ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities in calcium metabolism. Sustained calcium loss may lead to increased bone-mineral loss in subjects with elevated blood pressure. Furthermore, recent findings indicate a possible linkage between abnormal calcium metabolism and insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship(s) among bone-mineral density (BMD), blood pressure, calcium-related and bone metabolic parameters (plasma intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], osteocalcin, and urinary deoxypyridinoline), and insulin resistance, as assessed by a conventional homeostasis model (HOMA-R). We compared non-diabetic women with essential hypertension (WHT, n=34) with age-, body mass index- and menopause (yes or no)-matched normotensive, non-diabetic women (WNT, n=34). The BMD for WHT was significantly lower than that for WNT (0.596+/-0.019 vs. 0.666+/-0.024 g/cm2, p<0.05). The BMD was correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure in all subjects examined (r=-0.385, p<0.05). The 24-h urinary calcium/sodium excretion ratio (Ux-Ca/Na) was significantly greater in WHT compared with WNT (p<0.01). In addition, a negative relationship was apparent between Ux-Ca/Na and BMD (r=-0.58, p<0.05). The plasma levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D, and HOMA-R were significantly higher in WHT compared with WNT (p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively), whereas the serum ionized calcium was lower in WHT compared with WNT (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, osteocalcin, or urinary deoxypyridinoline between the two groups. These results indicate that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities in calcium metabolism and insulin resistance in WHT.
Hypertension Research 08/2005; 28(7):565-70. · 2.58 Impact Factor