J. J. Drake

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (483)1324.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The nature of the mechanisms apparently driving X-rays from intermediate mass stars lacking strong convection zones or massive winds remains poorly understood, and the possible role of hidden, lower mass close companions is still unclear. A 20ks Chandra HRC-I observation of HR 4796A, an 8 Myr old main sequence A0 star devoid of close stellar companions, has been used to search for a signature or remnant of magnetic activity from the Herbig Ae phase. X-rays were not detected and the X-ray luminosity upper limit was L_X =< 1.3x10^27 erg/s. The result is discussed in the context of various scenarios for generating magnetic activity, including rotational shear and subsurface convection. A dynamo driven by natal differential rotation is unlikely to produce observable X rays, chiefly because of the difficulty in getting the dissipated energy up to the surface of the star. A subsurface convection layer produced by the ionisation of helium could host a dynamo that should be effective throughout the main-sequence but can only produce X-ray luminosities of order 10^25 erg/s. This luminosity lies only moderately below the current detection limit for Vega. Our study supports the idea that X-ray production in Herbig Ae/Be stars is linked largely to the accretion process rather than the properties of the underlying star, and that early A stars generally decline in X-ray luminosity at least 100,000 fold in only a few million years.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abridged. Here we report on the X-ray activity of the primary star, HD189733 A, using a new XMM-Newton observation and a comparison with the previous X-ray observations. The spectrum in the quiescent intervals is described by two temperatures at 0.2 keV and 0.7 keV, while during the flares a third component at 0.9 keV is detected. We obtain estimates of the electron density in the range $n_e = 1.6 - 13 \times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$ and thus the corona of HD189733 A appears denser than the solar one. {For the third time, we observe a large flare that occurred just after the eclipse of the planet. Together with the flares observed in 2009 and 2011, the events are restricted to a small planetary phase range of $\phi = 0.55-0.65$. Although we do not find conclusive evidence of a significant excess of flares after the secondary transits, we suggest that the planet might trigger such flares when it passes close to locally high magnetic field of the underlying star at particular combinations of stellar rotational phases and orbital planetary phases. For the most recent flares, a wavelet analysis of the light curve suggests a loop of length of four stellar radii at the location of the bright flare, and a local magnetic field of order of 40-100 G, in agreement with the global field measured in other studies. The loop size suggests an interaction of magnetic nature between planet and star, separated by only $\sim8 R_*$. We also detect the stellar companion (HD 189733 B, $\sim12"$ from the primary star) in this XMM observation. Its very low X-ray luminosity ($L_X = 3.4\times 10^{26}$ erg s$^{-1}$) confirms the old age of this star and of the binary system. The high activity of the primary star is best explained by a transfer of angular momentum from the planet to the star.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 785(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Chasing the Identification of ASCA Galactic Objects (ChIcAGO) survey, which is designed to identify the unknown X-ray sources discovered during the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey (AGPS). Little is known about most of the AGPS sources, especially those that emit primarily in hard X-rays (2-10 keV) within the F_x ~ 10^-13 to 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1 X-ray flux range. In ChIcAGO, the subarcsecond localization capabilities of Chandra have been combined with a detailed multi-wavelength follow-up program, with the ultimate goal of classifying the >100 unidentified sources in the AGPS. Overall to date, 93 unidentified AGPS sources have been observed with Chandra as part of the ChIcAGO survey. A total of 253 X-ray point sources have been detected in these Chandra observations within 3' of the original ASCA positions. We have identified infrared and optical counterparts to the majority of these sources, using both new observations and catalogs from existing Galactic plane surveys. X-ray and infrared population statistics for the X-ray point sources detected in the Chandra observations reveal that the primary populations of Galactic plane X-ray sources that emit in the F_x ~ 10^-13 to 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1 flux range are active stellar coronae, massive stars with strong stellar winds that are possibly in colliding-wind binaries, X-ray binaries, and magnetars. There is also a fifth population that is still unidentified but, based on its X-ray and infrared properties, likely comprise partly of Galactic sources and partly of active galactic nuclei.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The VST Photometric Halpha Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane and Bulge (VPHAS+) is surveying the southern Milky Way in u, g, r, i and Halpha at 1 arcsec angular resolution. Its footprint spans the Galactic latitude range -5 < b < +5 at all longitudes south of the celestial equator. Extensions around the Galactic Centre to Galactic latitudes +/-10 bring in much of the Galactic Bulge. This ESO public survey, begun on 28th December 2011, reaches down to 20th magnitude (10-sigma) and will provide single-epoch digital optical photometry for around 300 million stars. The observing strategy and data pipelining is described, and an appraisal of the segmented narrowband Halpha filter in use is presented. Using model atmospheres and library spectra, we compute main-sequence (u - g), (g - r), (r - i) and (r - Halpha) stellar colours in the Vega system. We report on a preliminary validation of the photometry using test data obtained from two pointings overlapping the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An example of the (u - g, g - r) and (r - Halpha, r - i) diagrams for a full VPHAS+ survey field is given. Attention is drawn to the opportunities for studies of compact nebulae and nebular morphologies that arise from the image quality being achieved. The value of the u band as the means to identify planetary-nebula central stars is demonstrated by the discovery of the central star of NGC 2899 in survey data. Thanks to its excellent imaging performance, the VST/OmegaCam combination used by this survey is a perfect vehicle for automated searches for reddened early-type stars, and will allow the discovery and analysis of compact binaries, white dwarfs and transient sources.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources, the epoch dependence of the X-ray fluxes is investigated. The O-stars in Cyg\,OB2 follow a well-defined scaling relation between their X-ray and bolometric luminosities: log(Lx/Lbol) = -7.2 +/- 0.2. This relation is in excellent agreement with the one previously derived for the Carina OB1 association. Except for the brightest O-star binaries, there is no general X-ray overluminosity due to colliding winds in O-star binaries. Roughly half of the known B-stars in the surveyed field are detected, but they fail to display a clear relationship between Lx and Lbol. Out of the three WR stars in Cyg OB2, probably only WR144 is itself responsible for the observed level of X-ray emission, at a very low log(Lx/Lbol) = -8.8 +/- 0.2. The X-ray emission of the other two WR-stars (WR145 and 146) is most probably due to their O-type companion along with a moderate contribution from a wind-wind interaction zone.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the mass accretion rate implied by published surface abundances of Si and C in the white dwarf component of the 3.62 hr period pre-cataclysmic binary and planet host candidate QS Vir (DA+M2-4). Diffusion timescales for gravitational settling imply $\dot{M} \sim 10^{-16}M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ for the 1999 epoch of the observations, which is three orders of magnitude lower than measured from a 2006 {\it XMM-Newton} observation. This is the first time that large accretion rate variations have been seen in a detached pre-CV. A third body in a 14 yr eccentric orbit suggested in a recent eclipse timing study is too distant to perturb the central binary sufficiently to influence accretion. A hypothetical coronal mass ejection just prior to the {\it XMM-Newton} observation might explain the higher accretion rate, but the implied size and frequency of such events appear too great. We suggest accretion is most likely modulated by a magnetic cycle on the secondary acting as a wind "accretion switch", a mechanism that can be tested by X-ray and ultraviolet monitoring. If so, QS Vir and similar pre-CVs could provide powerful insights into hitherto inscrutable cataclysmic variable and M dwarf magnetospheres, and mass and angular momentum loss rates.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2014; 437(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photometric observations of the eclipsing RS CVn system AR Lac were obtained over the years 1997 to 2013 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. During primary eclipse, HRC count rates decrease by ~40%. A similar minimum is seen during one primary eclipse observed by EUVE but not in others owing to intrinsic source variability. Little evidence for secondary eclipses is present in either the X-ray or EUV data, reminiscent of earlier X-ray and EUV observations. Primary eclipses allow us to estimate the extent of a spherically symmetric corona on the primary G star of about 1.3Rsun, or 0.86Rstar, and indicate the G star is likely brighter than the K component by a factor of 2-5. Brightness changes not attributable to eclipses appear to be dominated by stochastic variability and are generally non-repeating. X-ray and EUV light curves cannot therefore be reliably used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of emission assuming only eclipses and rotational modulation are at work. Moderate flaring is observed, where count rates increase by up to a factor of three above quiescence. Combined with older ASCA, Einstein, EXOSAT, ROSAT and Beppo-SAX observations, the data show that the level of quiescent coronal emission at X-ray wavelengths has remained remarkably constant over 33 years, with no sign of variation due to magnetic cycles. Variations in base level X-ray emission seen by Chandra over 13 years are only ~10%, while variations back to pioneering Einstein observations in 1980 amount to a maximum of 45% and more typically about 15%.
