel, P. Gowik, Anal. Chim. Acta 521 (2004) 189] was adapted for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection and was validated in house according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method is specific for all nitroimidazole except for Ipronidazole and its metabolite, due to interferences at their retention times in chromatograms of blank plasma and reagents samples. The absence of a matrix effect enables the use of a (linear) calibration curve in solution for quantitation. The apparent recovery (obtained after correction with a deuterated internal standard) is between 93% and 123%, except for the metabolite of Metronidazole (58-63%). The repeatability (CVr=2.49-13.39%) and intralaboratory reproducibility (CVRW=2.49-16.38%) satisfy the Horwitz equation. The obtained values for the detection capacity (CCbeta) range from 0.25 to 1 microg L(-1), while values obtained for the decision limit (CCalpha) are below CCbeta.
    Analytica chimica acta 04/2007; 586(1-2):383-93. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of parameters linked to the selection of potato tubers were evaluated with regard to their potential to influence acrylamide formation in French fries. The formation of acrylamide, which is a potential human carcinogen, can be minimized for a big extent by the selection of an appropriate tuber. This study focused on the following selection criteria: variety as influenced by storage time and soil type, underwater weight, and tuber size. A total of 16 varieties were compared, concerning their potential for acrylamide formation. From that survey, certain varieties, such as Tebina and Quincy, could be appointed as unsuitable for frying. The differences in the potential of acrylamide formation between the varieties could mainly be explained by the reducing sugar content of the potato (R2 = 0.82, n = 96). The investigated type of soil and storage time at 8 degrees C appeared to have a minor influence on the acrylamide formation during frying. On the other hand, the tuber size of the potato did contribute in a significant manner to the acrylamide formation. Smaller tubers were more susceptible to acrylamide formation and should be avoided in the frying process. The last selection parameter, the underwater weight, appeared to be of minor importance in the acrylamide formation. On the basis of these simple selection criteria, it is possible to make a first screening of potatoes to reduce the acrylamide formation during frying.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2006; 54(6):2199-205. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and fast analytical method for the determination of sudans I, II, III, and IV in chili- and curry-containing foodstuffs is described. These dyes are extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector. The chromatographic separation is carried out on a reverse phase C18 column with an isocratic mode using a mixture of acetonitrile and water. An "in-house" validation was achieved in chili- and curry-based sauces and powdered spices. Depending on the dye, limits of detection range from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg in sauces and from 1.5 to 2 mg/kg in spices. Limits of quantification are between 0.4 and 1 mg/kg in sauces and between 3 and 4 mg/kg in spices. Validation data show a good repeatability and within-lab reproducibility with relative standard deviations < 15%. The overall recoveries are in the range of 51-86% in sauces and in the range of 89-100% in powdered spices depending on the dye involved. Calibration curves are linear in the 0-5 mg/kg range for sauces and in the 0-20 mg/kg range for spices. The proposed method is specific and selective, allowing the analysis of over 20 samples per working day.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2006; 54(3):639-44. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The quality of the potato has been found to vary, when grown under different agricultural and environmental conditions, such as the level of fertilization. Consequently these factors may influence the acrylamide formation during the preparation of French fries. These assumptions were studied on three varieties: Bintje, Ramos, and Saturna from the harvest of 2003. Decreasing N fertilization caused increases in the reducing sugar concentration from 60% up to 100% on DM for all varieties studied. Due to a high correlation between the reducing sugar content and the generation of acrylamide during frying, this resulted in a parallel increase in the acrylamide concentration of the French fries. Thus by lowering the amount of N fertilizer, an increase of 30-65% of the acrylamide generation during frying could be observed. It seems of extreme importance to find an appropriate balance between the level of N fertilizer in order to diminish acrylamide formation but on the other hand to obtain an acceptable tuber and to consider the environmental impact. All results reported should be seen in the perspective of the warm growing season of 2003.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2006; 54(2):404-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of parameters linked to storage of potatoes were evaluated with regard to their potential to influence the acrylamide formation in French fries. Acrylamide, which is a potential human carcinogen, is reported to be formed during the frying of potatoes as a result of the reactions between asparagine and reducing sugars. This study was conducted using three potato varieties (Bintje, Ramos, and Saturna) typically used in Belgium, The Netherlands, and the northern part of France for French fry and crisp production. Saturna, mainly used in crisp production, appeared to be the least susceptible for acrylamide formation during frying. Especially storage at low temperatures (4 degrees C) compared to storage at 8 degrees C seemed to enhance acrylamide formation due to a strong increase in reducing sugars caused by low-temperature storage. Because of the reversible nature of this physiological reaction, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction of the reducing sugars after a reconditioning of the cold-stored potatoes for 3 weeks at 15 degrees C. All changes in acrylamide concentrations could mainly be explained by the reducing sugar content of the potato (R2 = 0.84, n = 160). This means that, by ensuring a low reducing sugar content of the potato tuber, the risk for acrylamide formation will largely be reduced. Finally the use of a sprout inhibitor did not influence the composition of the potato, and thus acrylamide formation was not susceptible to this treatment.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2005; 53(16):6550-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor