[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (RV) infections are the principle cause of common colds and precipitate asthma and COPD exacerbations. There is currently no RV vaccine, largely due to the existence of ∼150 strains. We aimed to define highly conserved areas of the RV proteome and test their usefulness as candidate antigens for a broadly cross-reactive vaccine, using a mouse infection model. Regions of the VP0 (VP4+VP2) capsid protein were identified as having high homology across RVs. Immunization with a recombinant VP0 combined with a Th1 promoting adjuvant induced systemic, antigen specific, cross-serotype, cellular and humoral immune responses. Similar cross-reactive responses were observed in the lungs of immunized mice after infection with heterologous RV strains. Immunization enhanced the generation of heterosubtypic neutralizing antibodies and lung memory T cells, and caused more rapid virus clearance. Conserved domains of the RV capsid therefore induce cross-reactive immune responses and represent candidates for a subunit RV vaccine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapidly increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes implies that environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis. Enteroviruses are among the suspected environmental triggers of the disease, and the interest in exploring the possibilities to develop vaccines against these viruses has increased. Our objective was to identify enterovirus serotypes which could be involved in the initiation of the disease process by screening neutralizing antibodies against 41 different enterovirus types in a unique longitudinal sample series from a large prospective birth-cohort study. The study participants comprised 183 case children testing persistently positive for at least two diabetes-predictive autoantibodies and 366 autoantibody-negative matched control children. Coxsackievirus B1 was associated with an increased risk of β-cell autoimmunity. This risk was strongest when infection occurred a few months before autoantibodies appeared and it was attenuated by the presence of maternal antibodies against the virus. Two other Coxsackieviruses, B3 and B6, were associated with a reduced risk, with an interaction pattern suggesting immunological cross-protection against Coxsackievirus B1. These results support previous observations suggesting that the group B Coxsackieviruses are associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes. The clustering of the risk and protective viruses to this narrow phylogenetic lineage supports the biological plausibility of this phenomenon.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness.
The Lancet 06/2011; 378(9789):428-38. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increased incidence and extended geographical reach of Dengue virus over the past two decades have made the development of an effective vaccine an international urgency. Various strategies are being pursued, including live, vectored and killed/recombinant preparations. For all approaches, the challenge is to induce a broad durable immune response against all four serotypes of Dengue virus simultaneously whilst avoiding the possible exacerbation of risk of developing the severe forms of disease through incomplete or modified responses. This review presents the current state of knowledge and discusses the challenges of further clinical development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinoviruses cause serious morbidity and mortality as the major etiological agents of asthma exacerbations and the common cold. A major obstacle to understanding disease pathogenesis and to the development of effective therapies has been the lack of a small-animal model for rhinovirus infection. Of the 100 known rhinovirus serotypes, 90% (the major group) use human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as their cellular receptor and do not bind mouse ICAM-1; the remaining 10% (the minor group) use a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and can bind the mouse counterpart. Here we describe three novel mouse models of rhinovirus infection: minor-group rhinovirus infection of BALB/c mice, major-group rhinovirus infection of transgenic BALB/c mice expressing a mouse-human ICAM-1 chimera and rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. These models have features similar to those observed in rhinovirus infection in humans, including augmentation of allergic airway inflammation, and will be useful in the development of future therapies for colds and asthma exacerbations.
Nature medicine 03/2008; 14(2):199-204. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccines are one of the most useful and cost-effective tools for reducing the morbidity and mortality that are associated with infectious diseases. Here, Jeffrey Almond discusses the selection of articles in this Focus issue, in the context of the challenges and opportunities facing vaccine developers today.