[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the differential effects of glycine at different levels in the induction of postischemic long-term potentiation, as well as in the neuronal damage induced by focal ischemia.
Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from rat hippocampal slice preparations. In vitro ischemia and postischemic long-term potentiation were induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation. In vivo ischemia was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.
In both in vitro and in vivo ischemia models, glycine at low level exerts deleterious effects in postischemic long-term potentiation and ischemic neuronal injury by modulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor coagonist site; whereas glycine at high level exerts neuroprotective effects by activation of glycine receptor and subsequent differential regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit components.
Our results provide a molecular basis for the dual roles of glycine in ischemic injury through distinct mechanisms, and they suggest that glycine receptors could be a potential target for clinical treatment of stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of neuronal NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is critical in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Protein kinase C (PKC) promotes NMDAR trafficking to the cell surface via interaction with NMDAR-associated proteins (NAPs). Little is known, however, about the NAPs that are critical to PKC-induced NMDAR trafficking. Here, we showed that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) could be a NAP that mediates the potentiation of NMDAR trafficking by PKC. PKC activation promoted the level of autophosphorylated CaMKII and increased association with NMDARs, accompanied by functional NMDAR insertion, at postsynaptic sites. This potentiation, along with PKC-induced long term potentiation of the AMPA receptor-mediated response, was abolished by CaMKII antagonist or by disturbing the interaction between CaMKII and NR2A or NR2B. Further mutual occlusion experiments demonstrated that PKC and CaMKII share a common signaling pathway in the potentiation of NMDAR trafficking and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Our results revealed that PKC promotes NMDA receptor trafficking and induces synaptic plasticity through indirectly triggering CaMKII autophosphorylation and subsequent increased association with NMDARs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of neuronal NMDA receptor is critical in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Protein kinase C (PKC) promotes
NMDA receptor (NMDAR) trafficking to the cell surface via interaction with NMDAR-associated proteins (NAPs). Little is known,
however, about the NAPs that are critical to PKC-induced NMDAR trafficking. Here, we showed that CaMKII could be a NAP that
mediates the potentiation of NMDAR trafficking by PKC. PKC activation promoted the level of autophosphorylated CaMKII and
increased association with NMDARs, accompanied by functional NMDAR insertion, at post- synaptic site. This potentiation, along
with PKC-induced LTP of AMPA receptor- mediated response, was abolished by CaMKII antagonist or by disturbing the interaction
between CaMKII and NR2A or NR2B. Further mutual occluding experiments demonstrated that PKC and CaMKII share a common signaling
pathway in the potentiation of NMDAR trafficking and LTP induction. Our results reveal that PKC promotes NMDA receptor trafficking
and induces synaptic plasticity through indirectly triggering CaMKII autophosphorylation and subsequent increased association
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycine in the hippocampus can exert its effect on both synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and extrasynaptic functional glycine receptors (GlyRs) via distinct binding sites. Previous studies have reported that glycine induces long-term potentiation (LTP) through the activation of synaptic NMDARs. However, little is known about the potential role of the activated GlyRs that are largely located in extrasynaptic regions. We report here that relatively high levels of glycine achieved either by exogenous glycine application or by the elevation of endogenous glycine accumulation with an antagonist of the glycine transporter induced long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The co-application of glycine with the selective GlyR antagonist strychnine changed glycine-induced LTD (Gly-LTD) to LTP. Blocking the postsynaptic GlyR-gated net chloride flux by manipulating intracellular chloride concentrations failed to elicit any changes in EPSCs. These results suggest that GlyRs are involved in Gly-LTD. Furthermore, this new form of chemical LTD was accompanied by the internalization of postsynaptic AMPA receptors and required the activation of NMDARs. Therefore, our present findings reveal an important function of GlyR activation and modulation in gating the direction of synaptic plasticity.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 05/2011; 36(9):1948-58. DOI:10.1038/npp.2011.86 · 7.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo experience induces changes in synaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit components, which are correlated with subsequent modifications of synaptic plasticity. However, little is known about how these subunit changes regulate the induction threshold of subsequent plasticity. At hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, we first examined whether a recent history of neuronal activity could affect subsequent synaptic plasticity through its actions on NMDAR subunit components. We found that prior activity history produced by priming stimulations (PSs) across a wide range of frequencies (1-100 Hz) could induce bidirectional changes in the NR2A/NR2B ratio, which governs the threshold for subsequent long-term potentiation/long-term depression (LTP/LTD). Manipulating the NR2A/NR2B ratio through partial NR2 subunit blockade mimicked the PS regulation of the LTP/LTD threshold. Our results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in the NR2A/NR2B ratio can be critical factors in metaplastic regulation of the LTP/LTD threshold.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 08/2009; 29(27):8764-73. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1014-09.2009 · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the plasticity of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie this neurologically important process. In a study of NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 synapses whose AMPA receptor (AMPAR) activity is totally blocked, we uncovered differences between the trafficking mechanisms that underlie the long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) that can be induced in these cells under these conditions. The LTP-producing protocol failed to induce a change in the amplitude of NMDAR-mediated postsynaptic currents (NMDAR EPSCs) in the first 5-10 min, but induced gradual enhancement of NMDAR EPSCs thereafter that soon reached a stable magnitude. This "slow" LTP of NMDAR EPSCs (LTP(NMDA)) was blocked by inhibiting exocytosis or actin polymerization in postsynaptic cells. By contrast, LTD of NMDAR EPSCs (LTD(NMDA)) was immediately inducible, and, although it was blocked by the actin stabilizer, it was unaffected by exocytosis or endocytosis inhibitors. Furthermore, concomitant changes in the decay time of NMDAR EPSCs suggested that differential switches in NR2 subunit composition accompanied LTP(NMDA) and LTD(NMDA), and these changes were blocked by the calcium buffer BAPTA or an mGluR antagonist. Our results suggest that LTP(NMDA) and LTD(NMDA) utilize different NMDAR trafficking pathways and express different ratios of NMDAR subunits on the postsynaptic surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson's disease (PD) was studied by employing a novel KATP channel opener iptakalim (Ipt). Apomorphine-induced rotation behavior test and microdialysis experiment were carried out in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Behavior test showed that systemic administration of Ipt failed to significantly alleviate apomorphine-induced rotation in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned PD model rats. However, using in vivo microdialysis in this PD model rats, it was found that Ipt could increase extracellular dopamine levels in the lesioned side of the striatum and decrease dopamine levels in the intact side of the striatum. Meanwhile, Ipt had no influence on glutamate levels in the intact side, but it did decrease glutamate levels in the lesioned side of the striatum of PD rats. Additionally, in primary cultured rat astrocytes, 6-OHDA decreased overall glutamate uptake activity, but this decrease was recovered and glutamate uptake activity was restored by the opening of KATP channels induced by Ipt and pinacidil. The classical KATP channel blocker glibenclamide completely abolished the effects of Ipt and pinacidil. The present study suggests that (i) the function of KATP channels in the lesioned and intact nigrostriatal pathway is different in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned PD model rats. (ii) KATP channels regulate extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the striatum of unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and may play neuroprotective roles due to their effects on glutamate transporters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iptakalim (Ipt) is a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener. It has been reported that Ipt inhibited cocaine-induced dopamine and glutamate release, suggesting that Ipt may regulate drug addiction. Recently, we found that Ipt blocked nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated currents in a heterologously expressed SH-EP1 cell line and in native midbrain dopamine neurons. In the present study, we examined whether Ipt prevents nicotine-induced neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) using in vivo microdialysis methods in awake, freely moving rats. Ipt was administered through a microdialysis probe, following systemic administration of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). The results show that acute nicotine treatment induced an increase of both dopamine and glutamate levels in the rat NAc, and that Ipt significantly attenuated nicotine's effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, Ipt may serve as a novel compound to block nicotine-induced dopamine and glutamate release in the brain reward center, in turn decreasing nicotine reinforcement and dependence.
Brain Research 05/2006; 1085(1):138-43. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.02.096 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies revealed that activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels exerted protective effects on rotenone-treated rats and cultured cells. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential therapeutic effects of iptakalim, an ATP-sensitive potassium-channel opener, and diazoxide, a selective mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium-channel opener, on Parkinsonian symptoms in rats induced by rotenone. Rats were treated with rotenone (2.5 mg/kg s.c.) daily for 4 wk. This treatment caused a depletion of dopamine in the striatum and substantia nigra. Behaviourally, rotenone-infused rats exhibit Parkinsonian symptoms. Catalepsy was estimated by a 9-cm bar test. Treatment with L-dopa (10 mg/kg.d p.o.), iptakalim (0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mg/kg.d p.o.) and diazoxide (3.0 mg/kg.d p.o.) for 2 wk improved behavioural dysfunction and elevated dopamine contents in the striatum and substantia nigra of rotenone-treated rats. Studies also found that iptakalim and diazoxide could reduce the enzymic activities and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase elicited by chronic administration of rotenone. All neurorestorative effects by both iptakalim and diazoxide were abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium-channel blocker. Collectively, the data suggested that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels play a key role in improving both Parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemistry alterations of rotenone model rats, and selective activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels may provide a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of early Parkinson's disease.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2006; 9(1):51-61. DOI:10.1017/S1461145705005547 · 5.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies revealed that iptakalim, a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, has a significant neuroprotective function against ischemia in vivo or rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. To investigate the potential pharmaceutical benefit of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers on neurodegenerative diseases, we studied the effects of iptakalim and diazoxide, a selective mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, on the rotenone-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in rats. Iptakalim (1.5 mg/kg/day, orally) or diazoxide (1.5 mg/kg/day, orally) alone was administered to rats for 3 days, and then for 4 weeks was used daily with an injection of rotenone (2.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) 1 hr later each time. The results showed that rotenone-infused rats exhibited parkinsonian symptoms and had dopamine depletion in the striatum and substantia nigra. Pretreatment with iptakalim or diazoxide prevented rotenone-induced catalepsy and the reduction of striatum dopamine contents. Moreover, iptakalim and diazoxide reduced the enzymatic activities and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase elicited by chronic administration of rotenone. These neuroprotective effects of iptakalim and diazoxide were abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker. In conclusion, our data suggested that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels might play a key role in preventing both parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemistry alterations induced by rotenone in rats. The selective activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels may provide a new therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 05/2005; 80(3):442-9. DOI:10.1002/jnr.20467 · 2.73 Impact Factor