[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress caused by contrast medium is thought to be one of the main mechanisms of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress caused by contrast agent administration and long-term renal function.
Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled. Urinary F2-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, was measured at baseline and 24h after angiography, and serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24h and 1 year after the procedure. The change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year after angiography correlated significantly with the change in eGFR at 24h after angiography (r=0.729, P<0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the increase in urinary F2-isoprostane at 24h and the decrease in eGFR at 1 year (r=0.439, P=0.022). In multivariate analysis, the decrease in eGFR at 1 year after coronary angiography correlated with the increase in F2-isoprostane at 24h after angiography as well as the decrease in eGFR at 24h after angiography (P=0.039 and P<0.001, respectively).
Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity might be transient; however, an early decrease in eGFR and increase in oxidative stress are associated with chronic renal insufficiency. Careful long-term follow-up and adequate medical intervention are necessary for these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with chronic heart failure, an inadequate increase in muscle blood flow resulting from impaired vasodilation plays a key role in their exercise intolerance. However, no non-invasive methods to assess muscle vasodilation during dynamic exercise were available. We investigated whether the changes in tissue hemoglobin and myoglobin content (total-Hb + Mb) determined by non-invasive measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflect vessel conductance of working muscle during exercise.
Sixteen patients (10 patients with normal cardiac systolic function, 6 with cardiac dysfunction) performed incremental bicycle exercise testing. Total-Hb + Mb from the right vastus lateralis muscle was monitored using NIRS. Leg blood flow (LBF) in the right femoral vein was measured using a thermodilution technique every 30-60 s. Leg vessel conductance was calculated as LBF/mean arterial pressure at each time of the measurement. In all cases except 1, the levels of total-Hb + Mb showed significant correlation with the leg vessel conductance (r=0.792 to 0.980). Intra-subject reproducibility of the NIRS measurement was also confirmed in 6 patients.
Total-Hb + Mb from NIRS reflected muscle vasodilation during sub-maximal dynamic exercise in patients with and without cardiac dysfunction, indicating that NIRS provides a valuable method to assess the working muscle vasodilation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is important to distinguish viable myocardium from necrotic tissue in order to decide upon therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease.
We verified the hypothesis that quantitative analysis of regional left ventricular function using low-dose dobutamine radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) can sensitively predict myocardial viability and compared its usefulness with thallium-201 (201Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (201Tl-SPECT).
Radionuclide ventriculography at rest and during low-dose dobutamine infusion (5 micrograms/kg/min), 201Tl-SPECT, and coronary angiography were performed in 51 subjects with severe ischemia-related stenosis of coronary arteries and 3 subjects without coronary artery disease. 201Tl uptake was assessed as normal (control), low perfusion (LP), or defect. We compared the response of regional function to dobutamine with the regional 201Tl uptake. The accuracy of both methods for identifying viable myocardium was investigated in 17 patients who underwent successful coronary revascularization, with a resulting improvement in wall motion.
The increase in regional ejection fraction (delta r-EF) in response to dobutamine was significantly greater in the control (12 +/- 6%) and LP (16 +/- 11%) regions than in the defect (5 +/- 10%) regions. The increase in one-third regional ejection fraction (delta r-1/3EF) was also significantly higher in the control (14 +/- 7%) and LP (10 +/- 8%) regions than in the defect regions (5 +/- 6%). We defined myocardial viability as a delta r-EF > 5% or a delta r-1/3EF > 2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the delta r-EF for identification of myocardial viability were 91.4 and 55.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the delta r-1/3EF were 91.4 and 66.6%, respectively; the corresponding values for 201Tl SPECT were 74.2 and 77.8%.
Low-dose dobutamine RNV with quantitative analysis of regional left ventricular function was more sensitive for identification of viable myocardium than 201Tl-SPECT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the changes in arterial potassium concentration during exercise and recovery in relation to exercise tolerance in patients with impaired exercise tolerance. Sixteen patients with cardiac disease were subjected to a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial potassium and lactate concentrations were measured every minute during and after exercise, and ventilatory threshold (VT) and lactate threshold (LT) were identified. Before exercise, arterial potassium concentration was 3.8 +/- 0.3 mEq/l. It increased to 4.1 +/- 0.3 mEq/l at LT (p < 0.002 versus at rest), to 4.2 +/- 0.3 mEq/l at VT, and to 4.8 +/- 0.5 mEq/l at peak exercise (p < 0.001 versus at LT, p < 0.001 versus at VT). At an exercise intensity equivalent to 30, 40, 50 or 60% of predicted maximum oxygen uptake, the increase in arterial potassium showed a negative and significant correlation with %LT (r = -0.62 approximately -0.72, p < 0.01 approximately 0.05) and %VT (r = -0.62 approximately -0.75, p < 0.001 approximately 0.05), where %LT and %VT represent the ratios of LT and VT to the predicted maximum oxygen uptake, respectively. There was a good correlation between the rate of fall in potassium concentration during recovery and its increase during exercise. It was concluded that in patients with impaired exercise tolerance, the greater the degree of exercise intolerance, the greater the increase in arterial potassium concentration during exercise, and the steeper the fall in potassium concentration during recovery. Because the rise in potassium concentration during exercise and its fall during recovery were greater when the exercise level exceeded the anaerobic threshold, exercise levels below the anaerobic threshold are recommended for patients with cardiac diseases.
Japanese Heart Journal 01/1995; 36(1):37-48. DOI:10.1536/ihj.36.37 · 0.40 Impact Factor