[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many in situ conservation programs have been developed to preserve plant landrace diversity and to promote its sustainable utilization, but little is known about the effectiveness of the developed programs in conserving plant genetic diversity. We investigated the effectiveness of an unregulated (i.e., unplanned or open) conservation system maintained by Thai farmers in conserving Thai elite cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties. Specifically, we compared genetic diversity of 266 cassava clones that were collected from 80 farms in eight provinces with 16 cassava landraces and varieties released since the 1970s through genotyping with 35 informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The SSR analysis revealed a large regional heterogeneity in cassava diversity, with a strong genetic differentiation of the assayed clones among the 80 farms (19.8 %) and across the eight provinces (11.8 %). Significant associations were also found between SSR variation and farm agro-ecological factors or some farming practices. However, there was no significant genetic differentiation (0.9 %) between the 266 farm clones and 16 reference varieties. These findings suggest that the Thai elite cassava genetic diversity was fortuitously conserved by the farmers through farming with different sets of varieties. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for assessing genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. However, concerns are not lacking about the uniquely large unbalance in GBS genotype data. While some genotype imputation has been proposed to infer missing observations, little is known about the reliability of a genetic diversity analysis of GBS data with up to 90% of observations missing. Here we performed an empirical assessment of accuracy in genetic diversity analysis of highly incomplete SNP genotypes with imputations. Three large SNP genotype data sets for corn, wheat and rice were acquired, and missing data with up to 90% of missing observations were randomly generated and then imputed for missing genotypes with three map-independent imputation methods. Estimating heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient from original, missing and imputed data revealed variable patterns of bias from assessed levels of missingness and genotype imputation, but the estimation biases were smaller for missing data without genotype imputation. The estimates of genetic differentiation were rather robust up to 90% of missing observations, but became substantially biased when missing genotypes were imputed. The estimates of topology accuracy for four representative samples of interested groups were generally reduced with increased levels of missing genotypes. Probabilistic principal component analysis based imputation performed better in terms of topology accuracy than those analyses of missing data without genotype imputation. These findings are not only significant for understanding the reliability of the genetic diversity analysis with respect to large missing data and genotype imputation, but also are instructive for performing a proper genetic diversity analysis of highly incomplete GBS or other genotype data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuttall's salt-meadow, or alkali grass [Puccinellia nuttalliana (Shultes) Hitchc.], is a native grass species in North America, well known for its salt tolerance. Little information is available about the genetic diversity of natural populations of this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to examine the inter-population relationships and to compare variances within and among 23 populations collected from the Canadian Great Plains. Five AFLP primer pairs were employed to screen 15 genotypes (five sets of three half-sib plants) from each population, and 185 polymorphic AFLP bands were scored for each sample. The frequencies of these scored bands ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 with a mean of 0.60. The analysis of molecular variance revealed more than 96% of the total AFLP variation resided within populations. Populations were not highly differentiated with only 4% of the total AFLP variation residing among populations. A Mantel test revealed a significant but low correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r =0.29, P =0.024). Implications for P. nuttalliana conservation, germplasm sampling, and cultivar development are discussed.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science 11/2013; 93(6):1097-1104. DOI:10.4141/cjps2013-157 · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies make genotyping by sequencing (GBS) more feasible for molecular characterization of plant germplasm with complex and unsequenced genomes. We used a GBS protocol consisting of Roche 454 pyrosequencing, genomic reduction and advanced bioinformatics tools to analyze genetic diversity of 24 diverse yellow mustard accessions. One and one half 454 pyrosequencing runs generated roughly 1.2 million sequence reads totaling about 392 million nucleotides. Application of the computational pipeline DIAL identified 512 contigs and 828 SNPs. The BLAST algorithm revealed alignments of 214 contigs with the sequences reported in NCBI nr/nt database. Sanger sequencing confirmed 95 % of 41 selected contigs and 94 % of 240 putative SNPs. The 454 scored SNPs were highly imbalanced among assayed samples. Diversity analysis of these SNPs revealed that 26.1 % of the total variation resided among landrace, cultivar and breeding lines and 24.7 % between yellow- and black-seeded germplasm. Cluster analysis showed that the black-seeded accessions were largely clustered together and the breeding lines were grouped with known origin. Computer simulation was performed to assess the impact of 454 SNPs missing and revealed considerable changes in allelic count, bias in detection of genetic structure, and large deviations from the expected genetic-distance matrix. These findings are useful for parental selection consideration in yellow mustard breeding, and our detailed analyses help illustrate the utility of GBS in genetic-diversity analysis of plant germplasm, particularly for genetic-relationship assessment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fungus Phoma macrostoma Mont. isolate 94-44B was registered as a bioherbicide for control of broadleaved weeds in Canada and the USA in 2011 and 2012, respectively. To obtain the registrations, the fungus had to be characterised both biologically and genetically. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that bioherbicidal activity was associated with specific genetic markers and to determine whether bioherbicidal activity was a general trait of the species or only selected isolates. A collection of 64 isolates of P. macrostoma was established. A greenhouse bioassay and bioherbicidal-specific primers were used to determine bioherbicidal activity of all isolates. Only isolates originating from Canada thistle demonstrated the ability to reduce dandelion seedlings and display the 853 bp amplicon for the bioherbicidal-specific primer. Bioherbicidal isolates were consistently differentiated from all other isolates with two main genotypic groupings (I and II) arising from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) sequence analyses. Using AFLP, two biotypes of bioherbicidal isolates were also differentiated by the presence or absence of an AFLP marker at a single polymorphic locus. The genetic divergence among the bioherbicidal and nonbioherbicidal isolates of P. macrostoma was only 2.21% which was lower than that reported for other related Phoma sp. Other than the bioherbicidal trait, there was no apparent affiliation of the genetics with known varietal types, host or geographic origin. ITS sequence analysis and AFLP fingerprinting may be used as tools to detect bioherbicidal isolates of P. macrostoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness.
Ecology and Evolution 03/2012; 2(3):622-35. DOI:10.1002/ece3.101 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many plant disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned, but the potential of utilizing these plant R-gene genomic resources for genetic inferences of plant domestication history remains unexplored. A population-based resequencing analysis of the genomic region near the Rrs2 scald resistance gene was made in 51 accessions of wild and cultivated barley from 41 countries. Fifteen primer pairs were designed to sample the genomic region with a total length of 10 406 bp. More nucleotide diversity was found in wild (π = 0.01846) than cultivated (π = 0.01507) barley samples. Three distinct groups of 29 haplotypes were detected for all 51 samples, and they were well mixed with wild and cultivated barley samples from different countries and regions. The neutrality tests by Tajima's D were not significant, but a significant (P < 0.05) case by Fu and Li's D* and F* was found in the barley cultivar samples. The estimate of selection intensity by K(a)/K(s) was 0.691 in wild barley and 0.580 in cultivated barley. The estimate of the minimum recombination events was 16 in wild barley and 19 in cultivated barley. A coalescence simulation revealed a bottleneck intensity of 1.5 to 2 since barley domestication. Together, the domestication signal in the genomic region was weak both in human selection and domestication bottleneck.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.
Ecology and Evolution 01/2012; 2(1):139-52. DOI:10.1002/ece3.57 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) have enhanced the development of genomic resources such as contigs or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evolutionary studies of a nonmodel species with a complex and unsequenced genome. This study presents an application of a NGS technique in combination with genomic reduction and advanced bioinformatics tools to identify contigs and SNPs from multiple samples of two Linum species. A full Roche 454 GS FLX run of 16 diverse Linum samples representing cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its wild progenitor (Linum bienne Mill.) generated approximately 1.6 million sequence reads with a total length of 498 Mbp. Application of the computational pipeline de novo identification of alleles identified 713 contigs and 1067 SNPs. A blast search revealed alignments of all 713 contigs with 491 existing Linum scaffolds and gene annotations associated with 512 contigs. Sanger sequencing confirmed 95% of 79 selected contigs and 94% of 272 SNPs and identified 211 new SNPs and 19 new indels. The scored 454 SNP data were highly imbalanced for assayed samples. These findings not only are useful for evolutionary studies of Linum species but also help to illustrate the utility of NGS technologies in SNP discovery for nonmodel organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fibre crop, but little is known about its domestication process. Attempt was made here to assess
genetic relationships of 63 Linum accessions representing seven typical groups of cultivated flax and its wild progenitor, pale flax (Linum bienne Mill.), by using 49 informative expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) primer pairs. The seven groups
were pale flax from Turkey, pale flax from other countries, and five groups of cultivated flax (landrace, fibre, oil, winter,
and dehiscent). From these 63 samples, 366 polymorphic bands were detected, which likely represented 79 loci. These polymorphic
bands had frequencies that ranged from 0.016 to 0.984 and averaged 0.284. Group-specific EST-SSR variation (Fst values) ranged from 0.339 to 0.373 and averaged 0.349 and pairwise group EST-SSR variation ranged from 0.067 to 0.507.
A neighbor-joining clustering of these seven groups revealed that dehiscent flax clustered most closely to its wild progenitor,
pale flax, followed by oil flax and fibre flax. Winter flax clustered most closely to oil flax and less to pale flax. These
clustering patterns were essentially the same when individual samples were analyzed via neighbor-joining. These findings strongly
suggest that capsular dehiscence was among the first flax traits modified by human after initial domestication, reflecting
the importance that reducing capsular dehiscence likely played in early flax domestication.
KeywordsCultivated flax–Dehiscent flax–EST-SSR–Genetic relationship–
–Pale flax–Winter flax
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hairy prairie-clover [Dalea villosa (Nutt.) Spreng. var. villosa] is a threatened Canadian wildflower. To facilitate the efforts of conserving this threatened plant, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to assess genetic diversity in a remnant hairy prairie-clover population in the Canadian Prairie. Three AFLP primer pairs were employed to genotype 610 individual plants from the population and 15 plants from a North Dakota composite population, and 100 polymorphic AFLP bands were analyzed. The assayed plants displayed 23% AFLP variation present between the remnant population and the North Dakota composite population, but maintained a high level (91%) of AFLP variation within patches of the remnant population. The individual genetic distinctiveness measured by average AFLP dissimilarity was positively associated with latitude and negatively with elevation. The among-patch AFLP variation was significantly related to inter-patch distance, indicating local genetic differentiation within the remnant population. However, the proportions of within-patch AFLP variation were not associated with any patch characteristics assessed (i.e., patch size, perimeter, nearest neighbor distance, mean inter-patch distance). No fine-scale genetic structure was found within three large patches, suggesting little genetic correlations present for plants five meters apart. Some genetically distinctive and diverse patches were also identified. These findings indicate that the genetic risk of the remnant hairy prairie-clover population in the Canadian Prairie is low.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies can survey sequence variation on a genome-wide scale, but their utility for crop genetic diversity analysis is poorly known. Many challenges remain in their applications, including sampling complex genomes, identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and analyzing missing data. This study presented a practical application of the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium technology in combination with genomic reduction and an advanced bioinformatics tool to analyze the genetic relationships of 16 diverse barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces. A full 454 run generated roughly 1.7 million sequence reads with a total length of 612 Mbp. Application of the computational pipeline called DIAL (de novo identification of alleles) identified 2578 contigs and 3980 SNPs. Sanger sequencing of four barley samples confirmed 85 of the 100 selected contigs and 288 of the 620 putative SNPs and identified 735 new SNPs and 39 new indels. Several diversity analyses revealed the eastern and western division in the barley samples. The division is compatible with those inferred with 156 microsatellite alleles of the same 16 samples and consistent with our current knowledge about cultivated barley. These results help to illustrate the utility of NGS technologies for crop diversity studies. The NGS application also provides a new informative set of genomic resources for barley research.
The Plant Genome 11/2011; 4(3):226. DOI:10.3835/plantgenome2011.08.0022 · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fringed brome (Bromus ciliatus L.) is found in native stands throughout a large area of North America. Little is known about the genetic diversity of this species. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to assess the genetic diversity of 16 fringed brome populations sampled in Canada from the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Four AFLP primer pairs were employed to screen 82 samples with four to six samples per population and 83 polymorphic AFLP bands scored for each sample. The frequencies of the scored bands in all assayed samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.53. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 52.6% of the total AFLP variation resided among the 16 populations and 20.6% among the four provinces. The five Quebec populations appeared to be genetically the most diverse and distinct. The AFLP variability observed was significantly associated with the geographic origins of the fringed brome populations. These findings are useful for sampling fringed brome germplasm from natural populations for germplasm conservation and should facilitate the development of genetically diverse regional cultivars for habitat restoration and revegetation.
Canadian Journal of Botany 03/2011; 83(10):1322-1328. DOI:10.1139/b05-112 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diversity of pale flax (Linum bienne Mill.) as the progenitor of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.) has not been well documented and the domestication syndromes in cultivated flax are poorly understood. An attempt was
made to characterize 34 pale flax accessions and six cultivated flax accessions collected during 2007 summer in Turkey. A
total of 12 quantitative and 7 qualitative characters covering vegetative and generative plant parts, including phenological
traits, were assessed. The occurrence of yellow anthers well known in cultivated flax is reported for the first time in pale
flax. Pale flax displayed larger variation in vegetative plant parts and growth habit than the cultivated flax and more heterogeneity
within accessions. Within pale flax, a higher degree of variation was observed in many generative parts such as the flower
characters than in the capsule and seed characters. Based on the assayed characters, the pale flax from Turkey was grouped
into three clusters and these clusters were associated with site elevation and longitude, further confirming local genetic
differentiation in pale flax from Turkey. These findings are significant for further studies of flax domestication history
and useful for further exploitation of wild flax in genetic improvement of cultivated flax.
KeywordsCultivated flax–Domestication syndrome–Flax domestication–
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an old tuber crop with a recently renewed interest in multipurpose improvement, but little effort has been made to characterize its genetic resources. A study was conducted to assess ge-netic structure and genetic relatedness of 47 diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions using RAPD, ISSR and SRAP markers. A total of 296 (87.1%) polymorphic bands were detected from 13 RAPD markers; 92 (80%) from six ISSR primers; and 194 (88.6%) for nine combinations of SRAP primers. Five optimal clusters were inferred by the STRUC-TURE program from the RAPD or ISSR data, while six optimal clusters were found from the SRAP data or combined marker data. Significant linear relationships between the distance matrices for all pairs of individual accessions were detected for all marker pairs and the estimated correlation coefficient was 0.40 for RAPD-ISSR, 0.53 for RAPD-SRAP, and 0.43 for ISSR-SRAP. Based on the combined data, the neighbor-joining clustering of the 47 accessions matched closely with those inferred from the STRUCTURE program. Three ancestral groups were observed for the Canadian germplasm. Most diverse germplasm harbored in the USA collection. These findings not only reveal the compatible patterns of genetic structure and relatedness inferred with three marker types, but also are useful for managing Jerusa-lem artichoke germplasm and utilizing diverse germplasm for genetic improvement.
American Journal of Plant Sciences 01/2011; 02(06). DOI:10.4236/ajps.2011.26090
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the genetic diversity of pale flax (Linum bienne Mill.), the wild progenitor of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), and ex situ germplasm of pale flax was scarce. Effort was made to collect 34 pale flax accessions and five landrace accessions of cultivated
flax in Turkey. The inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was applied to characterize this set of flax germplasm,
along with one Turkish cultivar, one Russian cultivar, five winter and four dehiscent type accessions of cultivated flax.
Twenty-four ISSR primer pairs detected a total of 311 DNA fragments, of which 298 bands were polymorphic across 493 flax samples
(roughly 10 samples per accession). These polymorphic bands had frequencies ranging from 0.002 to 0.998 and averaging 0.38.
Accession-specific ISSR variation (Fst values) ranged from 0.469 to 0.514 and averaged 0.493. There was 49.3% ISSR variation resided among these 50 accessions,
35.9% harbored among landrace, winter, dehiscent types of cultivated flax and pale flax, and 38.2% present among 34 pale flax
accessions. Pale flax displayed more ISSR variation than landraces and dehiscent type, but less than winter type, of cultivated
flax. Clustering 493 individual plants revealed that these assayed plants were largely grouped according to their plant types
and that pale flax was genetically more close to the dehiscent type, followed by the winter type and landrace, of cultivated
flax. Pale flax collected within the geographic range of 180km displayed a significant spatial genetic autocorrelation. Genetic
distances among the pale flax accessions were significantly associated with their geographic distances and elevation differences.
These findings are significant for understanding flax domestication and its primary gene pool.
KeywordsFlax domestication-Flax wild relative-Genetic diversity-ISSR marker-
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One major challenge in genetic and evolutionary studies of wild flax species is the lack of informative molecular markers. A set of 100 informative expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) primer pairs developed in cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were characterized on 35 Linum accessions representing 17 Linum species for their transferability to other Linum species. Ninety-nine primer pairs displayed scorable polymorphisms across 35 Linum samples and generated 627 bands likely from 121 loci. About 50% of the detected bands occurred only in three or fewer samples. A total of 393 bands, likely from 116 loci, were detected by 97 primer pairs in Linumbienne Mill. samples, but only up to 60 bands, likely from up to 39 loci, were revealed by 6 to 37 primer pairs in the samples of the other 15 Linum species. The L.bienne samples displayed 23.7% more EST-SSR variation than the L.usitatissimum samples. These characterized EST-SSR markers should be useful for future genetic diversity and evolutionary studies of Linum species, particularly for the progenitor of cultivated flax.Un défi important pour les études en génétique et évolution concernant les espèces de lins sauvages est le manque de marqueurs moléculaires informatifs. Les auteurs ont caractérisé une collection de 100 marqueurs de type microsatellites dérivés d’étiquettes de séquences exprimées (EST-SSR) développées chez le lin cultivé (Linum usitatissimum L.) sur 35 accessions représentant 17 espèces de Linum, pour leur transfert potentiel chez d’autres espèces de Linum. Parmi les 35 échantillons de Linum, 99 paires d’amorces ont montré du polymorphisme et généré 627 bandes issues de 121 loci. Environ 50 % des bandes détectées sont apparues seulement dans trois échantillons ou moins. Un total de 393 bandes, issues de 116 loci, a été détecté à l’aide de 97 paires d’amorces chez les échantillons de L.bienne, mais pas plus que 60 bandes, issues des 39 loci, ont été mises en évidence par 6 à 37 paires d’amorces dans les échantillons regroupant les 15 autres espèces de Linum. Les échantillons de L.bienne présentaient 23,7% plus de variation allélique que ceux de L.usitatissimum. Ces marqueurs EST-SSR caractérisés devraient s'avérer intéressants pour les études futures de diversité génétique et d’évolution chez l’espèce Linum, particulièrement pour le progéniteur du lin cultivé.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic impacts under selective breeding of agricultural crops have been frequently investigated with molecular tools, but
inadequate attention has been paid to assess genetic changes under long-term genetic improvement of plant traits. Here we
analyzed allelic changes with respect to wheat trait improvement in 78 Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivars released from
1845 to 2004 and screened with 370 mapped SSR markers. The improvements in quality, maturity, yield, disease, stem rust, leaf
rust, sawfly resistance, and agronomy were considered. A total of 154 (out of 370) loci with significant allelic changes across
21 chromosomes were detected in the 78 wheat cultivars separated into improved versus non-improved groups for eight traits.
The number of significant loci for improving a trait ranged from four for quality to 68 for yield and averaged 35. Many more
loci with significant allelic reduction for improving a trait were detected than those with significant allelic increase.
Selection for early maturity introduced more alleles, but improving the other traits purged more alleles. Significantly lower
numbers of unique alleles were found in the cultivars with improved traits. The distributions of unique allele counts also
varied greatly across the 21 chromosomes with respect to trait improvement. Significant SSR variation between two cultivar
groups was observed for improvement in seven traits, but not in stem rust. The proportional SSR variation residing between
two groups ranged from 0.014 to 0.118. The proportional SSR variations within the improved cultivar groups consistently were
much lower than those within the non-improved groups. These findings clearly demonstrate the association between allelic changes
and wheat trait improvements and are useful for understanding the genetic modification of the wheat genome by long-term wheat
KeywordsPlant breeding–Breeding target trait–SSR marker–Genetic diversity–