[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For centuries, cholera has been one of the most feared diseases. The causative agent Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne Gram-negative enteric pathogen eliciting a severe watery diarrheal disease. In October 2010, the seventh pandemic reached Haiti, a country that had not experienced cholera for more than a century. By using whole-genome sequence typing and mapping strategies of 116 serotype O1 strains from global sources, including 44 Haitian genomes, we present a detailed reconstructed evolutionary history of the seventh pandemic with a focus on the Haitian outbreak. We catalogued subtle genomic alterations at the nucleotide level in the genome core and architectural rearrangements from whole-genome map comparisons. Isolates closely related to the Haitian isolates caused several recent outbreaks in southern Asia. This study provides evidence for a single-source introduction of cholera from Nepal into Haiti followed by rapid, extensive, and continued clonal expansion. The phylogeographic patterns in both southern Asia and Haiti argue for the rapid dissemination of V. cholerae across the landscape necessitating real-time surveillance efforts to complement the whole-genome epidemiological analysis. As eradication efforts move forward, phylogeographic knowledge will be important for identifying persistent sources and monitoring success at regional levels. The results of molecular and epidemiological analyses of this outbreak suggest that an indigenous Haitian source of V. cholerae is unlikely and that an indigenous source has not contributed to the genomic evolution of this clade.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 20% of the world's population is at risk for infection by filarial nematodes and >180 million people worldwide are already infected. Along with infection comes significant morbidity that has a socioeconomic impact. The eight filarial nematodes that infect humans are Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca, and Mansonella ozzardi, of which three have published draft genome sequences. Since all have humans as the definitive host, standard avenues of research that rely on culturing and genetics have often not been possible. Therefore, genome sequencing provides an important window into understanding the biology of these parasites. The need for large amounts of high quality genomic DNA from homozygous, inbred lines; the availability of only short sequence reads from next-generation sequencing platforms at a reasonable expense; and the lack of random large insert libraries has limited our ability to generate high quality genome sequences for these parasites. However, the Pacific Biosciences single molecule, real-time sequencing platform holds great promise in reducing input amounts and generating sufficiently long sequences that bypass the need for large insert paired libraries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbes hold the key to life. They hold the secrets to our past (as the descendants of the earliest forms of life) and the prospects for our future (as we mine their genes for solutions to some of the planet’s most pressing problems, from global warming to antibiotic resistance). However, the piecemeal approach that has defined efforts to study microbial genetic diversity for over 20 years and in over 30,000 genome projects risks squandering that promise. These efforts have covered less than 20% of the diversity of the cultured archaeal and bacterial species, which represent just 15% of the overall known prokaryotic diversity. Here we call for the
funding of a systematic effort to produce a comprehensive genomic catalog of all cultured Bacteria and
Archaea by sequencing, where available, the type strain of each species with a validly published name (currently,11,000). This effort will provide an unprecedented level of coverage of our planet’s genetic diversity, allow for the large-scale discovery of novel genes and functions, and lead to an improved understanding of microbial evolution and function in the environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of the appendix is largely unknown, but its microbiota likely contributes to function. Alterations in microbiota may contribute to appendicitis, but conventional culture studies have not yielded conclusive information. We conducted a pilot, culture-independent 16S rRNA-based microbiota study of paired appendix and rectal samples.
We collected appendix and rectal swabs from 21 children undergoing appendectomy, six with normal appendices and fifteen with appendicitis (nine perforated). After DNA extraction, we amplified and sequenced 16S rRNA genes and analyzed sequences using CLoVR. We identified organisms differing in relative abundance using ANOVA (p<0.05) by location (appendix vs. rectum), disease (appendicitis vs. normal), and disease severity (perforated vs. non-perforated).
We identified 290 taxa in the study's samples. Three taxa were significantly increased in normal appendices vs. normal rectal samples: Fusibacter (p = 0.009), Selenomonas (p = 0.026), and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.049). Five taxa were increased in abundance in normal vs. diseased appendices: Paenibacillaceae (p = 0.005), Acidobacteriaceae GP4 (p = 0.019), Pseudonocardinae (p = 0.019), Bergeyella (p = 0.019) and Rhizobium (p = 0.045). Twelve taxa were increased in the appendices of appendicitis patients vs. normal appendix: Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.0003), Bilophila (p = 0.0004), Bulleidia (p = 0.012), Fusobacterium (p = 0.018), Parvimonas (p = 0.003), Mogibacterium (p = 0.012), Aminobacterium (p = 0.019), Proteus (p = 0.028), Actinomycineae (p = 0.028), Anaerovorax (p = 0.041), Anaerofilum (p = 0.045), Porphyromonas (p = 0.010). Five taxa were increased in appendices in patients with perforated vs. nonperforated appendicitis: Bulleidia (p = 0.004), Fusibacter (p = 0.005), Prevotella (p = 0.021), Porphyromonas (p = 0.030), Dialister (p = 0.035). Three taxa were increased in rectum samples of patients with appendicitis compared to the normal patients: Bulleidia (p = 0.034), Dialister (p = 0.003), and Porphyromonas (p = 0.026).
Specific taxa are more abundant in normal appendices compared to the rectum, suggesting that a distinctive appendix microbiota exists. Taxa with altered abundance in diseased and severely diseased (perforated) samples may contribute to appendicitis pathogenesis, and may provide microbial signatures in the rectum useful for guiding both treatment and diagnosis of appendicitis.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95414. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 39 rhinovirus B isolates (RV-B), representing 13 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies at the University of Wisconsin that attempt to link rhinovirus (RV) diversity and respiratory disease in infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (RV) isolates from the RV-C species are recently discovered infectious agents that are closely linked to asthma and wheezing etiologies in infants. Clinical study samples collected at the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe 41 nearly complete genome sequences representing 21 RV-C genotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Full-length or nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 98 rhinovirus (RV) A isolates (from the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family), representing 43 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies to define RV genetic diversity and its potential link to respiratory disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First identified in 1982 as a human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli of the O157:H7 serotype is a major cause of food-borne acquired human infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of the first known strain of this serotype isolated in the United States.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the draft genome sequence of Mortierella alpina isolate CDC-B6842. M. alpina is a nonpathogenic member of the Mucoromycotina subphylum of fungi that is an important model for understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipid production and metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important human pathogen, and yet diagnosis remains challenging. Little research has focused on the impact of M. tuberculosis on the gut microbiota, despite the significant immunological and homeostatic functions of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the effect of M. tuberculosis infection on the gut microbiota, we followed mice from M. tuberculosis aerosol infection until death, using 16S rRNA sequencing. We saw a rapid change in the gut microbiota in response to infection, with all mice showing a loss and then recovery of microbial community diversity, and found that pre-infection samples clustered separately from post-infection samples, using ecological beta-diversity measures. The effect on the fecal microbiota was observed as rapidly as six days following lung infection. Analysis of additional mice infected by a different M. tuberculosis strain corroborated these results, together demonstrating that the mouse gut microbiota significantly changes with M. tuberculosis infection.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97048. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development and marketing of new probiotic products, substances containing live microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the human body, have dramatically increased over the last few years. This article examines how the Food and Drug Administration and Federal Trade Commission currently regulate probiotics and makes recommendations as to changes that might be made to ensure that probiotic products are made available to the general public in a way that is both safe and effective.
Food and drug law journal. 01/2014; 69(2):237-72, ii.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High throughput sequencing has accelerated the determination of genome sequences for thousands of human infectious disease pathogens and dozens of their vectors. The scale and scope of these data are enabling genotype-phenotype association studies to identify genetic determinants of pathogen virulence and drug/insecticide resistance, and phylogenetic studies to track the origin and spread of disease outbreaks. To maximize the utility of genomic sequences for these purposes, it is essential that metadata about the pathogen/vector isolate characteristics be collected and made available in organized, clear, and consistent formats. Here we report the development of the GSCID/BRC Project and Sample Application Standard, developed by representatives of the Genome Sequencing Centers for Infectious Diseases (GSCIDs), the Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) for Infectious Diseases, and the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), informed by interactions with numerous collaborating scientists. It includes mapping to terms from other data standards initiatives, including the Genomic Standards Consortium's minimal information (MIxS) and NCBI's BioSample/BioProjects checklists and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The standard includes data fields about characteristics of the organism or environmental source of the specimen, spatial-temporal information about the specimen isolation event, phenotypic characteristics of the pathogen/vector isolated, and project leadership and support. By modeling metadata fields into an ontology-based semantic framework and reusing existing ontologies and minimum information checklists, the application standard can be extended to support additional project-specific data fields and integrated with other data represented with comparable standards. The use of this metadata standard by all ongoing and future GSCID sequencing projects will provide a consistent representation of these data in the BRC resources and other repositories that leverage these data, allowing investigators to identify relevant genomic sequences and perform comparative genomics analyses that are both statistically meaningful and biologically relevant.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99979. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attenuated Lassa vaccine candidate, ML29, is a laboratory-produced reassortant between Lassa and Mopeia viruses, two Old World arenaviruses that differ by 40% in nucleic acid sequence. In our previous studies, ML29 elicited sterilizing immunity against Lassa virus challenge in guinea pigs and marmosets, and virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in both SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. Here, we show that ML29 is stable after 12 passages, in vitro, without losing its plaque morphology or its attenuated phenotype in suckling mice. Additionally, we used deep sequencing to characterize the viral population comprising the original stock of ML29, the stock of ML29 after 12 passages in Vero cells, and the ML29 isolates obtained from vaccinated animals. 27 isolates bore approximately 77 mutations that exceeded 20% of the nucleotides at any single locus. Of these 77 mutations, 5 appeared to be host-specific, for example, appearing in mice but not in primates. None of these mutations were reversions of ML29 to sequences of the parental Lassa and Mopeia viruses. The host-specific mutations indicate viral adaptations to virus:host interactions, and such interactions make reasonable targets for antiviral approaches. Variants capable of chronic infection did not emerge from any of the primate infections, even in immune-deficient animals, indicating that the ML29 reassortant is reasonably stable in vivo. In conclusion, the pre-clinical studies of ML29 as a Lassa vaccine candidate have been advanced, showing high levels of protection in non-human primates and acceptable stability both in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed an RNA-Seq-based method to simultaneously capture prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression profiles of cells infected with intracellular bacteria. As proof of principle, this method was applied to Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, successfully obtaining transcriptomes of both C. trachomatis and the host cells at 1 and 24 hours post-infection. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause a range of mammalian diseases. In humans chlamydiae are responsible for the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections and trachoma (infectious blindness). Disease arises by adverse host inflammatory reactions that induce tissue damage & scarring. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these outcomes. Chlamydia are genetically intractable as replication outside of the host cell is not yet possible and there are no practical tools for routine genetic manipulation, making genome-scale approaches critical. The early timeframe of infection is poorly understood and the host transcriptional response to chlamydial infection is not well defined. Our simultaneous RNA-Seq method was applied to a simplified in vitro model of chlamydial infection. We discovered a possible chlamydial strategy for early iron acquisition, putative immune dampening effects of chlamydial infection on the host cell, and present a hypothesis for Chlamydia-induced fibrotic scarring through runaway positive feedback loops. In general, simultaneous RNA-Seq helps to reveal the complex interplay between invading bacterial pathogens and their host mammalian cells and is immediately applicable to any bacteria/host cell interaction.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e80597. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. "bavariensis" (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. "finlandensis" (1).
Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases.
Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by the presence of a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are often identified as isolates that are LEE+ and carry the Shiga toxin (stx)-encoding phage, which are labeled Shiga toxin-producing E. coli; whereas enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are LEE+ and often carry the EPEC adherence factor plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pilus (bfp) genes. All other LEE+/bfp-/stx- isolates have been historically designated atypical EPEC. These groups have been defined based on the presence or absence of a limited number of virulence factors, many of which are encoded on mobile elements. This study describes the comparative analysis of the genomes of 114 LEE+ E. coli isolates. Based on a whole-genome phylogeny and analysis of type III secretion system effectors, the AEEC are divided into five distinct genomic lineages. The LEE+/stx+/bfp- genomes were primarily divided into two genomic lineages, the O157/O55 EHEC1 and non-O157 EHEC2. The LEE+/bfp+/stx- AEEC isolates sequenced in this study separated into the EPEC1, EPEC2, and EPEC4 genomic lineages. A multiplex PCR assay for identification of each of these AEEC genomic lineages was developed. Of the 114 AEEC genomes analyzed, 31 LEE+ isolates were not in any of the known AEEC lineages and thus represent unclassified AEEC that in most cases are more similar to other E. coli pathovars than to text modification AEEC. Our findings demonstrate evolutionary relationships among diverse AEEC pathogens and the utility of phylogenomics for lineage-specific identification of AEEC clinical isolates.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor