[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a crucial process for cells to maintain homeostasis and survival through degradation of cellular proteins and organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula (ER). We previously demonstrated that temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent for brain tumor chemotherapy, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated autophagy to protect glioma cells from apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial damage and ER stress in TMZ-induced cytotoxicity. Mitochondrial depolarization and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening were observed as a prelude to TMZ-induced autophagy, and these were followed by the loss of mitochondrial mass. Electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitors, such as rotenone (a complex I inhibitor), sodium azide (a complex IV inhibitor), and oligomycin (a complex V inhibitor), or the MPTP inhibitor, cyclosporine A, decreased mitochondrial damage-mediated autophagy, and therefore increased TMZ-induced apoptosis. TMZ treatment triggered ER stress with increased expression of GADD153 and GRP78 proteins, and deceased pro-caspase 12 protein. ER stress consequently induced autophagy through c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and Ca(2+) signaling pathways. Combination of TMZ with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), an ER stress inhibitor, augmented TMZ-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy. Taken together, our data indicate that TMZ induced autophagy through mitochondrial damage- and ER stress-dependent mechanisms to protect glioma cells. This study provides evidence that agents targeting mitochondria or ER may be potential anticancer strategies.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38706. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is the major chemotherapeutic drug used clinically in the treatment of malignant gliomas. This study investigated the mechanism behind TMZ-induced cell death and the possibility that resveratrol might increase TMZ efficacy. TMZ induced both apoptotic cell death and cytoprotective autophagy through a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which was suppressed by resveratrol, resulting in a decrease in autophagy and an increase in apoptosis, suggesting that the ROS/ERK pathway plays a crucial role in the fate of cells after TMZ treatment. Isobolographic analysis indicated that the combination of TMZ and resveratrol has a synergistic effect. Moreover, an in vivo mouse xenograft study also showed that coadministration of resveratrol and TMZ reduced tumor volumes by suppressing ROS/ERK-mediated autophagy and subsequently inducing apoptosis. Taken together, our data indicate that TMZ-induced ROS/ERK-mediated autophagy protected glioma cells from apoptosis, and the combination of resveratrol with TMZ could improve the efficacy of chemotherapy for brain tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether H2O2, superoxide, and ERK participate in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling cascades and whether antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) regulates these NGF-induced responses. PC12 cells were cultured in medium containing NGF or vehicle with or without NAC pretreatment, and the intracellular H2O2 and superoxide levels and the amount of phosphorylated ERK were evaluated by flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. We found that NGF increased intracellular H2O2 concentration and activated ERK but failed to affect intracellular superoxide level. Moreover, NAC counteracted these NGF-induced responses. These findings demonstrate that NAC blocks the NGF-induced H2O2/ERK signaling in PC12 cells.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2005; 1042:325-37. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are believed to be integrators and coordinators of programmed cell death in addition to their respiratory function. Using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted osteosarcoma cells (rho0 cells) as a cell model, we investigated the apoptogenic signaling pathway of cadmium (Cd) under a condition of mitochondrial dysfunction. The apoptotic percentage was determined to be around 58.0% after a 24-h exposure to 25 microM Cd using flow cytometry staining with propidium iodine (PI). Pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, failed to prevent apoptosis following Cd exposure. Moreover, Cd was unable to activate caspase 3 using DEVD-AFC as a substrate, indicating that Cd induced a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway in rho0 cells. JC-1 staining demonstrated that mitochondrial membrane depolarization was a prelude to apoptosis. On the other hand, the intracellular calcium concentration increased 12.5-fold after a 2-h exposure to Cd. More importantly, the apoptogenic activity of Cd was almost abolished by ruthenium red, a mitochondrial calcium uniporter blocker. This led us to conclude that mtDNA-depleted cells provide an alternative pathway for Cd to conduct caspase-independent apoptosis through a mitochondria-calcium mechanism.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2005; 1042:497-505. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to detect apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5, a normal human lung cell line, by using noninvasive proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Live MRC-5 cells were processed first for 1H NMR spectroscopy; subsequently their types and the percentage of cell death were assessed on a flow cytometer. Cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) induced apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5 cells, respectively, as revealed by phosphatidylserine externalization on a flow cytometer. The spectral intensity ratio of methylene (CH2) resonance (at 1.3 ppm) to methyl (CH3) resonance (at 0.9 ppm) was directly proportional to the percentage of apoptosis and strongly and positively correlated with PI staining after Cd treatment (r2 = 0.9868, P < 0.01). In contrast, this ratio only increased slightly within 2-h Hg treatment, and longer Hg exposure failed to produce further increase. Following 2-h Hg exposure, the spectral intensity of choline resonance (at 3.2 ppm) was abolished, but this phenomenon was absent in Cd-induced apoptosis. These findings together demonstrate that 1H NMR is a novel tool with a quantitative potential to distinguish apoptosis from necrosis as early as the onset of cell death in normal human lung cells.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2005; 1042:488-96. · 4.38 Impact Factor