[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the molecular pathways involved in human cholangiocarcinogenesis by gene expression profiling.
Oligonucleotide arrays (Affymetrix U133A) were used to establish a specific gene expression profile of intrahepatic CCC in comparison to corresponding non-malignant liver tissue. To validate the expression values of the most overexpressed genes, RT-PCR experiments were performed.
Five hundred and fifty-two statistically differentially expressed genes/ESTs (221 probes significantly up-regulated, 331 probes down-regulated; P < 0.05; fold change > 2; > or = 70%) were identified. Using these data and two-dimensional cluster analysis, a specific gene expression profile was obtained allowing fast and reproducible differentiation of CCC, which was confirmed by supervised neuronal network modelling. The most consistently overexpressed gene (median fold change 33.5, significantly overexpressed in 100%) encoded osteopontin. Furthermore, an association of various genes with the histopathological grading could be demonstrated.
A highly specific gene expression profile for intrahepatic CCC was identified, allowing for its fast and reproducible discrimination against non-malignant liver tissue and other liver masses. The most overexpressed gene in intrahepatic CCC was the gene encoding osteopontin. These data may lead to a better understanding of human cholangiocarcinogenesis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2008; 14(16):2501-10. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimentally induced liver tumors in mice harbor activating mutations in either Catnb (beta-catenin) or Ha-ras, according to the carcinogenic treatment. We have now investigated by microarray analysis the gene expression profiles in tumors of the two genotypes. In total, 364 genes or expressed sequences with aberrant expression relative to normal liver were identified, but only 30 of these demonstrated unidirectional changes in both tumor types. Several functional clusters were identified that involve changes in amino acid utilization and ammonia disposition in Catnb-mutated tumors as opposed to alterations in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in Ha-ras-mutated tumors. Moreover, several genes coding for inhibitory molecules within the Wnt-signaling pathway were upregulated in Catnb-mutated tumors, suggesting induction of a negative feedback loop, whereas Ha-ras-mutated tumors showed alterations in the expression of several genes functional in monomeric G-protein signaling. We conclude that mouse hepatoma cells adopt different evolutionary strategies that allow for their selective outgrowth under variable environmental conditions. Human hepatocellular cancers (HCC) lack RAS mutations but are frequently mutated in CTNNB1, the human Catnb ortholog. The set of genes aberrantly expressed in Catnb-mutated mouse tumors was used to screen, by expression profiling, for dysregulation of orthologous genes within a panel of 25 HCCs, of which 10 were CTNNB1-mutated. HCCs with activated beta-catenin displayed a gene expression profile that was similar to Catnb-mutated mouse tumors but distinct from the other human HCCs. In conclusion, expression fingerprints may be used for diagnostic purposes and potential new therapeutic intervention strategies. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index/html).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells as components of the innate immunity substantially contribute to antitumor immune responses. However, the tumor-associated ligands engaging activating NK cell receptors are largely unknown. An exception are the MHC class I chain-related molecules MICA and MICB and the UL16-binding proteins (ULBP) which bind to the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes. A therapeutic induction of NKG2D ligands that primes cancer cells for NK cell lysis has not yet been achieved. By microarray studies, we found evidence that treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC-I) sodium valproate (VPA) mediates recognition of cancer cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes via NKG2D. VPA induced transcription of MICA and MICB in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to increased cell surface, soluble and total MIC protein expression. No significant changes in the expression of the NKG2D ligands ULBP1-3 were observed. The induction of MIC molecules increased lysis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by NK cells which was abolished by addition of a blocking NKG2D antibody. Importantly, in primary human hepatocytes, VPA treatment did not induce MIC protein expression. Taken together, our data show that the HDAC-I VPA mediates specific priming of malignant cells for innate immune effector mechanisms. These results suggest the clinical evaluation of HDAC-I in solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in combination with immunotherapy approaches employing adoptive NK cell transfer.
Cancer Research 08/2005; 65(14):6321-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor