Frederic A. Rasio

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States

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Publications (228)974.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and of massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters (GC) may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes (BH), the remnants of massive stars with initial masses in the range 20 to 100 MSun. Birth kicks from supernova explosions may eject some of these BHs from their birth clusters, but many if not most should be retained. Using a Monte Carlo method we investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of GCs containing large numbers of BHs. Our parallel Monte Carlo code allows us to construct many models of clusters containing up to 1.6x10^6 stars initially. Here we describe numerical results for 42 models, covering a broad range of realistic initial conditions. In almost all cases we find that significant numbers of BHs (up to 10^3) are retained in the cluster all the way to the present. This is in contrast to previous theoretical expectations that most BHs in clusters should be ejected dynamically on a timescale of a few Gyr. The main reason for this difference is that core collapse driven by BHs (through the Spitzer "mass segregation instability") is easily reverted through three-body processes that form binaries, and involves only a small number of the most massive BHs, while lower-mass BHs remain well mixed with ordinary stars far away from the central cusp. Thus the rapid mass segregation of BHs in a cluster can drive gravothermal oscillations involving the most massive BHs, but it does not lead to a long-term physical separation of most BHs into a dynamically decoupled inner core. Combined with the recent detections of several BH X-ray binary candidates in Galactic GCs, our results suggest that BHs could still be present in large numbers in many GCs today, and that they may play a significant role in shaping the long-term evolution and the present-day dynamical structure of GCs.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Through tidal dissipation in a slowly spinning host star the orbits of many hot Jupiters may decay down to the Roche limit. We expect that in most cases the ensuing mass transfer will be stable. Using detailed numerical calculations we find that this evolution is quite rapid, potentially leading to complete removal of the gaseous envelope in a few Gyr, and leaving behind an exposed rocky core ("hot super-Earth"). Final orbital periods are quite sensitive to the details of the planet's mass-radius relation, and to the effects of irradiation and photo-evaporation, but could be as short as a few hours, or as long as several days. Our scenario predicts the existence of planets with intermediate masses ("hot Neptunes") that should be found precisely at their Roche limit and in the process of losing mass through Roche lobe overflow. The observed excess of small single-planet candidate systems observed by Kepler may also be the result of this process. If so, the properties of their host stars should track those of the hot Jupiters. Moreover, the number of systems that produced hot Jupiters could be 2-3 times larger than one would infer from contemporary observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2014; 793(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kepler-56 is a multi-planet system containing two coplanar inner planets that are in orbits misaligned with respect to the spin axis of the host star, and an outer planet. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the broad distribution of spin-orbit angles among exoplanets, and these theories fall under two broad categories. The first is based on dynamical interactions in a multi-body system, while the other assumes that disk migration is the driving mechanism in planetary configuration and that the star (or disk) is titled with respect to the planetary plane. Here we show that the large observed obliquity of Kepler-56 system is consistent with a dynamical origin. In addition, we use observations by Huber et al. (2013) to derive the obliquity's probability distribution function, thus improving the constrained lower limit. The outer planet may be the cause of the inner planets' large obliquities, and we give the probability distribution function of its inclination, which depends on the initial orbital configuration of the planetary system. We show that even in the presence of precise measurement of the true obliquity, one cannot distinguish the initial configurations. Finally we consider the fate of the system as the star continues to evolve beyond the main sequence, and we find that the obliquity of the system will not undergo major variations as the star climbs the red giant branch. We follow the evolution of the system and find that the innermost planet will be engulfed in ~129 Myr. Furthermore we put an upper limit of ~155 Myr for the engulfment of the second planet. This corresponds to ~ 3% of the current age of the star.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 794(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Francesca Valsecchi, Frederic A. Rasio
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    ABSTRACT: Hot Jupiters formed through circularization of high-eccentricity orbits should be found at orbital separations $a$ exceeding $twice$ that of their Roche limit $a_{\rm R}$. Nevertheless, about a dozen giant planets have now been found well within this limit ($a_{\rm R}< a< 2 a_{\rm R}$), with one coming as close as 1.2$a_{\rm R}$. In this Letter, we show that orbital decay (starting beyond 2$a_{\rm R}$) driven by tidal dissipation in the star can naturally explain these objects. For a few systems (WASP-4 and 19), this explanation requires the linear reduction in convective tidal dissipation proposed originally by Zahn (1966) and verified by recent numerical simulations (Penev et al. 2007), but rules out the quadratic prescription proposed by Goldreich and Nicholson (1977). Additionally, we find that WASP-19-type systems could potentially provide empirical support to the Zahn's (1966) prescription through high precision transit timing measurements of their orbital decay rate.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2014; 787(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    Francesca Valsecchi, Frederic A. Rasio
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    ABSTRACT: Two formation scenarios have been proposed to explain the tight orbits of hot Jupiters. These giant planets could be formed in low-obliquity orbits via disk migration or in high-obliquity orbits via high-eccentricity migration, where gravitational interactions with a companion are at play, together with tidal dissipation. Here we target the observed misaligned hot Jupiter systems to investigate whether their current properties are consistent with high-eccentricity migration. Specifically, we study whether tidal dissipation in the star can be responsible for the observed distribution of misalignments and orbital separations. Improving on previous studies, we use detailed models for the stellar component, thus accounting for how convection (and thus tidal dissipation) depends on the host star properties. We find that the currently observed degree of misalignment increases as the amount of surface convection in the host star decreases. This trend supports the hypothesis that tides are the mechanism shaping the observed distribution of misalignments. Furthermore, we study the past orbital evolution of four representative systems. We consider various initial orbital configurations and integrate the equations describing the coupled evolution of the orbital separation, stellar spin, and misalignment. We account for tidal dissipation in the star, stellar wind mass loss, changes in the star's internal structure as a result of stellar evolution, and magnetic braking. We show that the current properties of these four representative systems can be explained naturally, given our current understanding of tidal dissipation and with physically motivated assumptions for the effects driving the orbital evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 786(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Frederic A. Rasio, M. Morscher
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    ABSTRACT: We study the formation and evolution of black holes in globular clusters using a Monte Carlo code for stellar dynamics. Our models include stellar evolution for both single and binary stars, as well as all relevant dynamical processes. We find that old globular clusters can retain large numbers (up to hundreds) of stellar black holes all the way to the present, in agreement with other recent theoretical analyses and observations. We explore the implications of these results for the formation of black hole X-ray binaries and merging double black hole binaries in clusters.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of exoplanets over the last two decades have revealed a new class of Jupiter-size planets with orbital periods of a few days, the so-called "hot Jupiters". Recent measurements using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect have shown that many (~ 50%) of these planets are misaligned; furthermore, some (~ 15%) are even retrograde with respect to the stellar spin axis. Motivated by these observations, we explore the possibility of forming retrograde orbits in hierarchical triple configurations consisting of a star-planet inner pair with another giant planet, or brown dwarf, in a much wider orbit. Recently Naoz et al. (2011) showed that in such a system, the inner planet's orbit can flip back and forth from prograde to retrograde, and can also reach extremely high eccentricities. Here we map a significant part of the parameter space of dynamical outcomes for these systems. We derive strong constraints on the orbital configurations for the outer perturber that could lead to the formation of hot Jupiters with misaligned or retrograde orbits. We focus only on the secular evolution, neglecting other dynamical effects such as mean-motion resonances, as well as all dissipative forces. For example, with an inner Jupiter-like planet initially on a nearly circular orbit at 5 AU, we show that a misaligned hot Jupiter is likely to be formed in the presence of a more massive planetary companion (> 2 MJ) within 140 AU of the inner system, with mutual inclination 50 degrees and eccentricity above 0.25. This is in striking contrast to the test-particle approximation, where an almost perpendicular configuration can still cause large eccentricity excitations, but flips of an inner Jupiter-like planet are much less likely to occur. The constraints we derive can be used to guide future observations, and, in particular, searches for more distant companions in systems containing a hot Jupiter.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    S. Goswami, P. Kiel, F. A. Rasio
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    ABSTRACT: We present theoretical models for stellar black hole (BH) properties in young, massive star clusters. Using a Monte Carlo code for stellar dynamics, we model realistic star clusters with $N\simeq 5\times10^5$ stars and significant binary fractions (up to 50%) with self-consistent treatments of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. We compute the formation rates and characteristic properties of single and binary BHs for various representative ages, cluster parameters, and metallicities. Because of dynamical interactions and supernova (SN) kicks, more single BHs end up retained in clusters compared to BHs in binaries. We also find that the ejection of BHs from a cluster is a strong function of initial density. In low-density clusters (where dynamical effects are negligible), it is mainly SN kicks that eject BHs from the cluster, whereas in high-density clusters (initial central density $\rho_c(0) \sim 10^5 \, M_\odot\, {\rm pc}^{-3} $ in our models) the BH ejection rate is enhanced significantly by dynamics. Dynamical interactions of binary systems in dense clusters also modify the orbital period and eccentricity distributions while also increasing the probability of a BH having a more massive companion.
