Publications (3)2.82 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds in fresh tea shoots grown in Australia were studied using an HPLC method. Three principal tea flavanols [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin (EGC)] and four grouped phenolics [total catechins (Cs), total catechin gallates (CGs), total flavanols (Fla), and total polyphenols (PPs)] in fresh tea shoots were analyzed and compared during the commercial harvest seasons from April 2000 to May 2001. The levels of EGCG, ECG, and CGs in the fresh tea shoots were higher in the warm months of April 2000 (120.52, 34.50, and 163.75 mg/g, respectively) and May 2000 (128.63, 44.26, and 183.83 mg/g, respectively) and lower during the cool months of July 2000 (91.39, 35.16, and 132.30 mg/g, respectively), August 2000 (91.31, 31.56, and 128.64 mg/g, respectively), and September 2000 (96.12, 33.51, and 136.90 mg/g, respectively). Thereafter, the levels increased throughout the warmer months from October to December 2000 and remained high until May 2001. In the warmer months, the levels of EGCG, ECG, and CGs were in most cases significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the samples harvested in the cooler months. In contrast, the levels of EGC and Cs were high and consistent in the cooler months and low in the warmer months. The seasonal variations of the individual and grouped catechins were significant (P < 0.05) between the cooler and warmer months. This study revealed that EGCG and ECG could be used as quality descriptors for monitoring the seasonal variations of phenolics in Australia-grown tea leaves, and the ratio (EGCG + ECG)/EGC has been suggested as a quality index for measuring the differences in flavanol levels in fresh tea shoots across the growing seasons. Mechanisms that induce seasonal variations in tea shoots may include one or all three of the following environmental conditions: day length, sunlight, and/or temperature, which vary markedly across seasons. Therefore, further studies under controlled conditions such as in a greenhouse may be required to direct correlate flavonoid profiles of green tea leaves with their yields and also to with conditions such as rainfall and humidity.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2005; 53(16):6477-83. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Caffeine, total amino acids, water extract and moisture content are considered to be quality indicators for leaf teas and teabags. These analyses were examined in 20 leaf teas and 36 teabags sampled from Australian supermarkets. About 70% of the analysed samples showed a moisture content higher than Vie maximum accepted level, 6.5%, for tea storage and marketing by the tea industries and traders. Water appropriate extract of 15 samples out of 36 teabags was lower than that of the teas without teabags, which indicates that the quality of the paper used for teabags needs to be evaluated. Moreover, one of the black leaf tea samples was found to have a water extract below the lower limit of international standards. Four green and black teas of the same brand, claimed to contain less than 3% caffeine, were found to have 3-4%, the same as the other samples analysed in this study. The mean total contents of amino acids were 2.50% and 1.76% in black leaf teas and the teabags, respectively, whereas they were 3.44% and 2.28% in green leaf teas and the teabags, respectively. Furthermore, the weights of 28 teabags out of 36 samples were found to lie outside of the proposed +/- 2% variation accepted by the tea industries and traders, and 4 samples showed even larger variation, 10% being out of the proposed weights. This investigation also showed that the solubility of caffeine and water extract was affected by the permeability of teabags, whereas total amino acids were very variable. These results suggest that an efficient and practical quality control system for both imported and Australian-made teas in the Australian supermarkets should be developed, implemented and enforced. Chemical analysis should be a part of the system for establishing an objective assessment for the quality control. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article: HPLC analyses of flavanols and phenolic acids in the fresh young shoots of tea (Camellia sinensis) grown in Australia[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As part of a 4-year project to study phenolic compounds in tea shoots over the growing seasons and during black tea processing in Australia, an HPLC method was developed and optimised for the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, mainly flavanols and phenolic acids, in fresh tea shoots. Methanol proved to be the most suitable solvent for extracting the phenolic compounds, compared with chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. Immediate analysis, by HPLC, of the methanol extract showed higher separation efficiency than analyses after being dried and redissolved. This method exhibited good repeatability (CV 3–9%) and recovery rate (88–116%). Epigallocatechin gallate alone constituted up to 115 mg/g, on a dry basis, in the single sample of Australian fresh tea shoots examined. Four catechins (catechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin) and six catechin gallates (epigallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, epicatechin digallate and epigallocatechin digallate) have been identified and quantified by this HPLC method. In addition, two major tea alkaloids, caffeine and theobromine, have been quantified, while five flavonol glycosides and six phenolic acids, including quinic acids and esters, were identified and quantified.Food Chemistry.