[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PSII catalyzes the oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone in oxygenic photosynthesis. PSII contains an oxygen-evolving complex, which is located on the lumenal side of the PSII reaction center and which contains manganese, calcium, and chloride. Four sequential photooxidation reactions are required to generate oxygen. This process produces five Sn-states, where n refers to the number of oxidizing equivalents stored. Calcium is required for oxygen production. Strontium is the only divalent cation that replaces calcium and maintains activity. In our previous FT-IR work, we assessed the effect of strontium substitution on substrate-limited PSII preparations, which were inhibited at the S3 to S0 transition. In this work, we report reaction-induced FT-IR studies of hydrated PSII preparations, which undergo the full S-state cycle. The observed difference FT-IR spectra reflect long-lived photoinduced conformational changes in the oxygen-evolving complex; strontium exchange identifies vibrational bands sensitive to substitutions at the calcium site. During the S1' to S2' transition, the data are consistent with an electrostatic or structural perturbation of the calcium site. During the S3' to S0' and S0' to S1' transitions, the data are consistent with a perturbation of a hydrogen bonding network, which contains calcium, water, and peptide carbonyl groups. To explain our data, persistent shifts in divalent cation coordination must occur when strontium is substituted for calcium. A modified S-state model is proposed to explain these results and results in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic oxygen production by photosystem II (PSII) is responsible for the maintenance of aerobic life on earth. The production of oxygen occurs at the PSII oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which contains a tetranuclear manganese (Mn) cluster. Photo-induced electron transfer events in the reaction center lead to the accumulation of oxidizing equivalents on the OEC. Four sequential photooxidation reactions are required for oxygen production. The oxidizing complex cycles among five oxidation states, called the S(n) states, where n refers to the number of oxidizing equivalents stored. Oxygen release occurs during the S(3)-to-S(0) transition from an unstable intermediate, known as the S(4) state. In this report, we present data providing evidence for the production of an intermediate during each S state transition. These protein-derived intermediates are produced on the microsecond to millisecond time scale and are detected by time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy on the microsecond time scale. Our results suggest that a protein-derived conformational change or proton transfer reaction precedes Mn redox reactions during the S(2)-to-S(3) and S(3)-to-S(0) transitions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2006; 103(19):7288-91. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0600216103 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In oxygenic photosynthesis, PSII carries out the oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone. The product of water oxidation is molecular oxygen. The water splitting complex is located on the lumenal side of the PSII reaction center and contains manganese, calcium, and chloride. Four sequential photooxidation reactions are required to generate oxygen from water; the five sequentially oxidized forms of the water splitting complex are known as the Sn states, where n refers to the number of oxidizing equivalents stored. Calcium plays a role in water oxidation; removal of calcium is associated with an inhibition of the S state cycle. Although calcium can be replaced by other cations in vitro, only strontium maintains activity, and the steady-state rate of oxygen evolution is decreased in strontium-reconstituted PSII. In this article, we study the role of calcium in PSII that is limited in water content. We report that strontium substitution or 18OH2 exchange causes conformational changes in the calcium ligation shell. The conformational change is detected because of a perturbation to calcium ligation during the S1 to S2 and S2 to S3 transition under water-limited conditions.