    09/2013; 781(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters, and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will choose approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers, as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Gamma in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blue straggler stars (BSS) are abundantly observed in all Galactic globular clusters (GGC) where data exist. However, observations alone cannot reveal the relative importance of various formation channels or the typical formation times for this well studied population of anomalous stars. Using a state-of-the-art H\'enon-type Monte Carlo code that includes all relevant physical processes, we create 128 models with properties typical of the observed GGCs. These models include realistic numbers of single and binary stars, use observationally motivated initial conditions, and span large ranges in central density, concentration, binary fraction, and mass. Their properties can be directly compared with those of observed GGCs. We can easily identify the BSSs in our models and determine their formation channels and birth times. We find that for central densities above ~10^3 Msun/pc^3 the dominant formation channel is stellar collisions while for lower density clusters, mass transfer in binaries provides a significant contribution (up to ~ 60% in our models). The majority of these collisions are binary-mediated, occurring during 3-body and 4-body interactions. As a result a strong correlation between the specific frequency of BSSs and the binary fraction in a cluster can be seen in our models. We find that the number of BSSs in the core shows only a weak correlation with the collision rate estimator \Gamma traditionally used by observers, in agreement with the latest Hubble Space Telescope (ACS) data. Using an idealized "full mixing" prescription for collision products, our models indicate that the BSSs observed today may have formed several Gyrs ago. However, denser clusters tend to have younger (~1 Gyr) BSSs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we present CAFein, a new computational tool for investigating radiative dissipation of dynamic tides in close binaries and of non-adiabatic, non-radial stellar oscillations in isolated stars in the linear regime. For the latter, CAFein computes the non-adiabatic eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of detailed stellar models. The code is based on the so-called Riccati method, a numerical algorithm that has been successfully applied to a variety of stellar pulsators, and which doesn't suffer of the major drawbacks of commonly used shooting and relaxation schemes. Here we present an extension of the Riccati method to investigate dynamic tides in close binaries. We demonstrate CAFein's capabilities as a stellar pulsation code both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regime, by reproducing previously published eigenfrequencies of a polytrope, and by successfully identifying the unstable modes of a stellar model in the $\beta$ Cephei/SPB region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Finally, we verify CAFein's behavior in the dynamic tides regime by investigating the effects of dynamic tides on the eigenfunctions and orbital and spin evolution of massive Main Sequence stars in eccentric binaries, and of hot Jupiter host stars. The plethora of asteroseismic data provided by the NASA's Kepler satellite, some of which include the direct detection of tidally excited stellar oscillations, make CAFein quite timely. Furthermore, the increasing number of observed short-period detached double white dwarfs (WD) and the observed orbital decay in the tightest of such binaries open up a new possibility of investigating WD interiors through the effects of tides on their orbital evolution
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 773(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring the frequency and orbital properties of planets around stars in open clusters would provide insight into planet formation and the evolution of planetary systems. While several transiting-planet searches found no planets in open clusters, recently the radial velocity technique has identified planets in two small open clusters, Hyades and Praesepe. We consider how these and future transiting-planet searches with the Kepler mission can address whether planet formation in clusters differs from planet formation around field stars. We model NGC 6791, an open cluster in the Kepler field of view, including a population of planet-harboring stars, using a fast and accurate Hénon-type Monte Carlo code. We evaluate the prospects for Kepler to detect transiting planets around normal main-sequence stars in NGC 6791. We make predictions for the number of detectable planets, and the properties of such planets and their host stars, assuming that planets form in this cluster at the same rate as is observed in the field. We show that the most promising hunting grounds for transiting planets in this cluster are around main sequence stars at a distance of about 5' from the cluster center.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Interacting galaxies often have complexes of hundreds of young stellar clusters of individual masses ~ 10^{4-6} Msun in regions that are a few hundred parsecs across. These cluster complexes interact dynamically, and their coalescence is a candidate for the origin of some ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). Individual clusters with short relaxation times are candidates for the production of intermediate-mass black holes of a few hundred solar masses, via runaway stellar collisions prior to the first supernovae in a cluster. It is therefore possible that a cluster complex hosts multiple intermediate-mass black holes that may be ejected from their individual clusters due to mergers or binary processes, but bound to the complex as a whole. Here we explore the dynamical interaction between initially free-flying massive black holes and clusters in an evolving cluster complex. We find that, after hitting some clusters, it is plausible that the massive black hole will be captured in an ultracompact dwarf forming near the center of the complex. In the process, the hole typically triggers electromagnetic flares via stellar disruptions, and is also likely to be a prominent source of gravitational radiation for the advanced ground-based detectors LIGO and VIRGO. We also discuss other implications of this scenario, notably that the central black hole could be considerably larger than expected in other formation scenarios for ultracompact dwarfs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Globular clusters should be born with significant numbers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). It has been thought for two decades that very few of these BHs could be retained through the cluster lifetime. With masses ~10 MSun, BHs are ~20 times more massive than an average cluster star. They segregate into the cluster core, where they may eventually decouple from the remainder of the cluster. The small-N core then evaporates on a short timescale. This is the so-called Spitzer instability. Here we present the results of a full dynamical simulation of a globular cluster containing many stellar-mass BHs with a realistic mass spectrum. Our Monte Carlo simulation code includes detailed treatments of all relevant stellar evolution and dynamical processes. Our main finding is that old globular clusters could still contain many BHs at present. In our simulation, we find no evidence for the Spitzer instability. Instead, most of the BHs remain well-mixed with the rest of the cluster, with only the innermost few tens of BHs segregating significantly. Over the 12 Gyr evolution, fewer than half of the BHs are dynamically ejected through strong binary interactions in the cluster core. The presence of BHs leads to long-term heating of the cluster, ultimately producing a core radius on the high end of the distribution for Milky Way globular clusters (and those of other galaxies). A crude extrapolation from our model suggests that the BH--BH merger rate from globular clusters could be comparable to the rate in the field.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 11/2012; 763(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While hundreds of planets have been discovered around field stars, only a few are known in star clusters. To explain the lack of short-period giant planets in globular clusters (GC), such as 47 Tucane and \omega\ Centauri, it has been suggested that their low metallicities may have prevented planet formation. Alternatively, the high rates of close stellar encounters in these clusters may have influenced the formation and subsequent evolution of planetary systems. How common are planets in clusters around normal main-sequence stars? Here we consider whether this question can be addressed using data from the Kepler mission. The Kepler field of view contains 4 low-density (relative to GCs) open clusters where the metallicities are about solar (or even higher) and stellar encounters are much less frequent than in typical GCs. We provide detailed $N$-body models and show that most planets in Kepler-detectable orbits are not significantly perturbed by stellar encounters in these open clusters. We focus on the most massive cluster, NGC 6791, which has super-solar metallicity, and find that if planets formed in this cluster at the same frequency as observed in the field, Kepler could detect 1 -- 20 transiting planets depending on the planet-size distribution and the duration of data collection. Due to the large distance to NGC 6791 Kepler will have to search relatively faint ($K_p<20$) stars for the full extended mission to achieve such a yield.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 427(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dynamical evolution of globular clusters using our H\'enon-type Monte Carlo code for stellar dynamics including all relevant physics such as two-body relaxation, single and binary stellar evolution, Galactic tidal stripping, and strong interactions such as physical collisions and binary mediated scattering. We compute a large database of several hundred models starting from broad ranges of initial conditions guided by observations of young and massive star clusters. We show that these initial conditions very naturally lead to present day clusters with properties including the central density, core radius, half-light radius, half-mass relaxation time, and cluster mass, that match well with those of the old Galactic globular clusters. In particular, we can naturally reproduce the bimodal distribution in observed core radii separating the "core-collapsed" vs the "non core-collapsed" clusters. We see that the core-collapsed clusters are those that have reached or are about to reach the equilibrium "binary burning" phase. The non core-collapsed clusters are still undergoing gravo-thermal contraction.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 429(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Stefan Umbreit, Frederic A. Rasio
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    ABSTRACT: Decades after the first predictions of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters (GCs) there is still no unambiguous observational evidence for their existence. The most promising signatures for IMBHs are found in the cores of GCs, where the evidence now comes from the stellar velocity distribution, the surface density profile, and, for very deep observations, the mass-segregation profile near the cluster center. However, interpretation of the data, and, in particular, constraints on central IMBH masses, require the use of detailed cluster dynamical models. Here we present results from Monte Carlo cluster simulations of GCs that harbor IMBHs. As an example of application, we compare velocity dispersion, surface brightness and mass-segregation profiles with observations of the GC M10, and constrain the mass of a possible central IMBH in this cluster. We find that, although M10 does not seem to possess a cuspy surface density profile, the presence of an IMBH with a mass up to 0.75% of the total cluster mass, corresponding to about 600 Msun, cannot be excluded. This is also in agreement with the surface brightness profile, although we find it to be less constraining, as it is dominated by the light of giants, causing it to fluctuate significantly. We also find that the mass-segregation profile cannot be used to discriminate between models with and without IMBH. The reason is that M10 is not yet dynamically evolved enough for the quenching of mass segregation to take effect. Finally, detecting a velocity dispersion cusp in clusters with central densities as low as in M10 is extremely challenging, and has to rely on only 20-40 bright stars. It is only when stars with masses down to 0.3 Msun are included that the velocity cusp is sampled close enough to the IMBH for a significant increase above the core velocity dispersion to become detectable.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2012; 768(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computing the interactions between the stars within dense stellar clusters is a problem of fundamental importance in theoretical astrophysics. However, simulating realistic sized clusters of about 106 stars is computationally intensive and often takes a long time to complete. This paper presents the acceleration of a Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating stellar cluster evolution using programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). This acceleration allows to explore physical regimes which were out of reach of current simulations.
    07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new parallel code for computing the dynamical evolution of collisional N-body systems with up to N~10^7 particles. Our code is based on the the Henon Monte Carlo method for solving the Fokker-Planck equation, and makes assumptions of spherical symmetry and dynamical equilibrium. The principal algorithmic developments involve optimizing data structures, and the introduction of a parallel random number generation scheme, as well as a parallel sorting algorithm, required to find nearest neighbors for interactions and to compute the gravitational potential. The new algorithms we introduce along with our choice of decomposition scheme minimize communication costs and ensure optimal distribution of data and workload among the processing units. The implementation uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for communication, which makes it portable to many different supercomputing architectures. We validate the code by calculating the evolution of clusters with initial Plummer distribution functions up to core collapse with the number of stars, N, spanning three orders of magnitude, from 10^5 to 10^7. We find that our results are in good agreement with self-similar core-collapse solutions, and the core collapse times generally agree with expectations from the literature. Also, we observe good total energy conservation, within less than 0.04% throughout all simulations. We analyze the performance of the code, and demonstrate near-linear scaling of the runtime with the number of processors up to 64 processors for N=10^5, 128 for N=10^6 and 256 for N=10^7. The runtime reaches a saturation with the addition of more processors beyond these limits which is a characteristic of the parallel sorting algorithm. The resulting maximum speedups we achieve are approximately 60x, 100x, and 220x, respectively.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 06/2012; 204(2). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    Smadar Naoz, Will M. Farr, Frederic A. Rasio
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    ABSTRACT: We study the production of Hot Jupiters (HJs) in stellar binaries. We show that the "eccentric Kozai-Lidov" (EKL) mechanism can play a key role in the dynamical evolution of a star-planet-star triple system. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations including the secular evolution of the orbits, general relativistic precession, and tides, and we determine the semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination and spin-orbit angle distributions of the HJs that are produced. We explore the effect of different tidal friction parameters on the results. We find that the efficiency of forming HJs when taking the EKL mechanism into account is higher then previously estimated. Accounting for the frequency of stellar binaries, we find that this production mechanism can account for about 30% of the observed HJ population. Current observations of spin-orbit angles are consistent with this mechanism producing \sim 30% of all HJs, and up to 100% of the misaligned systems. Based on the properties of binaries without a HJ in our simulations, we predict the existence of many Jupiter-like planets with moderately eccentric and inclined orbits and semi-major axes of several AU.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 06/2012; 754(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
974.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Northwestern University
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Guelph
      Guelph, Ontario, Canada
  • 1995–2008
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Toronto
      • Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Warsaw
      • Astronomical Observatory
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1999
    • Vassar College
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Poughkeepsie, NY, United States
  • 1988–1992
    • Cornell University
      • Center for Radiophysics and Space Research (CRSR)
      Ithaca, New York, United States