Hisakazu Fukasawa

University of Shizuoka, Sizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

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Publications (4)9.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: On days with clear skies in late August 2002 diurnal changes in the within-branch heterogeneity of photosynthetic photon flux density at the leaf surface (PPFDs) and leaf temperature (T leaf) were measured at natural leaf orientations in the upper and lower layers of a Fagus crenata crown. The PPFDs and T leaf measurements were converted to branch photosynthesis rates (P B; μmols−1) using a photosynthetic model proposed by Farquhar et al. (Planta 149:78–90, 1980), an empirical stomatal conductance model suggested by Leuning et al. (Plant Cell Environ 18:339–335, 1995), and the total leaf area of the branches. To evaluate the importance of the variation in PPFDs and T leaf on photosynthesis calculations, P B calculated with the observed variation in PPFDs and T leaf was compared with estimates, based on the average (variation-free) values of PPFDs and T leaf, respectively. In both the layers, daily total P B values obtained with T leaf averaging were very close to those obtained with no averaging because of the weak inflection of the net photosynthesis rate (P n) to T leaf curves in the observed T leaf ranges (24.4–36.5 and 21.9–29.1°C in the upper and lower layers, respectively) and relatively small variation in within-branch T leaf at each time of day. This finding applied across potential climate conditions on fine days in August (T leaf range of 19.4–41.5 and 16.9–34.1°C in the upper and lower layers, respectively) and when the spatial scale was increased from branch to leaf layer, which increased the maximum variation in within-branch T leaf from 7.8 to 9.5°C and 4.5 to 5.5°C in the upper and lower layers, respectively. In contrast, averaging PPFDs caused 25–50% and 41–90% overestimation of daily total P B in the upper and lower layers, respectively, due to the sharp curvature in the PPFDs response curve to P n, and relatively large variation in within-branch PPFDs. Further, it led to overestimation of midday depression of P B in the upper layer, possibly because branch structural acclimation to incident light was neglected. Our results indicate that averaged values of T leaf could be used for the estimation of carbon gain at layer scale throughout August, but spatial variations in PPFDs need to be considered in detail for reliable estimates of carbon gain.
    Trees 01/2009; 23(5):1053-1064. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.
    Tree Physiology 09/2008; 28(9):1421-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An understanding of spatial variations in gas exchange parameters in relation to the light environment is crucial for modeling canopy photosynthesis. We measured vertical, horizontal and azimuthal (north and south) variations in photosynthetic capacity (i.e., the maximum rate of carboxylation: Vcmax), nitrogen content (N), leaf mass per area (LMA) and chlorophyll content (Chl) in relation to relative photosynthetic photon flux (rPPF) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown. The horizontal gradient of rPPF was similar in magnitude to the vertical gradient of rPPF from the upper to the lower crown. The rPPF in the north quadrant of the crown was slightly lower than in the south quadrant. Nitrogen content per area (Narea), LMA and Vcmax were strictly proportional to rPPF, irrespective of the vertical direction, horizontal direction and crown azimuth, whereas nitrogen content per dry mass, Chl per area and photosynthetic capacity per dry mass (Vm) were fairly constant. Statistical analyses separating vertical trends from horizontal and azimuthal trends indicated that, although horizontal and vertical light acclimation of leaf properties were similar, there were two significant azimuthal variations: (1) Vcmax was lower in north-facing leaves than in south-facing leaves for a given Narea, indicating low photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) of north-facing leaves; and (2) Vcmax was lower in north-facing leaves than in south-facing leaves for a given LMA, indicating low Vm of the north-facing leaves. With respect to the low PNUE of the north-facing leaves, there were no significant azimuthal variations in leaf CO2 conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site. Biochemical analysis indicated that azimuthal variations in nitrogen allocation to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and in nitrogen allocation between carboxylation (Rubisco and other Calvin cycle enzymes) and light harvesting machinery (Chl pigment-protein complexes) were not the main contributor to the difference in PNUE between north- and south-facing leaves. Lower specific activity of Rubisco may be responsible for the low PNUE of the north-facing leaves. Anatomical analysis indicated that not only high leaf density, which is compatible with a greater fraction of non-photosynthetic tissue, but also thick photosynthetic tissue contributed to the low Vm in the north-facing leaves. These azimuthal variations may need to be considered when modeling canopy photosynthesis based on the Narea-Vcmax or LMA-Vcmax relationship.
    Tree Physiology 06/2005; 25(5):533-44. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diurnal changes in gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf water potential (leaf) were measured to determine the environmental and physiological factors that limit carbon gain in the horizontal leaves of Fagus crenata Blume at the canopy top. Although midday depression of the net CO2 assimilation rate (An) and stomatal conductance (gH2O) were clearly evident on a fine day, the potential quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) was fairly constant around 0.83 throughout the day. This result indicates that the leaves at the canopy top do not suffer from chronic photoinhibition, and the excess energy is dissipated safely. Large reversible increases in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were evident on fine days. Therefore, the non-radiative energy dissipation of excess light energy contributed to avoid chronic photoinhibition. The electron transfer rate (ETR) reached maximum during the midday depression, and thus there was no positive relation between ETR and An under high light conditions, indicating a high rate of photorespiration and the absence of non-stomatal effect during midday. The protective mechanisms such as non-radiative energy dissipation and photorespiration play an important role in preventing photoinhibitory damage, and stomatal limitation is the main factor of midday depression of An. To separate the effect of air to leaf vapor pressure deficit (ALVPD) and leaf temperature (Tleaf) on gas exchange, the dependencies of An and gH2O on ALVPD and Tleaf were measured using detached branches under controlled conditions. An and gH2O were insensitive to an increase in Tleaf. With the increase in ALVPD, An and gH2O exhibited more than a 50% decrease even though water supply was optimum, suggesting the dominant role of high ALVPD in the midday depression of gH2O. We conclude that midday depression of An results from the midday stomatal closure caused by high ALVPD.
    Trees 01/2004; 18(5):510-517. · 1.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

38 Citations
9.56 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2005–2009
    • University of Shizuoka
      Sizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan