ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms governing epithelial cell migration and proliferation during wound healing.
The authors used wound healing of mouse corneal epithelium to examine the role TGF-β signaling plays during the healing process. To achieve this goal, they used transgenic mice in which the TGF-β receptor type II (Tbr2) was conditionally ablated from the corneal epithelium. Epithelium debridement wounds were made, followed by the assessment of cell migration, proliferation, and immunostaining of various signaling pathway components.
The authors showed that in the absence of TGF-β signaling corneal epithelial wound healing is delayed by 48 hours; this corresponds to a delay in p38MAPK activation. Despite the delayed p38MAPK activation, ATF2, a substrate of p38MAPK, is still phosphorylated, leading to the suppression of cell proliferation at the leading edge of the wound. These data provide evidence that in the absence of TGF-β signaling, the suppression of cell proliferation during the early stages of wound healing is maintained through the JNK activation of ATF2. CONCLUSIONS; Together the data presented here demonstrate the importance of the TGF-β and MAPK signaling pathways in corneal epithelial wound healing.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 09/2011; 52(11):8208-15. · 3.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The authors discovered a genetic association between the ST2L gene and atopy. The ST2L gene encodes a membrane-bound functional marker for Th2 cells. Recently, a novel Th2 cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33), was discovered to be a specific ligand for ST2L. The authors investigated the role of IL-33 in chronic allergic conjunctivitis.
Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out using giant papillae samples obtained from patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. The authors used proinflammatory stimuli to clarify IL-33 mRNA/protein-inducing signals with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells, fibroblasts, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells. These cells were also used to examine the expression of ST2L (IL-33R). Finally, cultured mast cells were stimulated with recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) to examine the downstream signals.
The authors found IL-33 protein expression in human vascular endothelial cells in the giant papillae and in the control conjunctivae. IL-33 expression was also observed in conjunctival epithelium of the giant papillae but not in the control conjunctivae. IL-1 beta stimulation upregulated IL-33 mRNA expression in conjunctival fibroblasts. The authors also confirmed mature IL-33 protein expression in ocular resident cells by Western blot analysis. Preferential ST2L expression was observed in human mast cells, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and IL-13 mRNA induction was observed in human cultured mast cells after rIL-33 stimulation. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was inhibited by soluble ST2 protein.
The IL-33-ST2 signaling cascade plays some roles in the pathophysiology of chronic allergic conjunctivitis through the activation of mast cells.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 06/2009; 50(10):4646-52. · 3.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To prepare binary transgenic mouse lines that overexpress reporter genes in a corneal-epithelium-specific manner when induced by doxycycline.
A gene-targeting construct containing an internal ribosomal entry site-reverse tetracycline transcription activator (IRES-rtTA) cassette was inserted into the Krt12 allele (keratin 12 gene) to produce a knock-in Krt12(rtTA/+) mouse line through gene-targeting techniques. The Krt12(rtTA/+) knock-in mice were bred with tet-O-LacZ reporter mice to obtain Krt12(rtTA/+)/tet-O-LacZ bitransgenic mice. The expression of the LacZ gene was induced in bitransgenic mice by administration of doxycycline in the drinking water and chow.
Administration of doxycycline induced a 15-fold increase of beta-galactosidase activity in the cornea of adult bitransgenic mice (Krt12(rtTA/+)/tet-O-lacZ). Administration of doxycycline either to single transgenic Krt12(rtTA/+) or tet-O-LacZ mice as a control did not induce overexpression of LacZ as it did in the bitransgenic mice. The induction of beta-galactosidase enzyme activity by doxycycline in bitransgenic mice took place in 24 hours and reached a plateau by 2 days. Histochemical analysis also showed that beta-galactosidase induction was limited to the corneal epithelium of bitransgenic mice fed doxycycline. The increased beta-galactosidase activity in corneal epithelium caused by doxycycline returned to basal levels in 4 weeks after the antibiotics were omitted from the diet.
A binary mouse model has been successfully established that conditionally overexpresses reporter genes in corneal epithelium. This mouse model will be useful in elucidating signaling pathways of various growth factors and cytokines and gene functions in the maintenance of homeostasis and pathogenesis in the adult mouse cornea.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 07/2005; 46(6):1966-72. · 3.60 Impact Factor