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ABSTRACT: An 81-year-old woman consulted us with low abdominal pain. A computed tomography (CT) image showed left hydronephrosis and a mass without calcification at the lower portion of the left ureter. A retrograde urogram showed an irregular filling defect at the lower portion of the left ureter that suggested an obstruction by a malignant ureter tumor. Therefore, total nephroureterectomy was performed. The surgical specimen showed a mass with a membrane, which could be detached easily from the ureter wall. The ureter wall showed hyperkeratosis upon histological examination, and the mass was diagnosed as cholesteatoma.Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica 06/2005; 51(5):331-3.