T. Dwelly

University of Southampton, Southampton, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (51)102.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) located less than ~1.5 arcmin from Sgr A*. Ongoing monitoring campaigns have targeted Sgr A* frequently and these observations also cover AX J1745.6-2901. We present here an X-ray analysis of AX J1745.6-2901 using a large dataset of 38 XMM-Newton observations, including eleven which caught AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Fe K absorption is clearly seen when AX J1745.6-2901 is in the soft state, but disappears during the hard state. The variability of these absorption features does not appear to be due to changes in the ionizing continuum. The small Kalpha/Kbeta ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe xxv and Fe xxvi lines suggests that the column densities and turbulent velocities of the absorbing ionised plasma are in excess of N_H ~ 10^23 cm^-2 and v_turb >~ 500 km s^-1. These findings strongly support a connection between the wind (Fe K absorber) and the accretion state of the binary. These results reveal strong similarities between AX J1745.6-2901 and the eclipsing neutron star LMXB, EXO 0748-676, as well as with high-inclination black hole binaries, where winds (traced by the same Fe K absorption features) are observed only during the accretion-disc-dominated soft states, and disappear during the hard states characterised by jet emission.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are indisputably related to star formation, and their vast luminosity in gamma rays pin-points regions of star formation independent of galaxy mass. As such, GRBs provide a unique tool for studying star forming galaxies out to high-z independent of luminosity. Most of our understanding of the properties of GRB hosts (GRBHs) comes from optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up observations, and we therefore have relatively little knowledge of the fraction of dust-enshrouded star formation that resides within GRBHs. Currently ~20% of GRBs show evidence of significant amounts of dust along the line of sight to the afterglow through the host galaxy, and these GRBs tend to reside within redder and more massive galaxies than GRBs with optically bright afterglows. In this paper we present Herschel observations of five GRBHs with evidence of being dust-rich, targeted to understand the dust attenuation properties within GRBs better. Despite the sensitivity of our Herschel observations, only one galaxy in our sample was detected (GRBH 070306), for which we measure a total star formation rate (SFR) of ~100Mstar/yr, and which had a relatively high stellar mass (log[Mstar]=10.34+0.09/-0.04). Nevertheless, when considering a larger sample of GRBHs observed with Herschel, it is clear that stellar mass is not the only factor contributing to a Herschel detection, and significant dust extinction along the GRB sightline (A_{V,GRB}>1.5~mag) appears to be a considerably better tracer of GRBHs with high dust mass. This suggests that the extinguishing dust along the GRB line of sight lies predominantly within the host galaxy ISM, and thus those GRBs with A_{V,GRB}>1~mag but with no host galaxy Herschel detections are likely to have been predominantly extinguished by dust within an intervening dense cloud.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lags measured from correlated X-ray/UV/optical monitoring of AGN allow us to determine whether UV/optical variability is driven by reprocessing of X-rays or X-ray variability is driven by UV/optical seed photon variations. We present the results of the largest study to date of the relationship between the X-ray, UV and optical variability in an AGN with 554 observations, over a 750d period, of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with Swift. There is a good overall correlation between the X-ray and UV/optical bands, particularly on short timescales (tens of days). These bands lag the X-ray band with lags which are proportional to wavelength to the power 1.23+/-0.31. This power is very close to the power (4/3) expected if short timescale UV/optical variability is driven by reprocessing of X-rays by a surrounding accretion disc. The observed lags, however, are longer than expected from a standard Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disc with X-ray heating, given the currently accepted black hole mass and accretion rate values, but can be explained with a slightly larger mass and accretion rate, and a generally hotter disc. Some long term UV/optical variations are not paralleled exactly in the X-rays, suggesting an additional component to the UV/optical variability arising perhaps from accretion rate perturbations propagating inwards through the disc.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present long-term (months-years) X-ray spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.8 galaxy NGC 1365 as observed by Swift, which provides well sampled observations over a much longer timescale (6 years) and a much larger flux range than is afforded by other observatories. At very low luminosities the spectrum is very soft, becoming rapidly harder as the luminosity increases and then, above a particular luminosity, softening again. At a given flux level, the scatter in hardness ratio is not very large, meaning that the spectral shape is largely determined by the luminosity. The spectra were therefore summed in luminosity bins and fitted with a variety of models. The best fitting model consists of two power laws, one unabsorbed and another, more luminous, which is absorbed. In this model, we find a range of intrinsic 0.5-10.0 keV luminosities of approximately 1.1-3.5 ergs/s, and a very large range of absorbing columns, of approximately 10^22 - 10^24 cm^-2. Interestingly, we find that the absorbing column decreases with increasing luminosity, but that this result is not due to changes in ionisation. We suggest that these observations might be interpreted in terms of a wind model in which the launch radius varies as a function of ionising flux and disc temperature and therefore moves out with increasing accretion rate, i.e. increasing X-ray luminosity. Thus, depending on the inclination angle of the disc relative to the observer, the absorbing column may decrease as the accretion rate goes up. The weaker, unabsorbed, component may be a scattered component from the wind.
    03/2014; 440(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The 4MOST consortium is currently halfway through a Conceptual Design study for ESO with the aim to develop a wide-field (>3 square degree, goal >5 square degree), high-multiplex (>1500 fibres, goal 3000 fibres) spectroscopic survey facility for an ESO 4m-class telescope (VISTA). 4MOST will run permanently on the telescope to perform a 5 year public survey yielding more than 20 million spectra at resolution R~5000 ({\lambda}=390-1000 nm) and more than 2 million spectra at R~20,000 (395-456.5 nm & 587-673 nm). The 4MOST design is especially intended to complement three key all-sky, space-based observatories of prime European interest: Gaia, eROSITA and Euclid. Initial design and performance estimates for the wide-field corrector concepts are presented. We consider two fibre positioner concepts, a well-known Phi-Theta system and a new R-Theta concept with a large patrol area. The spectrographs are fixed configuration two-arm spectrographs, with dedicated spectrographs for the high- and low-resolution. A full facility simulator is being developed to guide trade-off decisions regarding the optimal field-of-view, number of fibres needed, and the relative fraction of high-to-low resolution fibres. Mock catalogues with template spectra from seven Design Reference Surveys are simulated to verify the science requirements of 4MOST. The 4MOST consortium aims to deliver the full 4MOST facility by the end of 2018 and start delivering high-level data products for both consortium and ESO community targets a year later with yearly increments.
    Proc SPIE 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The immensely bright and intrinsically simple afterglow spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have proven to be highly effective probes of the interstellar dust and gas in distant, star-forming galaxies. Despite significant progress, many aspects of the host galaxy attenuating material are still poorly understood. There is considerable discrepancy between the amount of X-ray and optical afterglow absorption, with the former typically an order of magnitude higher than what would be expected from the optical line absorption of neutral element species. Similar inconsistencies exist between the abundance of interstellar dust derived from spectroscopic and photometric data, and the relation between the line-of-sight and integrated host galaxy interstellar medium (ISM) remains unclear. In these proceedings we present our analysis on both spectroscopic and photometric multi-wavelength GRB afterglow data, and summarise some of the more recent results on the attenuation properties of the ISM within GRB host galaxies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 09/2012; 7(S279):199-206.
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    ABSTRACT: Results are presented from a 500ks long XMM-Newton observation of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS13224-3809. The source is rapidly variable on timescales down to a few 100s. The spectrum shows strong broad Fe-K and L emission features which are interpreted as arising from reflection from the inner parts of an accretion disc around a rapidly spinning black hole. Assuming a power-law emissivity for the reflected flux and that the innermost radius corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit, the black hole spin is measured to be 0.988 with a statistical precision better than one per cent. Systematic uncertainties are discussed. A soft X-ray lag of 100s confirms this scenario. The bulk of the power-law continuum source is located at a radius of 2-3 gravitational radii.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 429(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a one year Swift X-ray/UV/optical programme monitoring the dwarf Seyfert nucleus in NGC 4395 in 2008-2009. The UV/optical flux from the nucleus was found to vary dramatically over the monitoring period, with a similar pattern of variation in each of the observed UV/optical bands (spanning 1900 - 5500 {\AA}). In particular, the luminosity of NGC 4395 in the 1900 {\AA} band changed by more than a factor of eight over the monitoring period. The fractional variability was smaller in the UV/optical bands than that seen in the X-rays, with the X-ray/optical ratio increasing with increasing flux. Pseudo-instantaneous flux measurements in the X-ray and each UV/optical band were well correlated, with cross correlation coefficients of >0.7, significant at 99.9 per cent confidence. Archival Swift observations from 2006 sample the intra-day X-ray/optical variability on NGC 4395. These archival data show a very strong correlation between the X-ray and b bands, with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.84 (significant at >99 per cent confidence). The peak in the cross correlation function is marginally resolved and asymmetric, suggesting that X-rays lead the b band, but by 1 hour. In response to recent (August 2011) very high X-ray flux levels from NGC4395 we triggered Swift ToO observations, which sample the intra-hour X-ray/UV variability. These observations indicate, albeit with large uncertainties, a lag of the 1900 {\AA} band behind the X-ray flux of ~400 s. The tight correlation between the X-ray and UV/optical lightcurves, together with the constraints we place on lag time-scale are consistent with the UV/optical variability of NGC 4395 being primarily due to reprocessing of X-ray photons by the accretion disc.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2012; 422(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The composition and amount of interstellar dust within gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies is of key importance when addressing selection effects in the GRB redshift distribution, and when studying the properties of their host galaxies. As well as the implications for GRB research, probing the dust within the high-z hosts of GRBs also contributes to our understanding of the conditions of the interstellar medium and star-formation in the distant Universe. Nevertheless, the physical properties of dust within GRB host galaxies continues to be a highly contended issue. In these proceedings we present our analysis on the mean extinction properties of dust within the host galaxies of 17 GRBs with total host galaxy visual extinction A_V<1, covering a redshift range z=0.7-3.1, and compare these results to the extinction curve properties of more heavily extinguished GRBs (A_V>1).
    Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana Supplementi. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The composition and amount of interstellar dust within gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies is of key importance when addressing selection effects in the GRB redshift distribution, and when studying the properties of their host galaxies. As well as the implications for GRB research, probing the dust within the high-z hosts of GRBs also contributes to our understanding of the conditions of the interstellar medium and star-formation in the distant Universe. Nevertheless, the physical properties of dust within GRB host galaxies continues to be a highly contended issue. In this paper we explore the mean extinction properties of dust within the host galaxies of a sample of 17 GRBs with total host galaxy visual extinction Av<1 ( =0.4), covering a redshift range z=0.7-3.1. We find the average host extinction curve to have an ultraviolet slope comparable to that of the LMC, but with little evidence of a 2175Angs dust extinction feature as observed along Milky Way and LMC sightlines. We cannot at present rule out the presence of a 2175Angs feature, and both the standard SMC and LMC extinction curves also provide good fits to our data. However, we can reject an extinction curve that has a UV slope as flat as the mean Milky Way extinction curve, whilst also having a 2175Angs feature as prominent as seen in the mean Milky Way extinction curve. This is in contrast to the clear detection of a 2175Angs bump and the flatter extinction curves of some more heavily extinguished GRBs (Av>1), which may be indicative of there being a dependence between dust abundance and the wavelength dependence of dust extinction, as has been previously speculated.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H0707-495 went in to a low state from 2010 December to 2011 February, discovered by a monitoring campaign using the X-Ray Telescope on the Swift satellite. We triggered a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the source in 2011 January, revealing the source to have dropped by a factor of ten in the soft band, below 1 keV, and a factor of 2 at 5 keV, compared with a long observation in 2008. The sharp spectral drop in the source usually seen around 7 keV now extends to lower energies, below 6 keV in our frame. The 2011 spectrum is well fit by a relativistically-blurred reflection spectrum similar to that which fits the 2008 data, except that the emission is now concentrated solely to the central part of the accretion disc. The irradiating source must lie within 1 gravitational radius of the event horizon of the black hole, which spins rapidly. Alternative models are briefly considered but none has any simple physical interpretation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 419. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present here photometric redshift confirmation of the presence of large-scale structure around the z= 1.82 quasi-stellar object (QSO) RX J0941, which shows an overdensity of submillimetre (submm) sources. Radio imaging confirms the presence of the submm sources and pinpoints their likely optical near-infrared (NIR) counterparts. Four of the five submm sources present in this field (including the QSO) have counterparts with redshifts compatible with z= 1.82. We show that our photometric redshifts are robust against the use of different spectral templates. We have measured the galaxy stellar mass of the submm galaxies from their rest-frame K-band luminosity obtaining log(M*/M⊙) ∼ 11.5 ± 0.2, slightly larger than the Schechter mass of present-day galaxies, and hence indicating that most of the stellar mass is already formed. We present optical-to-radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the five Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) sources. The emission of RX J0941 is dominated by reprocessed active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission in the observed mid-IR (MIR) range, while the starburst contribution completely dominates in the submm range. The SEDs of the other three counterparts are compatible with a dominant starburst contribution above ∼24 μm, with star formation rates ∼2000 M⊙ yr−1, central dust masses log(Mdust/M⊙) ∼ 9 ± 0.5 and hence central gas masses log(Mgas/M⊙) ∼ 10.7. There is very little room for an AGN contribution. From X-ray upper limits and the observed 24 μm flux, we derive a maximum 2–10 keV X-ray luminosity of 1044 erg s−1 for any putative AGN, even if they are heavily obscured. This in turn points to relatively small black holes with log(M•/M⊙) ≲ 8 and hence stellar-to-black hole mass ratios about 1 order of magnitude higher than those observed in the present Universe: most of their central black hole masses are still to be accreted. Local stellar-to-black hole mass ratios can be reached if ∼1.3 per cent of the available nuclear gas mass is accreted.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2011; 413(4):2791 - 2807. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present here photometric redshift confirmation of the presence of large scale structure around the z=1.82 QSO RXJ0941, which shows an overdensity of submm sources. Radio imaging confirms the presence of the submm sources and pinpoints their likely optical-NIR counterparts. Four of the five submm sources present in this field (including the QSO) have counterparts with redshifts compatible with z=1.82. We show that our photometric redshifts are robust against the use of different spectral templates. We have measured the galaxy stellar mass of the submm galaxies from their rest-frame K-band luminosity obtaining log(M*/Msun)~11.5+-0.2, slightly larger than the Schechter mass of present day galaxies, and hence indicating that most of the stellar mass is already formed. We present optical-to-radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the five SCUBA sources. The emission of RXJ0941 is dominated by reprocessed AGN emission in the observed MIR range, while the starburst contribution completely dominates in the submm range. The SEDs of the other three counterparts are compatible with a dominant starburst contribution above ~24um, with star formation rates SFR~2000Msun/yr, central dust masses log(Mdust/Msun)~9+-0.5 and hence central gas masses log(Mgas/Msun)~10.7. There is very little room for an AGN contribution. From X-ray upper limits and the observed 24um flux, we derive a maximum 2-10keV X-ray luminosity of 1e44 erg/s for any putative AGN, even if they are heavily obscured. This in turn points to relatively small black holes with log(MBH/Msun)<~8 and hence stellar-to-black hole mass ratios about one order of magnitude higher than those observed in the present Universe: most of their central black hole masses are still to be accreted. Local stellar-to-black hole masses ratios can be reached if ~1.3% of the available nuclear gas mass is accreted.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a multi‐wavelength analysis of the properties of a sample of 86 X‐ray selected AGN. X‐ray flux and optical magnitude are strongly correlated in broad‐line AGN (BLAGN) as expected from the unified model. Narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs), however, display a wide range in optical brightnesses for a given X‐ray flux, which we attribute to varying amounts of obscuration and host galaxy contamination. We find that more luminous AGN and increasingly softer X‐ray AGN show redder mid infrared power law slopes in their spectra between 3.6 and 8 μm. The power law slope between 3.6 and 24 μm is however uncorrelated with X‐ray luminosity and X‐ray spectral index.
    AIP Conference Proceedings. 07/2010; 1248(1):463-464.
  • 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we examine the contribution of galaxies with different infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to the comoving infrared luminosity density, a proxy for the comoving star formation rate (SFR) density. We characterise galaxies as having either a cold or hot IR SED depending upon whether the rest-frame wavelength of their peak IR energy output is above or below 90um. Our work is based on a far-IR selected sample both in the local Universe and at high redshift, the former consisting of IRAS 60um-selected galaxies at z<0.07 and the latter of Spitzer 70um selected galaxies across 0.1<z<1. We find that the total IR luminosity densities for each redshift/luminosity bin agree well with results derived from other deep mid/far-IR surveys. At z<0.07 we observe the previously known results: that moderate luminosity galaxies (L_IR<10^11 Lsun) dominate the total luminosity density and that the fraction of cold galaxies decreases with increasing luminosity, becoming negligible at the highest luminosities. Conversely, above z=0.1 we find that luminous IR galaxies (L_IR>10^11 Lsun), the majority of which are cold, dominate the IR luminosity density. We therefore infer that cold galaxies dominate the IR luminosity density across the whole 0<z<1 range, hence appear to be the main driver behind the increase in SFR density up to z~1 whereas local luminous galaxies are not, on the whole, representative of the high redshift population. Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results from the analysis of a sample of 28 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectral energy distributions, spanning the X-ray through to near-infrared wavelengths. This is the largest sample of GRB afterglow spectral energy distributions thus far studied, providing a strong handle on the optical depth distribution of soft X-ray absorption and dust-extinction systems in GRB host galaxies. We detect an absorption system within the GRB host galaxy in 79% of the sample, and an extinction system in 71% of the sample, and find the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) extinction law to provide an acceptable fit to the host galaxy extinction profile for the majority of cases, consistent with previous findings. The range in the soft X-ray absorption to dust-extinction ratio, N_{H,X}/Av, in GRB host galaxies spans almost two orders of magnitude, and the typical ratios are significantly larger than those of the Magellanic Clouds or Milky Way. Although dust destruction could be a cause, at least in part, for the large N_{H,X}/Av ratios, the good fit provided by the SMC extinction law for the majority of our sample suggests that there is an abundance of small dust grains in the GRB environment, which we would expect to have been destroyed if dust destruction were responsible for the large N_{H,X}/Av ratios. Instead, our analysis suggests that the distribution of N_{H,X}/Av in GRB host galaxies may be mostly intrinsic to these galaxies, and this is further substantiated by evidence for a strong negative correlation between N_{H,X}/Av and metallicity for a subsample of GRB hosts with known metallicity. Furthermore, we find the N_{H,X}/Av ratio and metallicity for this subsample of GRBs to be comparable to the relation found in other more metal-rich galaxies. Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to examine the far-IR/radio correlation at high redshift we have studied the Spitzer 70um/far-infrared (far-IR) properties of sub-mJy radio sources from the 13^H XMM-Newton/Chandra Deep Field by redshift and galaxy type: active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star forming galaxy (SFG). We directly detect 70um counterparts (at >3sigma significance) for 22.5% (92/408) of the radio sources, while for the rest we perform stacking analysis by redshift and galaxy type. For the sources detected at 70um we find that the median and scatter of the observed flux density ratio, q70, are similar to previous results in the literature, but with a slight decrease in q70 towards higher redshifts. Of the radio sources detected at 70um 8/92 were already classified as AGN, but two of which maybe SFGs. For the stacked sources we obtain a detection for the SFGs at every redshift bin which implies they have mean flux densities a factor ~5 below the original 70um detection limit. For the stacked AGN we obtain a detection only in our highest redshift bin (1<~z<~5) where we may be sampling hot dust associated with the AGN at rest-frame 12-35um. The combined observed mean value of q70 for the SFGs (detected and non-detected at 70um) decreases gradually with redshift, consistent with tracks derived from empirical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of local SFGs. Upon closer inspection and when comparing with tracks of appropriate luminosity, the values of q70 broadly agree at low redshift. However, at z~1, the observed q70 (for ULIRGs) is 2sigma below the value seen for local ULIRGs tracks, implying a difference in the SED between local and z~1 ULIRGs. At higher redshifts, the convergence of the tracks and the higher uncertainties in q70 do not allow us to determine if such a difference persists. Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present some results of the deepest extragalactic survey performed by the INTEGRAL satellite. The fraction of very absorbed AGN is quite large. The sharp decrease in the absorption fraction with X-ray luminosity observed at lower-energy X-rays is not observed. The current lack of truly Compton-thick objects, with an upper limit of 14% to the size of this population, is just compatible with recent modeling of the cosmic X-ray background. We also study the prospects for a future hard X-ray serendipitous survey with Simbol-X. We show that Simbol-X will easily detect a large number of serendipitous AGN, allowing us to study the evolution of AGN up to redshifts about 2, opening the door to the cosmological study of hard X-ray selected AGN, which is barely possible with existing satellites like Swift and INTEGRAL. Comment: Proceedings of the 2nd Simbol-X symposium: "Simbol-X - Focusing on the Hard X-ray Universe", AIP Conf. Proc. Series, 4 pages. Fixed affiliations
    02/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the far-IR properties of distant Luminous and UltraLuminous InfraRed Galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) are on average divergent from analogous sources in the local Universe. Our analysis is based on Spitzer Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) and Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data of LIR > 1010Lsolar, 70mum selected objects in the 0.1 < z < 2 redshift range and supported by a comparison with the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. The majority of the objects in our sample are described by spectral energy distributions (SEDs) which peak at longer wavelengths than local sources of equivalent total infrared luminosity. This shift in SED peak wavelength implies a noticeable change in the dust and/or star-forming properties from z ~ 0 to the early Universe, tending towards lower dust temperatures, indicative of strong evolution in the cold dust, `cirrus', component. We show that these objects are potentially the missing link between the well-studied local IR-luminous galaxies, Spitzer IR populations and SCUBA sources - the z 1 SubMillimetre Galaxies (SMGs) discovered in blank-field submillimetre surveys. The Herschel Space Observatory is well placed to fully characterize the nature of these objects, as its coverage extends over a major part of the far-IR/sub-mm SED for a wide redshift range.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2009; 397(4):1728-1738. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

257 Citations
102.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Southampton
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Faculty of Physical and Applied Sciences
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005–2006
    • University College London
      • Department of Space and Climate Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom