Daryl Haggard

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States

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Publications (79)253.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Quasars that allow the study of intergalactic medium (IGM) He ii are very rare, since they must be at high redshift along sightlines free of substantial hydrogen absorption, but recent work has dramatically expanded the number of such quasars known. We analyze two dozen higher-redshift (z = 3.1–3.9) low-resolution He ii quasar spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope and find that their He ii Gunn–Peterson troughs suggest exclusion of very early and very late reionization models, favoring a reionization redshift of z ∼ 3. Although the data quality is not sufficient to reveal details such as the expected redshift evolution of helium opacity, we obtain the first ensemble measure of helium opacity at high redshift averaged over many sightlines: τ = 4.90 at z ∼ 3.3. We also find that it would be very difficult to observe the IGM red wing of absorption from the beginning of He ii reionization, but depending on the redshift of reionization and the size of ionization zones, it might be possible to do so in some objects with the current generation of UV spectrographs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2015; 726. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) located less than ~1.5 arcmin from Sgr A*. Ongoing monitoring campaigns have targeted Sgr A* frequently and these observations also cover AX J1745.6-2901. We present here an X-ray analysis of AX J1745.6-2901 using a large dataset of 38 XMM-Newton observations, including eleven which caught AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Fe K absorption is clearly seen when AX J1745.6-2901 is in the soft state, but disappears during the hard state. The variability of these absorption features does not appear to be due to changes in the ionizing continuum. The small Kalpha/Kbeta ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe xxv and Fe xxvi lines suggests that the column densities and turbulent velocities of the absorbing ionised plasma are in excess of N_H ~ 10^23 cm^-2 and v_turb >~ 500 km s^-1. These findings strongly support a connection between the wind (Fe K absorber) and the accretion state of the binary. These results reveal strong similarities between AX J1745.6-2901 and the eclipsing neutron star LMXB, EXO 0748-676, as well as with high-inclination black hole binaries, where winds (traced by the same Fe K absorption features) are observed only during the accretion-disc-dominated soft states, and disappear during the hard states characterised by jet emission.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of a milli-second radio pulsar experiencing an accretion outburst similar to those seen in low mass X-ray binaries, has opened up a new opportunity to investigate the evolutionary link between these two different neutron star manifestations. The remarkable X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectrum of this object can potentially serve as a template to search for other X-ray binary / radio pulsar transitional objects. Here we demonstrate that the transient X-ray source XMM J174457-2850.3 near the Galactic center displays similar X-ray properties. We report on the detection of an energetic thermonuclear burst with an estimated duration of ~2 hr and a radiated energy output of ~5E40 erg, which unambiguously demonstrates that the source harbors an accreting neutron star. It has a quiescent X-ray luminosity of Lx~5E32 erg/s and exhibits occasional accretion outbursts during which it brightens to Lx~1E35-1E36 erg/s for a few weeks (2-10 keV). However, the source often lingers in between outburst and quiescence at Lx~1E33-1E34 erg/s. This unusual X-ray flux behavior and its relatively hard X-ray spectrum (a power law with an index of ~1.4) could possibly be explained in terms of the interaction between the accretion flow and the magnetic field of the neutron star.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use Chandra and XMM observations of the globular clusters $\omega$ Cen and NGC 6397 to measure the spectrum of their quiescent neutron stars (NSs), and thus to constrain the allowed ranges of mass and radius for each. We also use Hubble Space Telescope photometry of NGC 6397 to identify a potential optical companion to the quiescent NS, and find evidence that the companion lacks hydrogen. We carefully consider a number of systematic problems, and show that the choices of atmospheric composition, interstellar medium abundances, and cluster distances can have important effects on the inferred NS mass and radius. We find that for typical NS masses, the radii of both NSs are consistent with the 10-13 km range favored by recent nuclear physics experiments. This removes the evidence suggested by Guillot and collaborators for an unusually small NS radius, which relied upon the small inferred radius of the NGC 6397 NS.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report observations using the Swift/XRT, NuSTAR, and Chandra X-ray telescopes of the transient X-ray source CXOGC J174540.0-290005, during its 2013 outburst. Due to its location in the field of multiple observing campaigns targeting Sgr A*, this is one of the best-studied outbursts of a very faint X-ray binary (VFXB; peak LX < 1036 erg/s) yet recorded, with detections in 173 ks of X-ray observations over 50 days. VFXBs are of particular interest, due to their unusually low outburst luminosities and time-averaged mass transfer rates, which are hard to explain within standard accretion physics and binary evolution. The 2013 outburst of CXOGC J174540.0-290005 peaked at Lx (2-10 keV)=5.0 × 1035 erg/s, and all data above 1034 ergs/s were well-fit by an absorbed power-law of photon index ∼ 1.7, extending from 2 keV out to ~70 keV. We discuss the implications of these observations for the accretion state of CXOGC J174540.0-290005.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report observations using the Swift/XRT, NuSTAR, and Chandra X-ray telescopes of the transient X-ray source CXOGC J174540.0-290005, during its 2013 outburst. Due to its location in the field of multiple observing campaigns targeting Sgr A*, this is one of the best-studied outbursts of a very faint X-ray binary (VFXB; peak $L_X<10^{36}$ erg/s) yet recorded, with detections in 173 ks of X-ray observations over 50 days. VFXBs are of particular interest, due to their unusually low outburst luminosities and time-averaged mass transfer rates, which are hard to explain within standard accretion physics and binary evolution. The 2013 outburst of CXOGC J174540.0-290005 peaked at $L_X$(2-10 keV)=$5.0\times10^{35}$ erg/s, and all data above $10^{34}$ ergs/s were well-fit by an absorbed power-law of photon index $\sim1.7$, extending from 2 keV out to $\sim$70 keV. We discuss the implications of these observations for the accretion state of CXOGC J174540.0-290005.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Swift has resumed its daily X-ray monitoring campaign of the Galactic center (Atel #5006; see link below). The first XRT observation was performed on 2014 February 2 and had a duration of 1.1 ks.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on continued X-ray monitoring observations of the Galactic center with the Swift/XRT (Atel #5847). Between 2014 February 2 and 6 the XRT count rate at the position of Sgr A* and the nearby transient magnetar SGR J1745-29 varied between ~1E-2 and 3E-2 counts s-1.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed SGR J1745-29 (Kennea et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L24; Mori et al. 2013, ApJ 770, L23; Rea et al. 2013, ApJ 775, L34) with the ACIS-S camera onboard Chandra for about 47ks starting on 2014-02-21 (ObsID 16508), as part of the on-going Chandra X-ray monitoring of the Galactic Center region (PIs: Haggard, Baganoff, Rea).
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of a dense, cold cloud (dubbed "G2") approaching Sgr A* offers an opportunity to test models of black hole accretion and its associated feedback. G2's orbit is eccentric and the cloud shows signs of tidal disruption by the black hole. High-energy emission from the Sgr A*/G2 encounter may rise toward pericenter (mid-to-late 2013, or early 2014) and continue over the next several years as the material circularizes. This encounter is also likely to enhance Sgr A*'s flare activity across the electromagnetic spectrum. We present preliminary results from our 2013 joint Chandra/XMM/VLA monitoring campaigns. Our programs aim to study the radiation properties of Sgr A* as G2 breaks up and feeds the accretion flow, to constrain the rates and emission mechanisms of faint X-ray flares, and to detect G2 itself as it is shocked and heated. We discuss the constraints these data place on theoretical models for the Sgr A*/G2 encounter and outline plans for continued monitoring with Chandra, XMM, HST, and VLA in 2014.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Starting in 2006, the Galactic center has been monitored on a nearly daily basis with the X-ray telescope on-board the Swift satellite. The short pointed observations have offered a unique view of the long-term X-ray behavior of Sgr A*, in particular of its X-ray flaring properties. The Swift campaign also provides an excellent setup to closely monitor the interaction of the supermassive black hole with the gaseous object G2. Because of the unique daily sampling, the Swift program may prove to serve as an important trigger for other observatories at different wavelengths. I will report on the latest results of the Swift X-ray monitoring campaign of the Galactic center.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, X-ray observations of Sgr A* have revealed a black hole in a deep sleep, punctuated roughly once per day by brief flares. The extreme X-ray faintness of this supermassive black hole has been a long-standing puzzle in black hole accretion. To study the accretion processes in the Galactic Center, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012. With its excellent observing cadence, sensitivity, and spectral resolution, this Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the behavior of the closest supermassive black hole. We present a progress report from our ongoing study of X-ray flares, including the brightest flare ever seen from Sgr A*. Focusing on the statistics of the flares and the quiescent emission, we discuss the physical implications of X-ray variability in the Galactic Center.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Most supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are accreting at very low levels and are difficult to distinguish from the galaxy centers where they reside. Our own Galaxy's SMBH provides an instructive exception, and we present a close-up view of its quiescent x-ray emission based on 3 megaseconds of Chandra observations. Although the x-ray emission is elongated and aligns well with a surrounding disk of massive stars, we can rule out a concentration of low-mass coronally active stars as the origin of the emission on the basis of the lack of predicted iron (Fe) Kα emission. The extremely weak hydrogen (H)-like Fe Kα line further suggests the presence of an outflow from the accretion flow onto the SMBH. These results provide important constraints for models of the prevalent radiatively inefficient accretion state.
    Science 08/2013; 341(6149):981-3. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The center of our Galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*. Young, massive stars within 0.5 pc of SgrA* are evidence of an episode of intense star formation near the black hole a few Myr ago, which might have left behind a young neutron star traveling deep into SgrA*'s gravitational potential. On 2013 April 25, a short X-ray burst was observed from the direction of the Galactic center. Thanks to a series of observations with the Chandra and the Swift satellites, we pinpoint the associated magnetar at an angular distance of 2.4+/-0.3 arcsec from SgrA*, and refine the source spin period and its derivative (P=3.7635537(2) s and \dot{P} = 6.61(4)x10^{-12} s/s), confirmed by quasi simultaneous radio observations performed with the Green Bank (GBT) and Parkes antennas, which also constrain a Dispersion Measure of DM=1750+/-50 pc cm^{-3}, the highest ever observed for a radio pulsar. We have found that this X-ray source is a young magnetar at ~0.07-2 pc from SgrA*. Simulations of its possible motion around SgrA* show that it is likely (~90% probability) in a bound orbit around the black hole. The radiation front produced by the past activity from the magnetar passing through the molecular clouds surrounding the Galactic center region, might be responsible for a large fraction of the light echoes observed in the Fe fluorescence features.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2013; 775(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a sensitive X-ray search for the proposed intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) in the massive Galactic cluster, Omega Centauri (NGC 5139). Combining Chandra X-ray Observatory data from Cycles 1 and 13, we obtain a deep (~291 ks) exposure of the central regions of the cluster. We find no evidence for an X-ray point source near any of the cluster's proposed dynamical centers, and place an upper limit on the X-ray flux from a central source of f_X(0.5-7.0 keV) <= 5.0x10^-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1, after correcting for absorption. This corresponds to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of L_X(0.5-7.0 keV) <= 1.6x10^30 erg s^-1, for a cluster distance of 5.2 kpc, Galactic column density N_H = 1.2x10^21 cm^-2, and powerlaw spectrum with Gamma = 2.3. If a ~10^4 M_sun IMBH resides in the cluster's core, as suggested by some stellar dynamical studies, its Eddington luminosity would be L_Edd ~10^42 erg s^-1. The new X-ray limit would then establish an Eddington ratio of L_X/L_Edd <~ 10^-12, a factor of ~10 lower than even the quiescent state of our Galaxy's notoriously inefficient supermassive black hole Sgr A*, and imply accretion efficiencies as low as eta <~ 10^-6 - 10^-8. This study leaves open three possibilities: either Omega Cen does not harbor an IMBH or, if an IMBH does exist, it must experience very little or very inefficient accretion.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2013; 773(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first systematic analysis of the X-ray variability of Sgr A* during the Chandra X-ray Observatory's 2012 Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project (XVP). With 38 High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observations spaced an average of 7 days apart, this unprecedented campaign enables detailed study of the X-ray emission from this supermassive black hole at high spatial, spectral and timing resolution. In 3 Ms of observations, we detect 39 X-ray flares from Sgr A*, lasting from a few hundred seconds to approximately 8 ks, and ranging in 2-10 keV luminosity from ~1e34 erg/s to 2e35 erg/s. Despite tentative evidence for a gap in the distribution of flare peak count rates, there is no evidence for X-ray color differences between faint and bright flares. Our preliminary X-ray flare luminosity distribution dN/dL is consistent with a power law with index -1.9 (+0.3 -0.4); this is similar to some estimates of Sgr A*'s NIR flux distribution. The observed flares contribute one-third of the total X-ray output of Sgr A* during the campaign, and as much as 10% of the quiescent X-ray emission could be comprised of weak, undetected flares, which may also contribute high-frequency variability. We argue that flares may be the only source of X-ray emission from the inner accretion flow.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Striking similarities have been seen between accretion signatures of Galactic X-ray binary (XRB) systems and active galactic nuclei (AGN). XRB spectral states show a V-shaped correlation between X-ray spectral hardness and Eddington ratio as they vary, and some AGN samples reveal a similar trend, implying analogous processes at vastly larger masses and timescales. To further investigate the analogies, we have matched 617 sources from the Chandra Source Catalog to SDSS spectroscopy, and uniformly measured both X-ray and optical spectral characteristics across a broad range of AGN and galaxy types. We provide useful tabulations of X-ray spectral slope for broad and narrow line AGN, star-forming and passive galaxies and composite systems, also updating relationships between optical (Ha and [OIII]) line emission and X-ray luminosity. We further fit broadband spectral energy distributions with a variety of templates to estimate bolometric luminosity. Our results confirm a significant trend in AGN between X-ray spectral hardness and Eddington ratio expressed in X-ray luminosity, albeit with significant dispersion. The trend is not significant when expressed in the full bolometric or template-estimated AGN luminosity. We also confirm a relationship between the X-ray/optical spectral slope aox, and Eddington ratio, but it may not follow the trend predicted by analogy with XRB accretion states.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of quasar mass outflows are rapidly reshaping our understanding of physics near the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The ~parsec scale emitting/absorbing regions near SMBHs will remain spatially unresolved for the foreseeable future (milliarcsec at z ~ 0.01). Spectroscopic variability timescale information can, however, constrain the structure, stability, location, and dynamics of the emitting and absorbing gas near the SMBH. Though outflows likely accompany all luminous accretion disks, broad absorption line (BAL) quasars provide the most dramatic examples — their massive outflows display P-Cygni profiles that span velocities to ~0.3c. We present multi-epoch spectroscopy of seventeen BAL QSOs using the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory's 1.5m telescope's FAST Spectrograph. These objects were identified as BALs in SDSS, observed with Chandra, and then monitored with FAST at observed-frame cadences of 1, 3, 9, 27, and 81 days, as well as 1 and 2 years. We also monitor a set of non-BAL quasars with matched redshift and luminosity as controls. We identify significant variability in the BALs, particularly at the 1 and 2 year cadences, and use its magnitude and frequency to constrain the outflows impacting the broad absorption line region.
    American Astronomical Society, AAS Meeting #221, Long Beach, CA; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel (WFC) images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with 9 pointings we cover the central ~10'x10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M_625 = 10.4 - 12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the SDSS (Gansicke et al. 2009). Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously-reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary (Haggard et al. 2004). We also identify three foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in {\omega} Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring to 20 the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in {\omega} Cen, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The compact radio source Sgr A* is coincident with a 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} black hole at the dynamical center of the Galaxy and is surrounded by dense orbiting ionized and molecular gas. We present high-resolution radio continuum images of the central 3' and report a faint continuous linear structure centered on Sgr A* with a P.A. {approx} 60 Degree-Sign . The extension of this feature appears to be terminated symmetrically by two linearly polarized structures at 8.4 GHz, {approx}75'' from Sgr A*. A number of weak blobs of radio emission with X-ray counterparts are detected along the axis of the linear structure. The linear structure is best characterized by a mildly relativistic jet from Sgr A* with an outflow rate 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The near and far sides of the jet are interacting with orbiting ionized and molecular gas over the last 1-3 hundred years and are responsible for a 2'' hole, the 'minicavity', characterized by disturbed kinematics, enhanced Fe II/III line emission, and diffuse X-ray gas. The estimated kinetic luminosity of the outflow is {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, so the interaction with the bar may be responsible for the Galactic center X-ray flash inferred to be responsible for much of the fluorescent Fe K{alpha} line emission from the inner 100 pc of the Galaxy.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2012; 758(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

473 Citations
253.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Northwestern University
      • Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      • Department of Astrophysics
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2013
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Physics
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2008
    • San Francisco State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • University of Leicester
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom