Aaron M Peck

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, United States

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Publications (17)51.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarbon (TCC) are bactericides used in various consumer and personal-care products. Recent studies have revealed considerable levels of these bactericides in wastewater, aquatic wildlife, and human samples. Consequently, in this study we measured TCS and TCC in influent and effluent, sludge, and pond water/sediment samples from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and three major rivers in Savannah, Georgia (USA). Among these treatment plants, the Wilshire plant showed elevated concentrations of TCS (influent, 86,161; effluent, 5370ng/L), whereas TCC was greater in the Georgetown plant (influent, 36,221) and the Wilshire plant effluent (3045ng/L). Clearance of TCS and TCC were 95 and 92%, respectively, in the President Street plant, 94 and 85%, respectively, in the Wilshire plant, 99 and 80%, respectively, in the Travis Field plant, and 99 and 99%, respectively, in the Georgetown plant. Based on the mass flow estimate, 138g/day of TCS and 214g/day TCC are released into the Savannah River from the President Street, Travis Field, and Wilshire plants and 1.60g/day TCS and 1.64g/day TCC are released to the Ogeechee River from the Georgetown plant. Based on the sludge data, the loading estimate can be calculated that 32 and 0.004g/day TCS and 53 and 0.01g/day TCC (nonincinerated and incinerated, respectively) are deposited in landfill from the President Street plant alone, whereas 4.6, 26, and 6.8g/day TCS and 3.8, 23, and 5.9g/day TCC (wet sludge) were produced and dumped in landfill from the rest of the WWTPs. Incineration of wet sludge can eliminate 99.99% of TCS and TCC. Concentrations of TCS and TCC in water and sediment were greater in the Vernon River, followed by the Savannah River and the Ogeechee River.
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 02/2010; 58(2):275-285. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used primarily in expanded polystyrene foams and other styrene resins. Samples of blubber (n = 57) and liver (n = 16) from Atlantic white-sided dolphins, Lagenorhynchus acutus, that stranded on the eastern coast of United States between 1993 and 2004 were obtained from the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank (NMMTB). Blubber samples from most of these animals (n = 47) were previously analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and several toxaphene congeners. The three most abundant diastereomers in the technical HBCD mixture (alpha-HBCD, beta-HBCD, and gamma-HBCD) and their enantiomers were determined using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). alpha-HBCD was found in all blubber and liver samples while beta-HBCD and gamma-HBCD were not detected in any samples. The alpha-HBCD concentration in blubber and liver ranged from 14 ng/g wet mass (19 ng/g lipid) to 280 ng/g wet mass (380 ng/g lipid) and 0.051 ng/g wet mass (2.9 ng/g lipid) to 3.6 ng/g wet mass (140 ng/g lipid), respectively. Concentrations of alpha-HBCD were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than previously reported PBDE, PCB, and toxaphene concentrations in these same animals. There was not a significant temporal trend for these compounds in white-sided dolphin blubber. The enantiomeric fractions (EF) measured in blubber and liver were not statistically different and ranged from 0.34 to 0.53. Blubber EFs were significantly correlated with both alpha-HBCD concentrations and white-sided dolphin body length. In general, concentrations of HBCDs were lower in these white-sided dolphins than in cetaceans from Western Europe.
    Environmental Science and Technology 04/2008; 42(7):2650-5. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic musk fragrances have been measured in water, air, sediments, sewage sludge, and biota worldwide. As the study of the environmental fate and impacts of these compounds progresses, the need for Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for these compounds to facilitate analytical method improvement and interlaboratory comparisons becomes increasingly important. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issues environmental matrix SRMs with certified concentrations for a variety of persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). Until now synthetic musk fragrance concentrations have not been reported in NIST SRMs. The objective of this study was to provide reference values for several commonly detected synthetic musk fragrances in several NIST natural matrix SRMs. In this study five polycyclic musk fragrances [HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran), AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene), ADBI (4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindane), AHMI (6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane), and ATII (5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindane] and two nitro musk fragrances [musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) and musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-3,5-dinitro-2,6-dimethylacetophenone)] were measured in selected environmental SRMs. Gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) was used for all analyses. HHCB was the most frequently detected synthetic musk fragrance and was detected in SRM 2585 Organic Contaminants in House Dust, SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge, SRM 1974b Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), and SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue. It was not detected in SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue or SRM 1945 Organics in Whale Blubber. Concentrations of HHCB in these SRMs ranged from 1.12 ng/g in SRM 1947 to 92,901 ng/g in SRM 2781. All of the polycyclic musk fragrances were detected in SRM 2781 and all of the target compounds were detected in SRM 2585.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 05/2007; 387(7):2381-8. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a flame retardant that is undergoing environmental risk assessment. The liquid chromatographic retention and electrospray ionization matrix effects were investigated for HBCD methods of analysis for environmental matrices. Column selectivity towards HBCD diastereomers was evaluated for C30 and C18 stationary phases under different mobile phase conditions and column temperatures. The HBCD elution order was dependent on the shape selectivity of the stationary phase and the mobile phase composition. Greater resolution, on columns with reduced shape selectivity, of beta-HBCD and gamma-HBCD was achieved with the use of an acetonitrile/water (compared with a methanol/water) mobile phase composition. A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for the analysis of HBCD in biological tissues was evaluated for potential matrix effects. The influence of extracted matrix components on HBCD diastereomer and enantiomer analysis was investigated using a postextraction addition approach. Although the analysis of HBCD diastereomers was relatively unaffected by the sample matrix, the responses of the HBCD enantiomers in tissue samples were significantly influenced by matrix effects and other changes to the ionization conditions. The use of racemic 13C-labeled HBCD diastereomers as internal standards for enantiomer fraction measurements corrected for the changes in the mass spectrometer response.
    Journal of Chromatography A 12/2006; 1135(1):36-42. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Aaron M Peck
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    ABSTRACT: Concern about the environmental fate and potential effects of synthetic organic chemicals used in soaps, lotions, toothpaste, and other personal care products continues to increase. This review describes procedures used for the analysis of five classes of these compounds-synthetic musk fragrances, antimicrobials, ultraviolet filters, insect repellents, and parabens-in water, sediment, sewage sludge, air, and aquatic biota. The primary focus is on sample extraction and preparation methods for these compounds. Instrumental methods commonly used for these compounds are also discussed.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 11/2006; 386(4):907-39. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    Aaron M Peck, Keri C Hornbuckle
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 10/2006; 8(9):874-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two sediment cores collected from Lake Ontario and Lake Erie were sectioned, dated, and analyzed for five polycyclic musk fragrances and two nitro musk fragrances. The polycyclic musk fragrances were HHCB (Galaxolide), AHTN (Tonalide), ATII (Traseolide), ADBI (Celestolide), and AHMI (Phantolide). The nitro musk fragrances were musk ketone and musk xylene. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and results from Lake Erie were confirmed using gas chromatography/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). The chemical signals observed at the two sampling locations were different from each other primarily because of large differences in the sedimentation rates at the two sampling locations. HHCB was detected in the Lake Erie core whereas six compounds were detected in the Lake Ontario core. Using measured fragrance and 210Pb activity, the burden of synthetic musk fragrances estimated from these sediment cores is 1900 kg in Lake Erie and 18 000 kg in Lake Ontario. The input of these compounds to the lakes is increasing. The HHCB accumulation rates in Lake Erie for 1979-2003 and 1990-2003 correspond to doubling times of 16 +/- 4 and 8 +/- 2 years, respectively. The results reflect current U.S. production trends for the sum of all fragrance compounds.
    Environmental Science and Technology 10/2006; 40(18):5629-35. · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Aaron M. Peck, Keri C. Hornbuckle
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1–5ngm−3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.
    Atmospheric Environment - ATMOS ENVIRON. 01/2006; 40(32):6101-6111.
  • Aaron M Peck, Keri C Hornbuckle
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    ABSTRACT: Local and regional atmospheric transport of current-use pesticides is an important source of these compounds to nontarget plants and ecosystems. Current-use pesticides were measured at urban, rural, and suburban sites in eastern Iowa during 2000-2002. The most detected compounds were hexachlorobenzene and trifluralin, which were found in 89% and 78% of the samples, respectively. As expected, many pesticides showed a strong seasonal trend with the most detections and highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The average detected concentrations of five heavily used herbicides were 0.52 ng/ m3 for trifluralin, 4.6 ng/m3 for acetochlor, 2.3 ng/m3 for metolachlor, 1.1 ng/m3 for alachlor, 1.7 ng/m3 for pendimethalin, and 1.2 ng/m3 for atrazine. The most frequently detected insecticides were phorate and chlorpyrifos, which were found in 20% and 19% of the samples, respectively. The average phorate and chlorpyrifos concentrations were 25 ng/m3 and 1.0 ng/m3, respectively. The maximum phorate concentration, the highest measured for all pesticides, was 91.2 ng/m3. The most frequently detected current-use fungicides were chloroneb and etridiazole, which were found in 14% and 10% of the samples, respectively.
    Environmental Science and Technology 06/2005; 39(9):2952-9. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures were synthesized and marketed in Eastern European countries, but little is known abouttheir composition, distribution, ortoxicity. PCB-contaminated soil from the former production site of the Polish PCB mixture Chlorofen was collected, and the PCBs were extracted. An in vivo study was performed to investigate the PCB tissue distribution and biochemical effects of this soil extract in immature male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were administered 0.05 mmol/kg soil-extracted PCBs or Aroclor 1254 and sacrificed 7 days later, and congener-specific PCB profiles in selected tissues were determined. Distribution of SigmaPCBs (sum of 120 congeners) in tissues was primarily a function of lipid content of the tissues, except for the spleen, which retained more PCB than other tissues. Multivariate analysis of the PCB congener data showed that (a) congener profiles in tissues had changed, as compared to the parent mixture; (b) disposition and redistribution of individual congeners in vivo differed between both mixtures; and (c) more highly chlorinated congeners were retained in the spleens of both treatment groups. Differences in the induction of cytochrome P-450 1A and 2B subfamilies reflected the homologue composition of the respective mixtures and predict a different toxicity profile for Chlorofen than for Aroclor 1254.
    Environmental Science and Technology 06/2005; 39(10):3513-20. · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Environmental Science Technology. 05/2005; 39(10):3885-3886.
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane surfactants have been reported in biota, water, and air samples worldwide. Despite these reports, the main environmental sources of these compounds remain undefined. To address this gap in knowledge, an annual lake-wide mass budget of eight perfluorooctane surfactants was developed for Lake Ontario. To determine the atmospheric contribution to the mass budget, over-the-lake gas-phase air concentrations for N-EtFOSE and N-EtFOSA and particulate-phase air concentrations for PFOS in any air sample are reported for the first time, with mean concentrations when present of 0.5+/-0.32 (N-EtFOSE gas-phase), 1.1+/-0.9 (N-EtFOSA gas-phase), and 6.4+/-3.3 (PFOS particulate-phase) pg/m3. The mass budget finds inflow from Lake Erie (14 361+/-4489 kg sigma perfluorooctane surfactants) and wastewater discharge (1762+/-2697 kg sigma perfluorooctane surfactants) to be the major sources, while outflow through the St. Lawrence River is the dominant loss mechanism (22,727+/-7060 kg/year sigma perfluorooctane surfactants). Using the mass budget data, the steady state and measured mean concentrations in the lake water are the same at the 95% confidence level.
    Environmental Science and Technology 02/2005; 39(1):74-9. · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Aaron M Peck, Keri C Hornbuckle
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.
    Environmental Science and Technology 02/2004; 38(2):367-72. · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Aaron M. Peck, Keri C. Hornbuckle
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    ABSTRACT: Air-surface exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (SOC) isan important factor controlling the gas-phase concentrations ofthese compounds. In this study, the uptake of gas-phaseanthracene, an SOC, by the leaves of Ficus benjamina wasexamined in a large (30 m3) environmentally-controlledchamber. To investigate the effect of climate on air/leafexchange, the air flow-rate, temperature, and relative humidityin the chamber was controlled and continually monitored. Thelarge size of the chamber provides an opportunity to studygas/plant exchange at ambient gas-phase concentrations underrealistic meteorological conditions. Here we describe the resultsof several experiments performed to examine the effect of light,temperature, and relative humidity on the uptake of anthracene byFicus benjamina. Six to eight plants were placed in thechamber and gas-phase anthracene was injected at a constant flow- rate into the chamber. The lights were turned on and off oncedaily and air samples were collected regularly. Although thecycle is not predictable, results of three week-long experimentsindicate that gas-phase anthracene concentrations in the Ficus-populated chamber vary with light period. Stomatal andcuticular uptake are responsible likely for the varying concentrations.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 04/2003; 145(1):17-34. · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • A.M. Peck, K.C. Hornbuckle
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    ABSTRACT: Air-surface exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (SOC) is an important factor controlling the gas-phase concentrations of these compounds. In this study, the uptake of gas-phase anthracene, an SOC, by the leaves of Ficus benjamina was examined in a large (30 m3) environmentally-controlled chamber. To investigate the effect of climate on air/leaf exchange, the air flow-rate, temperature, and relative humidity in the chamber was controlled and continually monitored. The large size of the chamber provides an opportunity to study gas/plant exchange at ambient gas-phase concentrations under realistic meteorological conditions. Here we describe the results of several experiments performed to examine the effect of light, temperature, and relative humidity on the uptake of anthracene by Ficus benjamina. Six to eight plants were placed in the chamber and gas-phase anthracene was injected at a constant flow- rate into the chamber. The lights were turned on and off once daily and air samples were collected regularly. Although the cycle is not predictable, results of three week-long experiments indicate that gas-phase anthracene concentrations in the Ficus-populated chamber vary with light period. Stomatal and cuticular uptake are responsible likely for the varying concentrations.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 01/2003; 145(1). · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Keri Hornbuckle, A M Peck
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Publications.