Carl Caleman

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Publications (76)593.02 Total impact

  • Magnus Bergh, Carl Caleman
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular dynamics is a well-established tool to computationally study molecules. However, to reach predictive capability at the level required for applied research and design, extensive validation of the available force fields is pertinent. Here we present a study of density, isothermal compressibility and coefficients of thermal expansion of four energetic materials (FOX-7, RDX, CL-20 and HMX) based on molecular dynamics simulations with the Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF), and compare the results to experimental measurements from the literature. Furthermore, we quantify the accuracy of the calculated properties through hydrocode simulation of a typical impact scenario. We find that molecular dynamics simulations with generic and computationally efficient force fields can be used to understand and estimate important physical properties of nitramines.
    Journal of Energetic Materials 11/2015; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography of protein nanocrystals using ultrashort and intense pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser has proved to be a successful method for structural determination. However, due to significant variations in diffraction pattern quality from pulse to pulse only a fraction of the collected frames can be used. Experimentally, the X-ray temporal pulse profile is not known and can vary with every shot. This simulation study describes how the pulse shape affects the damage dynamics, which ultimately affects the biological interpretation of electron density. The instantaneously detected signal varies during the pulse exposure due to the pulse properties, as well as the structural and electronic changes in the sample. Here ionization and atomic motion are simulated using a radiation transfer plasma code. Pulses with parameters typical for X-ray free-electron lasers are considered: pulse energies ranging from 10(4) to 10(7) J cm(-2) with photon energies from 2 to 12 keV, up to 100 fs long. Radiation damage in the form of sample heating that will lead to a loss of crystalline periodicity and changes in scattering factor due to electronic reconfigurations of ionized atoms are considered here. The simulations show differences in the dynamics of the radiation damage processes for different temporal pulse profiles and intensities, where ionization or atomic motion could be predominant. The different dynamics influence the recorded diffracted signal in any given resolution and will affect the subsequent structure determination.
    Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 03/2015; 22(Pt 2):256-266. DOI:10.1107/S1600577515002878 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteins that contain metal cofactors are expected to be highly radiation sensitive since the degree of X-ray absorption correlates with the presence of high-atomic-number elements and X-ray energy. To explore the effects of local damage in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), Clostridium ferredoxin was used as a model system. The protein contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters that serve as sensitive probes for radiation-induced electronic and structural changes. High-dose room-temperature SFX datasets were collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source of ferredoxin microcrystals. Difference electron density maps calculated from high-dose SFX and synchrotron data show peaks at the iron positions of the clusters, indicative of decrease of atomic scattering factors due to ionization. The electron density of the two [4Fe-4S] clusters differs in the FEL data, but not in the synchrotron data. Since the clusters differ in their detailed architecture, this observation is suggestive of an influence of the molecular bonding and geometry on the atomic displacement dynamics following initial photoionization. The experiments are complemented by plasma code calculations.
    Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 03/2015; 22(Pt 2):225-238. DOI:10.1107/S1600577515002349 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In serial femtosecond crystallography, x-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes because Bragg diffraction exceeds the damage-induced background scattering for longer pulses ($\sim$ 50--100 fs). This is due to a "self-gating pulse" effect whereby damage terminates Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if that diffraction were produced by a shorter pulse of equal fluence. We show here that a similar gating effect applies to single molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage ("damage noise"). Our results suggest that sub-nanometer single molecule imaging with longer pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The theory we present opens up new experimental avenues to measure the impact of damage on single particle diffraction, which is needed to test damage models and to identify optimal imaging conditions.
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    ABSTRACT: In structural determination of crystalline proteins using intense femtosecond X-ray lasers, damage processes lead to loss of structural coherence during the exposure. We use a nonthermal description for the damage dynamics to calculate the ultrafast ionization and the subsequent atomic displacement. These effects degrade the Bragg diffraction on femtosecond time scales and gate the ultrafast imaging. This process is intensity and resolution dependent. At high intensities the signal is gated by the ionization affecting low resolution information first. At lower intensities, atomic displacement dominates the loss of coherence affecting high-resolution information. We find that pulse length is not a limiting factor as long as there is a high enough X-ray flux to measure a diffracted signal.
    Optics Express 01/2015; 23(2). DOI:10.1364/OE.23.001213 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray free-electron lasers have opened up the possibility of structure determination of protein crystals at room temperature, free of radiation damage. The femtosecond-duration pulses of these sources enable diffraction signals to be collected from samples at doses of 1000 MGy or higher. The sample is vaporized by the intense pulse, but not before the scattering that gives rise to the diffraction pattern takes place. Consequently, only a single flash diffraction pattern can be recorded from a crystal, giving rise to the method of serial crystallography where tens of thousands of patterns are collected from individual crystals that flow across the beam and the patterns are indexed and aggregated into a set of structure factors. The high-dose tolerance and the many-crystal averaging approach allow data to be collected from much smaller crystals than have been examined at synchrotron radiation facilities, even from radiation-sensitive samples. Here, we review the interaction of intense femtosecond X-ray pulses with materials and discuss the implications for structure determination. We identify various dose regimes and conclude that the strongest achievable signals for a given sample are attained at the highest possible dose rates, from highest possible pulse intensities.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 07/2014; 369(1647). DOI:10.1098/rstb.2013.0313 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII), act in series to catalyse the light-driven reactions in photosynthesis. PSII catalyses the light-driven water splitting process, which maintains the Earth’s oxygenic atmosphere1. In this process, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII cycles through five states, S0 to S4, in which four electrons are sequentially extracted from the OEC in four light-driven charge-separation events. Here we describe time resolved experiments on PSII nano/microcrystals from Thermosynechococcus elongatus performed with the recently developed2 technique of serial femtosecond crystallography. Structures have been determined from PSII in the dark S1 state and after double laser excitation (putative S3 state) at 5 and 5.5 Å resolution, respectively. The results provide evidence that PSII undergoes significant conformational changes at the electron acceptor side and at the Mn4CaO5 core of the OEC. These include an elongation of the metal cluster, accompanied by changes in the protein environment, which could allow for binding of the second substrate water molecule between the more distant protruding Mn (referred to as the ‘dangler’ Mn) and the Mn3CaOx cubane in the S2 to S3 transition, as predicted by spectroscopic and computational studies3, 4. This work shows the great potential for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography for investigation of catalytic processes in biomolecules.
    Nature 07/2014; 513(7517). DOI:10.1038/nature13453 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The concentration of hydronium and hydroxide at the water-air interface has been debated for a long time. Recent evidence from a range of experiments and theoretical calculations strongly suggests the water surface to be somewhat acidic. Using novel polarizable models we have performed potential of mean force calculations of a hydronium ion, a hydroxide ion and a water molecule in a water droplet and a water slab and we were able to rationalize that hydronium, but not hydroxide, is slightly enriched at the surface for two reasons. First, because the hydrogen bond acceptance capacity of hydronium is weaker than water and it is more favorable to have the hydronium oxygen on the surface. Second, hydroxide ions are expelled from the surface of the droplets, due to the entropy being lower when a hydroxide ion is hydrated on the surface. As a result, the water dissociation constant pKw increases slightly near the surface. The results are corroborated by calculations of surface tension of NaOH solutions that are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The structural and thermodynamic interpretation of hydronium and hydroxide hydration provided by these calculations opens the route to a better understanding of atmospheric and surface chemistry.
    Chemical Science 01/2014; 5(5):1745. DOI:10.1039/c3sc52862f · 8.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serial femtosecond crystallography is an X-ray free-electron-laser-based method with considerable potential to have an impact on challenging problems in structural biology. Here we present X-ray diffraction data recorded from microcrystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction centre to 2.8 Å resolution and determine its serial femtosecond crystallography structure to 3.5 Å resolution. Although every microcrystal is exposed to a dose of 33 MGy, no signs of X-ray-induced radiation damage are visible in this integral membrane protein structure.
    Nature Communications 12/2013; 4:2911. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3911 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report experimental results on x-ray diffraction of quantum-state-selected and strongly aligned ensembles of the prototypical asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile using the Linac Coherent Light Source. The experiments demonstrate pioneering steps toward a new bottom-up approach to diffractive imaging of distinct structures of individual, isolated gas-phase molecules. We confirm several key ingredients of single molecule diffraction experiments: the abilities to detect and count individual scattered x-ray photons in single shot diffraction data, to deliver state-selected, e.g., structural-isomer-selected, ensembles of molecules to the x-ray interaction volume, and to strongly align the scattering molecules. Our approach, using ultrashort x-ray pulses, is suitable to study ultrafast dynamics of isolated molecules.
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    ABSTRACT: The Trypanosoma brucei cysteine protease cathepsin B (TbCatB), which is involved in host protein degradation, is a promising target to develop new treatments against sleeping sickness, a fatal disease caused by this protozoan parasite. The structure of the mature, active form of TbCatB has so far not provided sufficient information for the design of a safe and specific drug against T. brucei. By combining two recent innovations, in vivo crystallization and serial femtosecond crystallography, we obtained the room-temperature 2.1 angstrom resolution structure of the fully glycosylated precursor complex of TbCatB. The structure reveals the mechanism of native TbCatB inhibition and demonstrates that new biomolecular information can be obtained by the “diffraction-before-destruction” approach of x-ray free-electron lasers from hundreds of thousands of individual microcrystals.
    Science 01/2013; 339(6116):227-230. DOI:10.1126/science.1229663 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray free-electron lasers enable high-resolution imaging of biological materials by using short enough pulses to outrun many of the effects of radiation damage. Experiments conducted at the LCLS have obtained diffraction data from single particles and protein nanocrystals at doses to the sample over 3 GGy. The details of the interaction of the X-ray FEL pulse with the sample determine the limits of this new paradigm for imaging. Recent studies suggest that in the case of crystalline samples, such as protein nanocrystals, the atomic displacements and loss of bound electrons in the crystal (due to the high X- ray intensity) has the effect of gating the diffraction signal, and hence making the experiment less radiation sensitive. Only the incident photon intensity in the first part of the pulse, before the Bragg diffraction has died out, is relevant to acquiring signal and the rest of the pulse will mainly contribute to a diffuse background. In this work we use a plasma based non-local thermodynamic equilibrium code to explore the displacement and the ionization of a protein nanocrystal at various X-ray wavelengths and intensities.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 10/2012; DOI:10.1117/12.929294 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The solubility of organic molecules is a well established property, founded on decades of measurements, the results of which have been tabulated in handbooks. Under atmospheric conditions water droplets may form containing small amounts of other molecules. Such droplets typically have a very large area to volume ratio, which may shift the solvation equilibrium towards molecules residing on the droplet surface. The presence of organic molecules on droplet surfaces is extremely important for reactivity--it is well established that certain chemical reactions are more prevalent under atmospheric conditions than in bulk. Here we present a thermodynamic rationalization of the surface solvation properties of methanol, ethanol, propanoic acid, n-butylamine, diethyl ether, and neopentane based on potential of mean force (PMF) calculations--we have previously demonstrated that an energetic description is a very powerful means of disentangling the factors governing solvation (Caleman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 108, 6838-6842). All organic molecules investigated here are preferentially solvated on the surface of the droplets rather than in the inside, yet the magnitude of surface preference may differ by orders of magnitude. In order to dissect the energetic contributions that govern surface preference, we decompose the PMF into enthalpic and entropic components, and, in a second step, into contributions from water-water and solute-water interactions. The analysis demonstrates that surface preference is primarily an enthalpic effect, but the magnitude of surface preference of solutes containing large apolar groups is enhanced due to entropy. We introduce an analysis of the droplet PMFs that allows one to extrapolate the results to larger droplets. From this we can estimate the solubility of the solutes in water droplets, demonstrating that the solubility in droplets can be orders of magnitude larger than in bulk water. Our findings have implications for understanding the process of electrospray ionization, an important technique in biological mass spectrometry, since our work strongly suggests that in equilibrium biomolecules would be adsorbed on the droplet surface as well.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 06/2012; 14(27):9537-45. DOI:10.1039/c2cp40483d · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.
    Science 05/2012; 337(6092):362-4. DOI:10.1126/science.1217737 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular dynamics simulation package GROMACS is a widely used tool used in a broad range of different applications within physics, chemistry and biology. It is freely available, user friendly and extremely efficient. The GROMACS software is force field agnostic, and compatible with many molecular dynamics force fields; coarse-grained, unified atom, all atom as well as polarizable models based on the charge on a spring concept. To validate simulations, it is necessary to compare results from the simulations to experimental data. To ease the process of setting up topologies and structures for simulations, as well as providing pre-calculated physical properties along with experimental values for the same we provide a web-based database, containing 145 organic molecules at present. Liquid properties of 145 organic molecules have been simulated using two different force fields, OPLS all atom and Generalized Amber Force Field. So far, eight properties have been calculated (the density, enthalpy of vaporization, surface tension, heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, isothermal compressibility, volumetric expansion coefficient and the static dielectric constant). The results, together with experimental values are available through the database, along with liquid structures and topologies for the 145 molecules, in the two force fields. The database is freely available under http://virtualchemistry.org.
    Bioinformatics 03/2012; 28(5):752-3. DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts020 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems.
    Optics Express 01/2012; 20(3):2706-16. DOI:10.1364/OE.20.002706 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.
    Nature Methods 01/2012; 9(3):263-5. DOI:10.1038/nmeth.1867 · 25.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats, treatment of electrostatic interactions, and system size (1000 molecules). The densities and enthalpy of vaporization from an independent data set based on simulations using the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) presented by Vanommeslaeghe et al. (J. Comput. Chem.2010, 31, 671) are included for comparison. We find that, overall, the OPLS/AA force field performs somewhat better than GAFF, but there are significant issues with reproduction of the surface tension and dielectric constants for both force fields.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 01/2012; 8(1):61-74. DOI:10.1021/ct200731v · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein crystallization in cells has been observed several times in nature. However, owing to their small size these crystals have not yet been used for X-ray crystallographic analysis. We prepared nano-sized in vivo-grown crystals of Trypanosoma brucei enzymes and applied the emerging method of free-electron laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography to record interpretable diffraction data. This combined approach will open new opportunities in structural systems biology.
    Nature Methods 01/2012; 9(3):259-62. DOI:10.1038/nmeth.1859 · 25.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
593.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
      • Center for Free-Electron Laser Science
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • University of Hamburg
      • Institut für Experimentalphysik
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2003–2015
    • Uppsala University
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2011–2012
    • Center for Free-Electron Laser Science
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2008–2011
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Fyzikální ústav
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic