W. Benbow

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (278)971.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report on the results of two coordinated multiwavelength campaigns that focused on the blazar Markarian 421 during its 2006 and 2008 outbursts. These campaigns obtained UV and X-ray data us-ing the XMM-Newton satellite, while the gamma-ray data were obtained utilizing three imaging atmo-spheric Cerenkov telescopes, the Whipple 10 m telescope and VERITAS, both based in Arizona, as well as the MAGIC telescope, based on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The coordinated effort between the gamma-ray groups allowed for truly simultaneous data in UV/X-ray/gamma-ray wavelengths during a sig-nificant portion of the XMM-Newton observations. This simultaneous coverage allowed for a reliable search for correlations between UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray variability over the course of the observations. In-vestigations of spectral hysteresis and modeling of the spectral energy distributions are also presented.
    The Astrophysical Journal J. Moldón J. Ninkovic E. Prandini N. Puchades I. Reichardt J. Rico T. Y. Saito V. Scalzotto S. N. Shore N. Sidro A. Sierpowska-Bartosik J. Sitarek J. Zapatero. 03/2037; 703455657454052443847(35):169-178.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first completely simultaneous observation of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) using an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, which is sensitive to photons in the very high energy (VHE) γ -ray range (100 GeV). On 2006 June 2, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) registered an unusually soft γ -ray burst (GRB 060602B). The burst position was under observation using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) at the time the burst occurred. Data were taken before, during, and after the burst. A total of 5 hr of observations were obtained during the night of 2006 June 2–3, and five additional hours were obtained over the next three nights. No VHE γ -ray signal was found during the period covered by the HESS observations. The 99% confidence level flux upper limit (> 1 TeV) for the prompt phase (9 s) of GRB 060602B is 2.9 × 10 −9 erg cm −2 s −1 . Due to the very soft BAT spectrum of the burst compared with other Swift GRBs and its proximity to the Galactic center, the burst is likely associated with a Galactic X-ray burster, although the possibility of it being a cosmological GRB cannot be ruled out. We discuss the implications of our flux limits in the context of these two bursting scenarios.
    The Astrophysical Journal. 08/2015; 690:1068-1073.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of 71.6 hours of observations of the Geminga pulsar (PSR J0633+1746) with the VERITAS very-high-energy gamma-ray telescope array. Data taken with VERITAS between November 2007 and February 2013 were phase-folded using a Geminga pulsar timing solution derived from data recorded by the XMM-\emph{Newton} and \emph{Fermi}-LAT space telescopes. No significant pulsed emission above 100 GeV is observed, and we report upper limits at the 95% confidence level on the integral flux above 135 GeV (spectral analysis threshold) of 4.0$\times10^{-13}$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ and 1.7$\times10^{-13}$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the two principal peaks in the emission profile. These upper limits, placed in context with phase-resolved spectral energy distributions determined from five years of data from the \emph{Fermi}-LAT, constrain possible hardening of the Geminga pulsar emission spectra above $\sim$50 GeV.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A flare from the TeV blazar Mrk 421, occurring in March 2010, was observed for 13 consecutive days from radio to very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays with MAGIC, VERITAS, Whipple, FermiLAT, MAXI, RXTE, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and several optical and radio telescopes. We model the day-scale SEDs with one-zone and two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models, investigate the physical parameters, and evaluate whether the observed broadband SED variability can be associated to variations in the relativistic particle population. Flux variability was remarkable in the X-ray and VHE bands while it was minor or not significant in the other bands. The one-zone SSC model can describe reasonably well the SED of each day for the 13 consecutive days. This flaring activity is also very well described by a two-zone SSC model, where one zone is responsible for the quiescent emission while the other smaller zone, which is spatially separated from the first one, contributes to the daily-variable emission occurring in X-rays and VHE gamma-rays. Both the one-zone SSC and the two-zone SSC models can describe the daily SEDs via the variation of only four or five model parameters, under the hypothesis that the variability is associated mostly to the underlying particle population. This shows that the particle acceleration and cooling mechanism producing the radiating particles could be the main one responsible for the broadband SED variations during the flaring episodes in blazars. The two-zone SSC model provides a better agreement to the observed SED at the narrow peaks of the low- and high-energy bumps during the highest activity, although the reported one-zone SSC model could be further improved by the variation of the parameters related to the emitting region itself ($\delta$, $B$ and $R$), in addition to the parameters related to the particle population.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 17 April 2012 and 1 June 2012 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected-emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected-emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected emission model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 spanning the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. The time-averaged spectrum, measured between 160 and 560\,GeV, is well described by a power law with a spectral index of $4.33 \pm 0.09$. The time-averaged integral flux above $200\,$GeV measured for this period was $(1.69 \pm 0.06) \times 10^{-11} \, \mathrm{ph} \, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$, corresponding to 6.9\% of the Crab Nebula flux. We also present the combined $\gamma$-ray spectrum from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and VERITAS covering an energy range from 100~MeV to 560~GeV. The data are well fit by a power law with an exponential cutoff at $\rm {101.9 \pm 3.2 \, \mathrm{GeV}} $. The origin of the cutoff could be intrinsic to PG~1553+113 or be due to the $\gamma$-ray opacity of our universe through pair production off the extragalactic background light (EBL). Given lower limits to the redshift of $\rm z \negthinspace > \negthinspace 0.395$ based on optical/UV observations of PG~1553+113, the cutoff would be dominated by EBL absorption. Conversely, the small statistical uncertainties of the VERITAS energy spectrum have allowed us to provide a robust upper limit on the redshift of PG 1553+113 of $z \negthinspace \leq \negthinspace 0.62$. A strongly-elevated mean flux of $(2.50 \pm 0.14) \times 10^{-11} \, \mathrm{ph} \, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ (10.3\% of the Crab Nebula flux) was observed during 2012, with the daily flux reaching as high as $(4.44 \pm 0.71) \times 10^{-11} \, \mathrm{ph} \, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ (18.3\% of the Crab Nebula flux) on MJD 56048. The light curve measured during the 2012 observing season is marginally inconsistent with a steady flux, giving a $\chi^2$ probability for a steady flux of 0.03\%.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on multifrequency observations performed during 2012 December-2013 August of the first narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy detected in gamma rays, PMN J0948+0022 ($z$ = 0.5846). A gamma-ray flare was observed by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi during 2012 December-2013 January, reaching a daily peak flux in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range of (155 $\pm$ 31) $\times$10$^{-8}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ on 2013 January 1, corresponding to an apparent isotropic luminosity of about 1.5$\times$10$^{48}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The gamma-ray flaring period triggered Swift and VERITAS observations in addition to radio and optical monitoring by OVRO, MOJAVE, and CRTS. A strong flare was observed in optical, UV, and X-rays on 2012 December 30, quasi-simultaneously to the gamma-ray flare, reaching a record flux for this source from optical to gamma rays. VERITAS observations at very high energy (E > 100 GeV) during 2013 January 6-17 resulted in an upper limit of F (> 0.2 TeV) < 4.0$\times$10$^{-12}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. We compared the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the flaring state in 2013 January with that of an intermediate state observed in 2011. The two SEDs, modelled as synchrotron emission and an external Compton scattering of seed photons from a dust torus, can be modelled by changing both the electron distribution parameters and the magnetic field.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mrk 501 is one of the brightest blazars at TeV energies and has been extensively studied since its first VHE detection in 1996. Our goal is to characterize in detail the source gamma-ray emission, together with the radio-to-X-ray emission, during the non-flaring (low) activity, which is less often studied than the occasional flaring (high) activity. We organized a multiwavelength (MW) campaign on Mrk 501 between March and May 2008. This multi-instrument effort included the most sensitive VHE gamma-ray instruments in the northern hemisphere, namely the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes MAGIC and VERITAS, as well as Swift, RXTE, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments. Mrk 501 was found to be in a low state of activity during the campaign, with a VHE flux in the range of 10%-20% of the Crab nebula flux. Nevertheless, significant flux variations were detected with various instruments, with a trend of increasing variability with energy. The broadband spectral energy distribution during the two different emission states of the campaign can be adequately described within the homogeneous one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, with the (slightly) higher state described by an increase in the electron number density. This agrees with previous studies of the broadband emission of this source during flaring and non-flaring states. We report for the first time a tentative X-ray-to-VHE correlation during a low VHE activity. Although marginally significant, this positive correlation between X-ray and VHE, which has been reported many times during flaring activity, suggests that the mechanisms that dominate the X-ray/VHE emission during non-flaring-activity are not substantially different from those that are responsible for the emission during flaring activity.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z=0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for ~70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ~71 ks (~20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on deep observations of the extended TeV gamma-ray source MGRO J1908+06 made with the VERITAS very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory. Previously, the TeV emission has been attributed to the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of the Fermi-LAT pulsar PSR J1907+0602. We detect MGRO J1908+06 at a significance level of 14 standard deviations (14 sigma) and measure a photon index of 2.20 +/- 0.10_stat +/- 0.20_sys. The TeV emission is extended, covering the region near PSR J1907+0602 and also extending towards SNR G40.5--0.5. When fitted with a 2-dimensional Gaussian, the intrinsic extension has a standard deviation of sigma_src = 0.44 +/- 0.02 degrees. In contrast to other TeV PWNe of similar age in which the TeV spectrum softens with distance from the pulsar, the TeV spectrum measured near the pulsar location is consistent with that measured at a position near the rim of G40.5--0.5, 0.33 degrees away.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 787(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of $z\ge0.6035$, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hours of VERITAS observations from three years, a multiwavelength light curve and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1$\pm0.3$)$\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02$\pm0.08$)$\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; $E\ge100$ GeV) spectral indices are $\Gamma=$3.8$\pm$0.3, 4.3$\pm$0.6 and 4.5$\pm$0.2 in 2009, 2011 and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change across the observation epochs is detected. We find no evidence for variability at gamma-ray opacities of greater than $\tau=2$, where it is postulated that any variability would be small and occur on longer than year timescales if hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with extragalactic photon fields provide a secondary VHE photon flux. The data cannot rule out such variability due to low statistics.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2014; 785(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TeV J2032+4130 was the first unidentified source discovered at very high energies (VHE; E $>$ 100 GeV), with no obvious counterpart in any other wavelength. It is also the first extended source to be observed in VHE gamma rays. Following its discovery, intensive observational campaigns have been carried out in all wavelengths in order to understand the nature of the object, which have met with limited success. We report here on a deep observation of TeV J2032+4130, based on 48.2 hours of data taken from 2009 to 2012 by the VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) experiment. The source is detected at 8.7 standard deviations ($\sigma$) and is found to be extended and asymmetric with a width of 9.5$^{\prime}$$\pm$1.2$^{\prime}$ along the major axis and 4.0$^{\prime}$$\pm$0.5$^{\prime}$ along the minor axis. The spectrum is well described by a differential power law with an index of 2.10 $\pm$ 0.14$_{stat}$ $\pm$ 0.21$_{sys}$ and a normalization of (9.5 $\pm$ 1.6$_{stat}$ $\pm$ 2.2$_{sys}$) $\times$ 10$^{-13}$TeV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ at 1 TeV. We interpret these results in the context of multiwavelength scenarios which particularly favor the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) interpretation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 783. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object 1ES 0229+200 is a relatively distant (z = 0.1396), hard-spectrum (Gamma ~ 2.5), very-high-energy-emitting (E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray blazar. Very-high-energy measurements of this active galactic nucleus have been used to place constraints on the intensity of the extragalactic background light and the intergalactic magnetic field. A multi-wavelength study of this object centered around very-high-energy observations by VERITAS is presented. This study obtained, over a period of three years, an 11.7 standard deviation detection and an average integral flux F(E>300 GeV) = (23.3 +- 2.8_stat +- 5.8_sys) x 10^-9 photons m^-2 s^-1, or 1.7% of the Crab Nebula's flux (assuming the Crab Nebula spectrum measured by H.E.S.S). Supporting observations from Swift and RXTE are analyzed. The Swift observations are combined with previously published Fermi observations and the very-high-energy measurements to produce an overall spectral energy distribution which is then modeled assuming one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton emission. The chi^2 probability of the TeV flux being constant is 1.6%. This, when considered in combination with measured variability in the X-ray band, and the demonstrated variability of many TeV blazars, suggests that the use of blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 for intergalactic magnetic field studies may not be straightforward and challenges models that attribute hard TeV spectra to secondary gamma-ray production along the line of sight.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 782. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the VERITAS and H.E.S.S. Cherenkov Telescopes and the X-ray Satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The VHE emission is found to be variable, and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of $315 ^{+6}_{-4}$ days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, $P = (321 \pm 5$) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant ($> 6.5 \sigma$) detection at orbital phases 0.6--0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 780. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report results from TeV gamma-ray observations of the microquasar Cygnus X-3. The observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) over a time period from 2007 June 11 to 2011 November 28. VERITAS is most sensitive to gamma rays at energies between 85 GeV to 30 TeV. The effective exposure time amounts to a total of about 44 hours, with the observations covering six distinct radio/X-ray states of the object. No significant TeV gamma-ray emission was detected in any of the states, nor with all observations combined. The lack of a positive signal, especially in the states where GeV gamma rays were detected, places constraints on TeV gamma-ray production in Cygnus X-3. We discuss the implications of the results.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 779. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variability of the blazar Markarian 421 in TeV gamma rays over a 14-year time period has been explored with the Whipple 10 m telescope. It is shown that the dynamic range of its flux variations is large and similar to that in X-rays. A correlation between the X-ray and TeV energy bands is observed during some bright flares and when the complete data sets are binned on long timescales. The main database consists of 878.4 hours of observation with the Whipple telescope, spread over 783 nights. The peak energy response of the telescope was 400 GeV with 20% uncertainty. This is the largest database of any TeV-emitting active galactic nucleus (AGN) and hence was used to explore the variability profile of Markarian 421. The time-averaged flux from Markarian 421 over this period was 0.446$\pm$0.008 Crab flux units. The flux exceeded 10 Crab flux units on three separate occasions. For the 2000-2001 season the average flux reached 1.86 Crab units, while in the 1996-1997 season the average flux was only 0.23 Crab units.
    Astroparticle Physics 10/2013; 54:1-10. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a multiwavelength observational campaign on the TeV binary system LS I +61 303 with the VERITAS telescope array (>200 GeV), Fermi-LAT (0.3-300 GeV), and Swift-XRT (2-10 keV). The data were taken from December 2011 through January 2012 and show a strong detection in all three wavebands. During this period VERITAS obtained 24.9 hours of quality selected livetime data in which LS I +61 303 was detected at a statistical sig- nificance of 11.9 sigma. These TeV observations show evidence for nightly variability in the TeV regime at a post-trial significance of 3.6 sigma. The combination of the simultaneously obtained TeV and X-ray fluxes do not demonstrate any evidence for a correlation between emission in the two bands. For the first time since the launch of the Fermi satellite in 2008, this TeV detection allows the construction of a detailed MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution from LS I +61 303. This spectrum shows a distinct cutoff in emission near 4 GeV, with emission seen by the VERITAS observations following a simple power-law above 200 GeV. This feature in the spectrum of LS I +61 303, obtained from overlapping observations with Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, may indicate that there are two distinct populations of accelerated particles producing the GeV and TeV emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object B2 1215+30 between 2008 and 2012. During this period, the source was detected at very high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV) by VERITAS with a significance of $8.9\sigma$ and showed clear variability on time scales larger than months. In 2011, the source was found to be in a relatively bright state and a power-law fit to the differential photon spectrum yields a spectral index of $3.6 \pm 0.4_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 0.3_{\mathrm{syst}}$ with an integral flux above 200 GeV of $(8.0 \pm 0.9_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 3.2_{\mathrm{syst}}) \times 10^{-12}\, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \mathrm{s}^{-1}$. No short term variability could be detected during the bright state in 2011. Multi-wavelength data were obtained contemporaneous with the VERITAS observations in 2011 and cover optical (Super-LOTIS, MDM, Swift-UVOT), X-ray (Swift-XRT), and gamma-ray (Fermi-LAT) frequencies. These were used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of B2 1215+30. A one-zone leptonic model is used to model the blazar emission and the results are compared to those of MAGIC from early 2011 and other VERITAS-detected blazars. The SED can be well reproduced with model parameters typical for VHE-detected BL Lacs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In March 2013, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ~2 weeks was detected by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). VERITAS provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, the Fermi-LAT detected a 20-fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100 MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very-high-energy flux change >1 TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100 MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 * 10^-3 with 95% confidence.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2013; 781. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compilation of papers contributed by the VERITAS Collaboration to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, held 2-9 July, 2013, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    08/2013;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
971.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Physics
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2011
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Physics
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2004–2010
    • Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1999–2008
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Institute for Particle Physics
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Universität Hamburg
      • Institut für Experimentalphysik
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany