Volker Bromm

University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States

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Publications (137)692.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We simulate the formation of a metal-poor ($10^{-2}\,Z_{\odot}$) stellar cluster in one of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe, specifically a high-redshift atomic cooling halo ($z\sim14$). This is the first calculation that resolves the formation of individual metal-enriched stars in simulations starting from realistic cosmological initial conditions. We follow the evolution of a single dense clump among several in the parent halo. The clump forms a cluster of $\sim40$ stars and sub-stellar objects within $7000$ yrs and could continue forming stars $\sim5$ times longer. Protostellar dust heating has a negligible effect on the star formation efficiency, at least during the early evolutionary stages, but it moderately suppresses gaseous fragmentation and brown dwarf formation. We observe fragmentation in thin gaseous filaments and sustained accretion in larger, rotating structures as well as ejections by binary interactions. The stellar initial mass function above $0.1\,M_{\odot}$, evaluated after $\sim10^4$ yrs of fragmentation and accretion, seems in agreement with the recent measurement in ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal Galactic satellites of Geha et al. (2013).
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use cosmological simulations of high-redshift minihalos to investigate the effect of dark matter annihilation (DMA) on the collapse of primordial gas. We numerically investigate the evolution of the gas as it assembles in a Population III stellar disk. We find that when DMA effects are neglected, the disk undergoes multiple fragmentation events beginning at ~ 500 yr after the appearance of the first protostar. On the other hand, DMA heating and ionization of the gas speeds the initial collapse of gas to protostellar densities and also affects the stability of the developing disk against fragmentation, depending on the DM distribution. We compare the evolution when we model the DM density with an analytical DM profile which remains centrally peaked, and when we simulate the DM profile using N-body particles (the 'live' DM halo). When utilizing the analytical DM profile, DMA suppresses disk fragmentation for ~ 3500 yr after the first protostar forms, in agreement with earlier work. However, when using a 'live' DM halo, the central DM density peak is gradually flattened due to the mutual interaction between the DM and the rotating gaseous disk, reducing the effects of DMA on the gas, and enabling secondary protostars of mass ~ 1 M_sol to be formed within ~ 900 yr. These simulations demonstrate that DMA is ineffective in suppressing gas collapse and subsequent fragmentation, rendering the formation of long-lived dark stars unlikely. However, DMA effects may still be significant in the early collapse and disk formation phase of primordial gas evolution.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work suggests that the first generation of stars, the so-called Population III (Pop III), could have formed primarily in binaries or as members of small multiple systems. Here we investigate the impact of X-ray feedback from High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) left behind in stellar binary systems after the primary forms a black hole (BH), accreting gas at a high rate from the companion, a process that is thought to be favored at the low metallicities characteristic of high-redshift gas. Thanks to their large mean free path, X-rays are capable of preionizing and preheating the gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and in haloes long before the reionization of the Universe is complete, and thus could have strongly affected the formation of subsequent generations of stars as well as reionization. We have carried out zoomed hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of minihaloes, accounting for the formation of Pop III stars and their collapse into BHs and HMXBs, and the associated radiation-hydrodynamic feedback from UV and X-ray photons. We find no strong net feedback from HMXBs on the simulated star formation history. On the other hand, the preheating of the IGM by HMXBs leads to a strong suppression of small-scale structures and significantly lowers the recombination rate in the IGM, thus yielding a net positive feedback on reionization. We further show that X-ray feedback from HMXBs can augment the ionizing feedback from the Pop III progenitor stars to suppress gas accretion onto the first BHs, limiting their growth into supermassive BHs. Finally, we show that X-ray ionization by HMXBs leaves distinct signatures in the properties of the high-redshift hydrogen that may be probed in upcoming observations of the redshifted 21cm spin-flip line.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Population III stars are believed to have been more massive than typical stars today and to have formed in relative isolation. The thermodynamic impact of metals is expected to induce a transition leading to clustered, low-mass Population II star formation. In this work, we present results from three cosmological simulations, only differing in gas metallicity, that focus on the impact of metal fine-structure line cooling on the formation of stellar clusters in a high-redshift atomic cooling halo. Introduction of sink particles allows us to follow the process of gas hydrodynamics and accretion onto cluster stars for 4 Myr corresponding to multiple local free-fall times. At metallicities at least 10^-3 Zsun, gas is able to reach the CMB temperature floor and fragment pervasively resulting in a stellar cluster of size ~1 pc and total mass ~1000 Msun. The masses of individual sink particles vary, but are typically ~100 Msun, consistent with the Jeans mass when gas cools to the CMB temperature, though some solar mass fragments are also produced. At the low metallicity of 10^-4 Zsun, fragmentation is completely suppressed on scales greater than 0.01 pc and total stellar mass is lower by a factor of 3 than in the higher metallicity simulations. The sink particle accretion rates, and thus their masses, are determined by the mass of the gravitationally unstable gas cloud and the prolonged gas accretion over many Myr. The simulations thus exhibit features of both monolithic collapse and competitive accretion. Even considering possible dust induced fragmentation that would occur at higher densities, the formation of a bona fide stellar cluster seems to require metal line cooling and metallicities of at least 10^-3 Zsun.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Alexander P. Ji, Anna Frebel, Volker Bromm
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the impact of dust-induced gas fragmentation on the formation of the first low-mass, metal-poor stars (< 1M_sun) in the early universe. Previous work has posited the existence of a critical dust-to-gas ratio, below which dust thermal cooling is unable to cause fragmentation. Using silicon-based (rather than carbon-based) dust compositions, we compute such critical dust-to-gas ratios and associated critical silicon abundances. We evaluate the robustness of these critical values by considering variations in the dust chemical composition, grain size distribution, and star formation environment. Variations in the dust chemical composition are less important than variations in the size distribution, and the most likely environment where dust cooling becomes significant is in a rotationally supported protostellar disk. We test the dust cooling theory by comparing to silicon abundances observed in metal-poor stars. Several stars have silicon abundances low enough to rule out fragmentation induced by dust which follows a standard Milky Way grain size distribution. Moreover, two of the most iron-poor stars have such low silicon abundances that even dust with a shocked grain size distribution cannot easily explain their formation. We see evidence that stars with [Fe/H] < -4.0 exhibit either high carbon and low silicon abundances or the reverse. This suggests that the earliest low-mass star formation in the most metal-poor regime likely proceeded through two distinct pathways, one that relied on fine structure cooling and one that relied on dust cooling. This naturally explains both the carbon-rich and carbon-normal stars at extremely low [Fe/H].
    07/2013;
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    Athena Stacy, Volker Bromm
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    ABSTRACT: We perform numerical simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system under photodissociating feedback. We start from cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, self-consistently following the formation of a minihalo at z = 15 and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities. The simulations resolve scales as small as ~ 1 AU, corresponding to gas densities of 10^16 cm^-3. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we evolve the stellar system for the next 5000 years. We find that this emerging stellar group accretes at an unusually low rate compared with minihalos which form at earlier times (z = 20 - 30), or with lower baryonic angular momentum. The stars in this unusual system will likely reach masses ranging from < 1 M_sun to 5 M_sun by the end of their main-sequence lifetimes, placing them in the mass range for which stars will undergo an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Based upon the simulation, we predict the existence of Population III stars that have survived to the present day and have been enriched by mass overflow from a previous AGB companion.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Milos Milosavljevic, Volker Bromm
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    ABSTRACT: The population of dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies in the Local Group has emerged as a powerful probe of dark matter clustering on small spatial scales and of cosmic reionization. The dwarf spheroidals are also interesting in view of the continuity of structural and chemical properties they share with each other, with dwarf irregular galaxies in the field, and with the more massive spheroidal galaxies in high-density environments. By connecting empirical constraints derived for star formation at low gas column densities and metallicities in the local universe with a model for dark matter and baryonic mass assembly, we provide an analytical description of how the dwarf spheroidals acquired their stellar content. Their progenitors formed stars until their gas content, initially reduced from the cosmic average by the thermal pressure of the reionized intergalactic medium, is finally ram pressure stripped during the progenitors' accretion onto the host galaxy. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of differing luminosities seem to share very similar most massive progenitor histories that reach thresholds for gas cooling by atomic line emission at epochs at which the Lagrangian volume of the Local Group should have been reionized. We hypothesize that it is the star formation in a reionized universe, rather than preceding reionization, that defines their properties. This model provides an explanation for the "common mass scale" relation of Strigari et al. (2008) and reproduces the empirical luminosity-size and luminosity-metallicity relations if assuming that star formation was quiescent and confined to the cold atomic phase stochastically condensing in partially rotationally supported HI disks.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the operation of the chemothermal instability in primordial star-forming clouds with a suite of three-dimensional, moving-mesh simulations. In line with previous studies, we find that the gas at the centre of high-redshift minihaloes becomes chemothermally unstable as three-body reactions convert the atomic hydrogen into a fully molecular gas. The competition between the increasing rate at which the gas cools and the increasing optical depth to H2 line emission creates a characteristic dip in the cooling time over the free-fall time on a scale of 100 au. As a result, the free-fall time decreases to below the sound-crossing time, and the cloud may become gravitationally unstable and fragment on a scale of a few tens of au during the initial free-fall phase. In three of the nine haloes investigated, secondary clumps condense out of the parent cloud, which will likely collapse in their own right before they are accreted by the primary clump. In the other haloes, fragmentation at such an early stage is less likely. However, given that previous simulations have shown that the infall velocity decreases substantially once the gas becomes rotationally supported, the amount of time available for perturbations to develop may be much greater than is evident from the limited period of time simulated here.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 434(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Athena Stacy, Volker Bromm
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of ~36%, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, ~50% are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and ~50% of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 433(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the cosmological simulations performed in the recent work of Greif et al. (2012), which followed the early growth and merger history of Pop III stars while resolving scales as small as 0.05 R_sol. This is the first set of cosmological simulations to self-consistently resolve the rotation and internal structure of Pop III protostars. We find that Pop III stars form under significant rotational support which is maintained for the duration of the simulations. The protostellar surfaces spin from ~50% to nearly 100% of Keplerian rotational velocity. These rotation rates persist after experiencing multiple stellar merger events. In the brief time period simulated (~ 10 yr), the protostars show little indication of convective instability, and their properties furthermore show little correlation with the properties of their host minihaloes. If Pop III protostars within this range of environments generally form with high degrees of rotational support, and if this rotational support is maintained for a sufficient amount of time, this has a number of crucial implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the possibility for Pop III pair-instability supernovae, and the question of whether the first stars produced gamma-ray bursts.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2012; 431(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Athena Stacy, Thomas H. Greif, Volker Bromm
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    ABSTRACT: We perform 3-D cosmological simulations to examine the growth of metal-free, Population III (Pop III) stars under radiative feedback. We trace the evolution of gas and dark matter until the formation of the first minihalo, and follow the collapse of the minihalo's gas up to densities of n = 1012cm-3. We then implement the sink particle method while modeling the effect of Lyman-Werner (LW) and ionizing radiation emitted by the initial protostar over the next 5000 yr. A disk assembles around the first protostar, and radiative feedback does not prevent further fragmentation of the disk to form multiple Pop III stars. Feedback leads to heating of the dense gas to several thousand Kelvin, and this warm region expands outward at the gas sound speed. Once this region extends to the size of the disk, the disk mass declines while the accretion rate onto the protostars is reduced by an order of magnitude. The main sink will approach an asymptotic value of 30 Msolar by the time it reaches the main sequence. Such unexpectedly low Pop III masses may have important consequences for the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae in the early Universe as well as the Pop III chemical signature in the oldest stars observable today.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate how radiative feedback from the first stars affects the assembly of the first dwarf galaxies. We perform cosmological zoomed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of a galaxy assembling inside a halo reaching a virial mass ~ 109 Msolar at z = 10. The simulations follow the non-equilibrium chemistry and cooling of primordial gas and the subsequent conversion of the cool dense gas into massive metal-free stars. To quantify the radiative feedback, we compare a simulation in which stars emit both molecular hydrogen dissociating and hydrogen ionizing radiation with a simulation in which stars do not emit radiation but remain dark. Photodissociation and photoionization exert a strong negative feedback on the assembly of the galaxy inside the minihalo progenitor, impeding gas condensation and suppressing star formation. The radiative feedback on the gas implies a suppression of the central dark matter densities in the minihalo by factors of up to a few, which is a significant deviation from the singular isothermal density profile characterizing the dark matter distribution in the absence of radiative feedback. The properties of the galaxy become insensitive to the inclusion of radiation once the minihalo turns into an atomic cooler. The formation of a rotationally supported extended disk inside the atomically cooling galaxy therefore is a robust outcome of our simulations. Our simulations make predictions for observations with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We study how the first galaxies were assembled under feedback from the accretion onto a central black hole (BH) that is left behind by the first generation of metal-free stars through selfconsistent, cosmological simulations. X-ray radiation fromthe accretion of gas onto BH remnants of Population III (Pop III) stars, or from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), again involving Pop III stars, influences the mode of second generation star formation. We track the evolution of the black hole accretion rate and the associated X-ray feedback startingwith the death of the Pop III progenitor star inside a minihalo and following the subsequent evolution of the black hole as the minihalo grows to become an atomically cooling galaxy. We find that X-ray photoionization heating from a stellar-mass BH is able to quench further star formation in the host halo at all times before the halo enters the atomic cooling phase. X-ray radiation from a HMXB, assuming a luminosity close to the Eddington value, exerts an even stronger, and more diverse, feedback on star formation. It photoheats the gas inside the host halo, but also promotes the formation of molecular hydrogen and cooling of gas in the intergalactic medium and in nearby minihalos, leading to a net increase in the number of stars formed at early times. Our simulations further show that the radiative feedback from the first BHs may strongly suppress early BH growth, thus constraining models for the formation of supermassive BHs.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the process of metal-free star formation in the first galaxies with a high-resolution cosmological simulation. We consider the scenario in which a strong molecule-destroying Lyman-Werner (LW) background inhibits effective cooling in low-mass halos, delaying star formation until the collapse or more massive halos. Only when molecular hydrogen (H2) can self-shield from LW radiation, which requires a halo capable of cooling by atomic line emission, will star formation be possible. To follow the formation of multiple gravitationally bound objects, at high gas densities we introduce sink particles which accrete gas directly from the computational grid. We find that in a 1 Mpc3 (comoving) box, runaway collapse first occurs in a 3×107Msolar dark matter halo at z ~ 12 assuming a background intensity of J21 = 100. Due to a runaway increase in the H2 abundance and cooling rate, a self-shielding, supersonically turbulent core develops abruptly with 104 Msolar in cold gas available for star formation. We analyze the formation of this self-shielding core, the character of turbulence, and the prospects for star formation
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Theoretical models predict that some of the first stars ended their lives as extremely energetic Pair Instability Supernovae (PISNe). With energies approaching 1053 erg, these supernovae are expected to be within the detection limits of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) allowing observational constraints to be placed on the properties of the first stars. We estimate the source density of PISNe using a semi-analytic Press-Schecter based approach informed by cosmological simulations, with an upper limit of ~0.2 PISNe visible per JWST field of view at any given time. We find that the main obstacle to observing PISNe is their scarcity rather than their faintness. Given this we suggest a mosaic style search strategy for detecting PISNe from the first stars.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate how radiative feedback from the first stars affects the assembly of the first dwarf galaxies. We perform cosmological zoomed SPH simulations of a dwarf galaxy assembling inside a halo of virial mass 10^9 solar at z = 10. The simulations follow the non-equilibrium chemistry/cooling of primordial gas and the conversion of the gas into metal-free stars. To quantify the radiative feedback, we compare a simulation in which stars emit both molecular hydrogen dissociating and hydrogen/helium ionizing radiation with a simulation in which stars emit only dissociating radiation, and with a simulation in which stars remain dark. Photodissociation and -ionization exert a strong negative feedback on the assembly of the simulated galaxy. Gas condensation is strongly impeded, and star formation is strongly suppressed in comparison with the simulation in which stars remain dark. The feedback on the gas implies a suppression of the central dark matter densities in the minihalo progenitor by factors of up to a few, which is a significant deviation from the singular isothermal density profile characterizing the dark matter distribution in the absence of radiative feedback. The evolution of gas densities, star formation rates, and the distribution of dark matter becomes insensitive to the inclusion of dissociating radiation in the late stages of the minihalo assembly, and it becomes insensitive to the inclusion of ionizing radiation once the minihalo turns into an atomically cooling galaxy. The formation of an extended disk inside the dwarf galaxy is a robust outcome not affected by the inclusion of radiation. We estimate that dwarf galaxies such as simulated here will be among the faintest galaxies the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope will detect. Our conclusions are subject to our neglect of feedback from supernovae and chemical enrichment as well as to cosmic variance. [abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from our cosmological simulations of the first stages of galaxy formation. We use Gadget-2 (Springel 2005), modified to include detailed cooling, chemistry, and radiative transfer of primordial gas to study the impact of the first stars on galaxy formation. In contrast to previous work, we apply a realistic treatment of stellar feedback by using updated stellar models for the first stars. In this proceeding, we briefly summarize how stellar feedback from the first stars affects the primordial IGM inside the first galaxies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2012; 8(S295).
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    ABSTRACT: We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Pop III GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly-resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature >10^4 K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1+z) with values of about a few cm^{-3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n>100 cm^{-3}. The resulting afterglow fluxes may be detectable with the JWST and VLA in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z>20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages. We show that if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines can distinguish whether the first heavy elements were produced in a PISN, or a core-collapse (Type II) SN, thus constraining the initial mass function of the first stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2012; 760(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the process of metal-free star formation in the first galaxies with a high-resolution cosmological simulation. We consider the cosmologically motivated scenario in which a strong molecule-destroying Lyman-Werner (LW) background inhibits effective cooling in low-mass haloes, delaying star formation until the collapse or more massive haloes. Only when molecular hydrogen (H2) can self-shield from LW radiation, which requires a halo capable of cooling by atomic line emission, will star formation be possible. To follow the formation of multiple gravitationally bound objects, at high gas densities we introduce sink particles which accrete gas directly from the computational grid. We find that in a 1 Mpc^3 (comoving) box, runaway collapse first occurs in a 3x10^7 M_sun dark matter halo at z~12 assuming a background intensity of J21=100. Due to a runaway increase in the H2 abundance and cooling rate, a self-shielding, supersonically turbulent core develops abruptly with ~10^4 M_sun in cold gas available for star formation. We analyze the formation of this self-shielding core, the character of turbulence, and the prospects for star formation. Due to a lack of fragmentation on scales we resolve, we argue that LW-delayed metal-free star formation in atomic cooling haloes is very similar to star formation in primordial minihaloes, although in making this conclusion we ignore internal stellar feedback. Finally, we briefly discuss the detectability of metal-free stellar clusters with the James Webb Space Telescope.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2012; 426(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that nucleosynthetic output of the first, Population III supernovae was a catalyst defining the character of subsequent stellar generations. Most of the work on the earliest enrichment was carried out assuming that the first stars were extremely massive and that the associated supernovae were unusually energetic, enough to completely unbind the baryons in the host cosmic minihalo and disperse the synthesized metals into the intergalactic medium. Recent work, however, suggests that the first stars may in fact have been somewhat less massive, with a characteristic mass scale of a few tens of solar masses. We present a cosmological simulation following the transport of the metals synthesized in a Population III supernova assuming that it had an energy of 10^51 ergs, compatible with standard Type II supernovae. A young supernova remnant is inserted in the first star's relic HII region in the free expansion phase and is followed for 40 Myr, all with the help of adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian tracer particle techniques. The supernova remnant remains partially trapped within the minihalo and the thin snowplow shell develops pronounced instability and fingering. Roughly half of the ejecta turn around and fall back toward the center of the halo, with 1% of the ejecta reaching the center in ~30 kyr and 10% in ~10 Myr. The average metallicity of the combined returning ejecta and the pristine filaments feeding into the halo center from the cosmic web is ~ 0.001-0.01 Z_sun, but the two remain unmixed until accreting onto the central hydrostatic core that is unresolved at the end of the simulation. We conclude that if Population III stars had less extreme masses, they promptly enriched the host minihalos with metals and triggered Population II star formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 761(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
499 Downloads
692.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2010
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Heidelberg University
      Tiffin, Ohio, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Cambridge, MA, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Exeter
      Exeter, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2002
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States