    01/2014; 783(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Strong flares on the Sun are accompanied by intense ionizing radiation (X-rays, far UV) and are often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which can be hazardous to astronauts, and infrastructure such as satellites and electrical systems. The rates of the largest flare events are, however, poorly known. By taking advantage of the exquisite precision of Kepler photometry, we derive white light flare distributions for a sample of near-solar-mass (G1-G5) dwarfs in NGC 6811 (age ~ 1 Gyr). Using a solar-based relationship, we estimate the X-ray emission from these flares in order to compare the results to other solar and stellar X-ray flare data. We also take a first look at some stars of different masses, to study the mass dependence of flaring at fixed age, and explore the implications of our results for the rates of the largest flaring events on the Sun. This work was supported by Kepler grants NNX11AC82G and NNX13AC29G and NASA HGI grant NNX10AF29G.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the Suzaku detection of a rapid flare-like X-ray flux amplification early in the development of the classical nova V2672 Ophiuchi. Two target-of-opportunity ~25 ks X-ray observations were made 12 and 22 days after the outburst. The flux amplification was found in the latter half of day 12. Time-sliced spectra are characterized by a growing supersoft excess with edge-like structures and a relatively stable optically-thin thermal component with Ka emission lines from highly ionized Si. The observed spectral evolution is consistent with a model that has a time development of circumstellar absorption, for which we obtain the decline rate of ~10-40 % in a time scale of 0.2 d on day 12. Such a rapid drop of absorption and short-term flux variability on day 12 suggest inhomogeneous ejecta with dense blobs/holes in the line of sight. Then on day 22 the fluxes of both supersoft and thin-thermal plasma components become significantly fainter. Based on the serendipitous results we discuss the nature of this source in the context of both short- and long-term X-ray behavior.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We examine substructure and mass segregation in the massive OB association Cygnus OB2 to better understand its initial conditions. Using a well understood Chandra X-ray selected sample of young stars we find that Cyg OB2 exhibits considerable physical substructure and has no evidence for mass segregation, both indications that the association is not dynamically evolved. Combined with previous kinematical studies we conclude that Cyg OB2 is dynamically very young, and what we observe now is very close to its initial conditions: Cyg OB2 formed as a highly substructured, unbound association with a low volume density (< 100 stars/pc^3). This is inconsistent with the idea that all stars form in dense, compact clusters. The massive stars in Cyg OB2 show no evidence for having formed particularly close to one another, nor in regions of higher than average density. Since Cyg OB2 contains stars as massive as ~100 Mo this result suggests that very massive stars can be born in relatively low-density environments. This would imply that the massive stars in Cyg OB2 did not form by competitive accretion, or by mergers.
    11/2013;
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    Ofer Cohen, Jeremy J. Drake
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar winds are believed to be the dominant factor in spin down of stars over time. However, stellar winds of solar analogs are poorly constrained due to the challenges in observing them. A great improvement has been made in the last decade in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of the solar wind and in the development of numerical models for solar and stellar winds. In this paper, we present a grid of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models to study and quantify the values of stellar mass-loss and angular momentum loss rates as a function of the stellar rotation period, magnetic dipole component, and coronal base density. We derive simple scaling laws for the loss rates as a function of these parameters, and constrain the possible mass-loss rate of stars with thermally-driven winds. Despite the success of our scaling law in matching the results of the model, we find a deviation between the "solar dipole" case and a real case based on solar observations that overestimates the actual solar mass-loss rate by a factor of 3. This implies that the model for stellar fields might require a further investigation with higher complexity which might include the use of a filling factor for active regions, as well as the distribution of the strength of the small-scale fields. Mass loss rates in general are largely controlled by the magnetic field strength, with the wind density varying in proportion to the confining magnetic pressure $B^2$. We also find that the mass-loss rates obtained using our grid models drop much faster with the increase in rotation period than scaling laws derived using observed stellar activity. For main-sequence solar-like stars, our scaling law for angular momentum loss vs. poloidal magnetic field strength retrieves the well-known Skumanich decline of angular velocity with time.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present H\alpha images of an ionized nebula surrounding the M2-5Ia red supergiant (RSG) W26 in the massive star cluster Westerlund 1. The nebula consists of a circumstellar shell or ring ~0.1pc in diameter and a triangular nebula ~0.2pc from the star that in high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images shows a complex filamentary structure. The excitation mechanism of both regions is unclear since RSGs are too cool to produce ionizing photons and we consider various possibilities. The presence of the nebula, high stellar luminosity and spectral variability suggest that W26 is a highly evolved RSG experiencing extreme levels of mass-loss. As the only known example of an ionized nebula surrounding a RSG W26 deserves further attention to improve our understanding of the final evolutionary stages of massive stars.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Super-Soft-Source (SSS) X-ray spectra are blackbody-like spectra with effective temperatures ~3-7x10^5 K and luminosities of 10^{35-38} erg/s. SSS grating spectra display atmospheric absorption lines. Radiation transport atmosphere models can be used to derive physical parameters, but more sophisticated models are required. We bypass the complications of spectral models and concentrate on the data in a comparative, qualitative study. We inspect all available X-ray grating SSS spectra to determine systematic, model-independent trends. We use comparative plots of spectra of different systems to find common and different features. The results are interpreted in the context of system parameters obtained from the literature. We find two distinct types of SSS spectra which we name SSa and SSe. Their main observational characteristics are either clearly visible absorption lines or emission lines, respectively, while both types contain atmospheric continuum emission. SSe may be obscured SSa systems, which is supported by similarities between SSe and SSa with obscured and unobscured AGN, respectively. Further, we find all known or suspected high-inclination systems to emit permanently in an SSe state. Some sources are found to transition between SSa and SSe states, becoming SSe when fainter. SSS spectra are subject to various occultation processes. In Cal 87, the accretion disc blocks the central hot source when viewed edge on. In novae, the accretion disc may have been destroyed during the initial explosion but could have reformed by the time of the SSS phase. In addition, clumpy ejecta may lead to temporary obscuration events. The emission lines originate from reprocessed emission in the accretion disc, its wind or further out in clumpy ejecta while Thomson scattering allows continuum emission to be visible also during total obscuration of the central hot source.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of stars in massive clusters is one of the main modes of the star formation process. However, the study of massive star forming regions is hampered by their typically large distances to the Sun. One exception to this is the massive star forming region Cygnus OB2 in the Cygnus X region, at the distance of about 1400 pc. Cygnus OB2 hosts very rich populations of massive and low-mass stars, being the best target in our Galaxy to study the formation of stars, circumstellar disks, and planets in presence of massive stars. In this paper we combine a wide and deep set of photometric data, from the r band to 24 micron, in order to select the disk bearing population of stars in Cygnus OB2 and identify the class I, class II, and stars with transition and pre-transition disks. We selected 1843 sources with infrared excesses in an area of 1 degree x 1 degree centered on Cyg OB2 in several evolutionary stages: 8.4% class I, 13.1% flat-spectrum sources, 72.9% class II, 2.3% pre-transition disks, and 3.3% transition disks. The spatial distribution of these sources shows a central cluster surrounded by a annular overdensity and some clumps of recent star formation in the outer region. Several candidate subclusters are identified, both along the overdensity and in the rest of the association.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 773(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Stars over a wide range of masses and evolutionary stages are nowadays known to emit X-rays. This X-ray emission is a unique probe of the most energetic phenomena occurring in the circumstellar environment of these stars, and provides precious insight on magnetic phenomena or hydrodynamic shocks. Owing to its large collecting area, Athena+ will open up an entirely new window on these phenomena. Indeed, Athena+ will not only allow us to study many more objects with an unprecedented spectral resolution, but will also pioneer the study of the dynamics of these objects via time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy. In this way, Athena+ will be a unique tool to study accretion processes in TTauri stars, flaring activity in young stars, dynamos in ultra-cool dwarfs, small and large-scale structures in the winds of single massive stars, wind interactions in massive binary systems, hot bubbles in planetary nebula... All these studies will lead to a deeper understanding of yet poorly understood processes which have profound impact in star and planetary system formation as well as in feedback processes on Galactic scale.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the Suzaku detection of the earliest X-ray eclipse seen in the recurrent nova U Scorpii 2010. A target-of-opportunity observation 15 days after the outburst found a 27% ± 5% dimming in the 0.2-1.0 keV energy band at the predicted center of an eclipse. In comparison with the X-ray eclipse depths seen at two later epochs by XMM-Newton, the source region shrank by about 10%-20% between days 15 and 35 after the outburst. The X-ray eclipses appear to be deeper than or similar to contemporaneous optical eclipses, suggesting the X-ray and optical source region extents are comparable on day 15. We raise the possibility of the energy dependency in the photon escape regions, and that this would be a result of the supersoft X-ray opacity being higher than the Thomson scattering opacity at the photosphere due to bound-free transitions in abundant metals that are not fully ionized. Assuming a spherically symmetric model, we constrain the mass-loss rate as a function of time. For a ratio of actual to Thomson opacity of 10-100 in supersoft X-rays, we find an ejecta mass of about 10–7-10–6 M ☉.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2013; 769(1):L4. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The young massive cluster Cyg OB2 is the closest massive star forming region to the Sun, with hundreds of OB members, and then the best target in the Milky Way to study the feedback of massive stars on the star formation process. To study in detail the stellar population of such a unique target, Cyg OB2 has been observed with GTC/OSIRIS and Chandra/ACIS-I. We present the OSIRIS observations, the catalog and the preliminary scientific results.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power law relationships between the 1-8 AA flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE=kE^-alpha. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of alpha and are very large: M_dot ~ 5x10^-10 M_sun/yr and E_dot ~ 0.1L_sun. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence >~ 10^31 erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10^-3 L_bol X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L_bol, the CME mass loss rate is about 5x10^-11 M_sun/yr.
    02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate a region of the Galactic plane, between 120 <= l <= 140 and -1 <= b <= +4, and uncover a population of moderately reddened (E(B-V) \sim 1) classical Be stars within and beyond the Perseus and Outer Arms. 370 candidate emission line stars (13 <= r <= 16) selected from the INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic plane (IPHAS) have been followed up spectroscopically. A subset of these, 67 stars with properties consistent with those of classical Be stars, have been observed at sufficient spectral resolution (Delta_lambda \sim 2 - 4 Angstrom) at blue wavelengths to narrow down their spectral types. We determine these to a precision estimated to be +/- 1 sub-type and then we measure reddenings via SED fitting with reference to appropriate model atmospheres. Corrections for contribution to colour excess from circumstellar discs are made using an established scaling to H-alpha emission equivalent width. Spectroscopic parallaxes are obtained after luminosity class has been constrained via estimates of distances to neighbouring A/F stars with similar reddenings. Overwhelmingly, the stars in the sample are confirmed as luminous classical Be stars at heliocentric distances ranging from 2 kpc up to \sim 12 kpc. However, the errors are presently too large to enable the cumulative distribution function with respect to distance to distinguish between models placing the stars exclusively in spiral arms, or in a smooth exponentially-declining distribution.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 430(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
1,324.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1925–2014
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993–2011
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • Villanova University
      Norristown, Pennsylvania, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2009
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1994–2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Statistics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Zurich
      • Institut für Theoretische Physik
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2001
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Earth and Space Exploration
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1999
    • Università degli studi di Palermo
      • Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy