P. Anumolu

Northrop Grumman, Falls Church, Virginia, United States

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Publications (14)0 Total impact

  • Ronald Pirich, Praveen Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: Key parameters such as power dissipation, switching delay, crosstalk and error rates are important for overall information system performance and next generation military applications such as communications, data transfer and beam forming networks for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms. For the DoD and aerospace community, the electronic battlespace has evolved to a wideband environment that continuously expands. Next-generation electronically scanned array (ESA) requirements will include receive apertures with high gain, low sidelobes, continuous wideband, dual polarization multifunctional output, transmit power similar to or greater than current systems and transmit/receive (T/R) modules located at the array element. RF photonics insertion into antenna systems may expand in areas including RF pre-processing and filtering, RF front-end technology, analog-to-digital conversion and beam forming networks for both manned and unmanned ISR applications. Microwave photonic and carbon nanotube (CNT) links may appear frequently in future military antenna systems as photonic and CNT link performance continues to improve, The selection and integration of next-generation high-speed interconnect technologies will include an intelligent combination of copper, fiber optics and the emerging field of carbon nanotube technology. We will present a comparison of the physical and electromagnetic properties of copper, fiber optics and carbon nanotubes and some of the requirements for next-generation high-speed interconnect technologies for manned and unmanned system applications.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The design of present and future electromagnetic systems, in an increasingly electronically complex world, is going to depend upon the speed and efficiency of our computational systems. Many of these computations require the use of first principle electromagnetic codes to perform full wave analyses. Unfortunately, these methods are very time consuming and memory prohibitive due to the inherent complexity of the systems being designed. At present, the models currently being used for analysis of electromagnetic computations could take days or even weeks to formulate a solution. Since real-time computation analysis is essential for efficient design, Northrop Grumman has been working extensively to discover ways in which to make these necessary calculations faster and more efficient. The rate at which signals are sampled in order to capture all of the information of a signal is equal to twice the Fourier bandwidth of the signal (Nyquist rate). However, we have found that many important electromagnetic problems have a property called sparseness, where some of the Fourier coefficients are negligible thus allowing the number of samples required to capture all of the signal's information to be reduced. This approach, called compressive sampling (CS), can be used to exploit signal sparseness and allow signals to be sampled without losing information. We have been developing the concept of CS, applying it to reduce the computational time required for complex electromagnetic problems and interfacing this capability with first principle electromagnetic codes to perform full wave analyses.
    01/2010;
  • R. Pirich, P. Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: Microwave photonic and carbon nanotube links may appear separately and synergistically in future military antenna systems. As photonic and CNT link performance continues to improve, RF photonics insertion into antenna systems may expand in areas including RF pre-processing and filtering, RF front-end technology, A/D conversion, true time delay (TTD) beam forming network for both manned and unmanned ISR applications.
    Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Phototonics Technology Conference, 2009. AVFOP '09. IEEE; 10/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems are becoming increasingly more electronically complex with requirements for apertures that are susceptible to various sources of electromagnetic interference and compatibility (EMI/EMC). Validated electromagnetic environmental effects modeling and simulation of these advanced apertures is critical to enhance overall ISR performance. The current tactical battlespace presents a complex operating electromagnetic environment. Electromagnetic modeling and simulation toolsets are faced with challenges including RF design of realistic but complex problems which must be solved using less computation time. Aperture-related design, modeling and simulation focuses on antenna gain characteristics, developing phased array antenna concepts as well as analyzing and minimizing the electromagnetic interactions among elements of an electronic system and its environment. As apertures become more closely spaced together on a specific platform architecture, interference may occur as a result of both near and far field coupling as well as cosite intermodulation. This interference can involve amplifier distortion, limits on input/output power, interferences due to interaction between desired and unwanted signals, changes in input impedance, radiation impedance, current distribution and radiation patterns. Northrop Grumman, in collaboration with the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, are developing advanced electromagnetic modeling and simulation toolsets including first principle electromagnetic codes, such as method of moments (MoM) and Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM), to perform full wave analysis of near field coupling and obtain the effective radiation patterns for each of the localized aperture systems. A reduction in EMI may be required in order to ensure enough interference free operation during active ISR, as these platforms evolve into more complex, multi-mission ISR networked syste- ms. New platforms are going to have unique electromagnetic compatibility issues that require both phenomenology and validated first principal electromagnetic modeling so that the platform can provide a broad array of wideband passive sensors as well as active arrays. This paper will review very basic to more complicated interference phenomena and approaches to minimize these effects.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The success of present and future intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems, in an increasingly electromagnetically complex world, is going to depend directly upon the speed and efficiency of our computational systems. These systems are used for advanced electromagnetic computations such as antenna cosite coupling, intermodulation, and radar cross section (RCS) analyses, among many more applications. Such computations require the use of first principle electromagnetic codes, such as method of moments (MoM) and Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM), to perform full wave analyses. Unfortunately, these methods are very time consuming and memory prohibitive due to the inherent complexity of our ISR systems. At present, the models currently being used for analysis of EM computations could take days or even weeks to formulate a solution. Many times, it takes hours to simply determine if there is an error in the problem or if it is unsolvable. Since real-time computation analysis is so important to the defense industry, Northrop Grumman has been working extensively to discover ways in which to make these necessary calculations faster and more efficient. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computation offers a unique opportunity for electromagnetic simulation acceleration. GPU technology has been advancing faster than CPU technology due to a consumer fueled gaming industry. GPUs use a unique pixel based system that can not be simulated in an ordinary CPU and therefore allows for unique benefits when running computations. Northrop Grumman has been collaborating with Stony Brook University to explore their research in GPU computation. Northrop Grumman has its own, functioning, 6 node GPU cluster that we hope to use, in parallel with compressive sensing. Our GPU cluster will be able to parallelize the complex computations across the six nodes of the system, which will again decrease computation time. GPU computation has many applications besides electromagnetic- modeling and RCS analysis. These modern adaptations for complex computing can be applied to virtually any large, complex and time-consuming problem. With these modifications, we hope to be able to increase the ability of our systems to handle computations that are more difficult because the complexity of our world will only continue to increase.
    01/2009;
  • R. Pirich, P. Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: Microwave photonic links and RF photonics will appear frequently in military antenna systems. As photonic link performance continues to improve, RF Photonics insertion into antenna systems will expand in areas including RF pre-processing and filtering, RF front-end technology, A/D conversion, photonic switched true time delay (TTD) beam forming networks for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance as well as electronic warfare manned and unmanned applications.
    Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conference, 2008 IEEE; 11/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Energy consumption is becoming a more important issue in the United States. High oil prices, volatile political climates, and greater environmental concerns, and awareness to the costs of energy usage have led to an emphasis on conservation. One area where there is increasing research is in increased fuel economy. An area where there are many commercial solutions is hybrid vehicles. As of the end of 2007, over a million hybrid vehicles have been sold worldwide. This widespread adoption has led some to find ways in which to increase hybrid fuel economy. One such means is to augment hybrid vehicles with plug-in technology. Such solutions currently involve people converting commercial hybrid vehicles using inverters, batteries, and reprogrammed computers. These solutions can often increase gas mileage by over 20%. However, it is less clear as to the savings one would achieve economically and environmentally. Here we perform an analysis using the Toyota Prius as a platform.
    Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, 2008 IEEE Long Island; 06/2008
  • R. Pirich, C. Basanez, P. Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future electronic warfare (EW) & intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems are becoming increasingly more electronically complex with requirements for external antennas and apertures that are susceptible to various sources of electromagnetic interference and compatibility (EMI/EMC). A reduction in EMI may be required in order to ensure interference free operation during active jamming and ISR, as these platforms evolve into more complex, multi-mission ISR networked systems. One of the most difficult EMI/EMC problems that result from integrating many transmitters, receivers and antennas on one platform is cosite EMI. Technologies such as advanced interference cancellation systems, cosite managers, advanced antenna design, and low-loss, multi-port antenna couplers are being investigated to mitigate cosite interference. One type of cosite interference is intermodulation. Intermodulation and intermodulation distortion (IMD) is the result of two or more signals of different frequencies being mixed together, forming additional signals at frequencies that are not, in general, at harmonic frequencies (integer multiples) of either. Sources for intermodulation include amplifiers, mixers, passive devices, antennas structural geometry and nearby objects and selection and corrosion of materials. For antenna systems, a simple approach to this problem is to physically separate the receive antenna from the transmit antenna, on platforms such as aircraft, helicopters, spacecraft, ships, and buildings. However this solution may not be possible due to limited space and other platform constraints. The IMD problem is usually too complex to be accomplished by a single numerical approach because the size of the structure is too large, the material properties and geometries are very complex, the number of parameters are considerable, and range of parameters are very computationally large. Another solution is to develop a cosite interference rejection appro- - ach to cancel the coupled power from the interfering coupled signal obtained by the receive antenna. This paper will review very basic to more complicated cosite interference phenomena and approaches to minimize these effects.
    Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, 2008 IEEE Long Island; 06/2008
  • Ronald Pirich, Thomas Innes, Praveen Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: A detailed protocol is needed for the terminus endface geometry preparation. Good optical performance can be realized despite an improper endface preparation. The importance of proper endface preparation will not only optimize optical transmittance, but will increase the in-service life of the terminus interconnect. There is a critical need to properly articulate the termini preparation. The many sizes and insert arrangements in fiber-optic connectors have created several overriding maintainability issues, e.g., how to properly test the fiber-optic cable plant and how to properly clean the fiber-optic termini. The need to establish a test point in a fiber-optic connector may require the use of a "breakout" connector system that allows test and measurement equipment to launch and measure optical power from the cable plant connector. The feasibility of using maintenance-breaks, short fiber optic cables that connect to the end of the cable and function as "sacrificial plugs in a system, should be considered.
    01/2008;
  • R. Pirich, P. Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: An enabling technology for next-generation EW systems is an all fiber optic backplane. Fiber optic systems are rapidly evolving and this paper will review the application of fiber optics for aircraft and specifically EW applications.
    Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conference, 2007 IEEE; 11/2007
  • P. Anumolu, R. Pirich
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    ABSTRACT: Modern avionics have created requirements for the insertion of fiber-optic technologies. Applications, such as fly by light, net-centric warfare, high fidelity sensing and in-flight entertainment find utility in the increased bandwidth of fiber optic networks. In addition, in applications involving standoff jamming (SOJ) and radar sensing, there is a need for electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune systems. In still other systems, there is a drive to decreasing weight, where fiber optics can be a solution. When considering the replacement of electronics with fiber optics in legacy avionics systems, it is sometimes unclear whether fiber-optic technologies will lead to an overall benefit. At times, fiber optics are inserted without a rigorous analysis of the benefits. In this paper, we define some considerations for fiber optics insertion and derive a rubric to serve as a guideline for insertion.
    Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conference, 2007 IEEE; 11/2007
  • R. Pirich, P. Anumolu, D. Schefer
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    ABSTRACT: The phenomenological study of magnetic, electric and electromagnetic field interactions with barrier structures and materials is important to understand from the standpoint of designing for the effects of stray magnetic and electric fields on sensitive electronic equipment for evolving aircraft applications to advanced sensors and systems for urban warfare. Northrop Grumman integrated systems eastern region (ISER) has developed a world-class, robust and validated electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) modeling and simulation (M&S) capability and has performed preliminary M&S of various barrier structures to gain an initial understanding of the phenomenology which must be used as a systems design tool, to design realistic and meaningful test/validation experiments, as well as to validate experimental results for a range of parametric barrier structural enclosures and architectures. ISER is using fundamental, first principal electromagnetic modeling tools, as well as unique hybrids of these phenomenological descriptions, to accurately describe E, H, and RF propagation through complex media/barrier structures. These M&S tools, coupled with laboratory validation measurements, are being used to establish key metrics and performance parameters of individual as well as networked configurations. This presentation will review very basic to more complicated electromagnetic wave/barrier interactions.
    Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, 2007. LISAT 2007. IEEE Long Island; 06/2007
  • R. Pirich, P. Anumolu, D. Schefer
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    ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. Curved surface diffraction is a phenomenon that is relevant in many areas of communications such as cellular telephony, Wi-Fi access, and ground and vehicle (e.g., aircraft and naval ships) EMI. We have been characterizing electronic warfare (EW) and information, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platform electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) phenomenology. Some of the approaches to mitigate platform EMI include: (i) isolation to re-scatter surface or traveling waves, (ii) patch or conformal antenna replacement architectures for receiving antennas, (iii) adaptive arrays collocated with the receiving antenna, and (iv) selective placement of magnetic radar absorbing material (MagRAM) to attenuate surface (traveling), specular and diffraction induced scattering. We are performing modeling, simulation and validation experiments aimed at quantifying the effectiveness of selected MagRAM treatments to minimize the effect of electromagnetic interference. This effort is developing a robust materials database to optimize electromagnetic 'attenuation versus MagRAM material type, loading fraction, weight and thickness, and accurately measuring intrinsic properties and bulk specular, surface wave and edge diffraction. This approach is allowing us to quantitatively establish a validated database for future applications. In this regards, we have been measuring RF scattering from several curved surface mockups. To ensure we are measuring the energy diffracted from the curved surface, we have to ensure that the mockup is large enough so that the curved surface diffracted energy is large compared to the energy coming from other paths. To this end, we have designed and fabricated a "universal" curved surface test body. This test body can have its dimensions and degree of curvature parametrically altered and can accommodate various surface treatments for test characterization and comparison with modeling & simulation. Highlights of these efforts,- to quantitatively ascertain levels of isolation, which can be reasonably obtained by localized passive techniques, were discussed.
    Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, 2006. LISAT 2006. IEEE Long Island; 06/2006
  • R. Pirich, D. Hernandez, P. Anumolu
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology, 2005. IEEE Conference; 06/2005