[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic vortex is one of the simplest topologically non-trivial textures in condensed matter physics. It is the ground state of submicron magnetic elements (dots) of different shapes: cylindrical, square etc. So far, the vast majority of the vortex dynamics studies were focused on thin dots with thickness 5-50 nm and only uniform across the thickness vortex excitation modes were observed. Here we explore the fundamental vortex mode in relatively thick (50-100 nm) dots using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and show that dimensionality increase leads to qualitatively new excitation spectra. We demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequency cannot be explained without introducing a giant vortex mass, which is a result of the vortex distortion due to interaction with spin waves. The vortex mass depends on the system geometry and is non-local because of important role of the dipolar interaction. The mass is rather small for thin dots. However, its importance increases drastically with the dot thickness increasing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enhancement of Gilbert damping in polycrystalline cobalt thin-film multilayers of various thicknesses,
overlayered with copper or iridium, was studied in order to understand the role of local interface structure in
spin pumping. X-ray diffraction indicates that cobalt films less than 6 nm thick have strong fcc(111) texture
while thicker films are dominated by hcp(0001) structure. The intrinsic damping for cobalt thicknesses
above 6 nm is weakly dependent on cobalt thickness for both overlayer materials, and below 6 nm the
iridium overlayers show higher damping enhancement compared to copper overlayers, as expected due to
spin pumping. The interfacial spin mixing conductance is significantly enhanced in structures where both
cobalt and iridium have fcc(111) structure in comparison to those where the cobalt layer has subtly different
hcp(0001) texture at the interface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the origin of ferromagnetism induced in thin-film (∼20 nm) Fe-V alloys by their irradiation with subpicosecond laser pulses. We find with Rutherford backscattering that the magnetic modifications follow a thermally stimulated process of diffusion decomposition, with formation of a-few-nm-thick Fe enriched layer inside the film. Surprisingly, similar transformations in the samples were also found after their long-time (∼103 s) thermal annealing. However, the laser action provides much higher diffusion coefficients (∼4 orders of magnitude) than those obtained under standard heat treatments. We get a hint that this ultrafast diffusion decomposition occurs in the metallic glassy state achievable in laser-quenched samples. This vitrification is thought to be a prerequisite for the laser-induced onset of ferromagnetism that we observe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultrafast laser-induced response of spins and charges in CoFe/Al 2 O 3 multilayers are studied using THz and optical pump-probe spectroscopies. We demonstrate the possibility of ultrafast manipulation of the transport and magnetic properties of the multilayers with femtosecond laser excitation. In particular, using time-resolved THz transmission experiments we found that such an excitation leads to a rapid increase of the THz transmission (i.e., electric resistivity). Our experiments also reveal that femtosecond laser excitation results in the emission of broadband THz radiation. To reveal the origin of the emitted THz radiation, we performed magnetic-dependent measurements of the THz emission. We also compared the observed electric field of the THz radiation to calculations performed using subpicosecond laser-induced demagnetization measurements. The good agreement between the experimentally obtained spectra and the calculations corroborates that the measured THz emission originates from the demagnetization process.
Physical Review B 03/2015; 91(10):104407. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.91.104407 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly ordered CoxNi1-x nanowire (NW) arrays were electrodeposited inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The control of the applied potential during the electrodeposition process allowed us to easily tune the Co% in the alloy. Systematic studies on the morphological and crystallographic properties together with static and dynamic magnetic characterizations were performed. In this work we focus on the study of the dynamic magnetic properties of CoNi NW arrays using the ferromagnetic resonance method at both room (RT) and low (LT) temperatures. The careful comparison analysis performed between the magnetic anisotropy fields obtained at RT and LT, allowed us to extract for the first time the magnetocrystalline anisotropy effect of the Co component and, most importantly, the magnetoelastic anisotropy effect of Ni.
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 12/2014; 374:663. DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.09.036 · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present micromagnetic simulations of ferromagnetic resonance in patterned permalloy films and isolated stripes. Films of the total thickness 20 nm or 40 nm are patterned in the form of 1D periodic structures with rectangular profile (rectangular grooves of depth varying from zero up to the film thickness) and in-plane period of 500 nm. The direction of the applied dc magnetic field is varied in the film plane from the direction parallel to the stripes to perpendicular one. The thickness of the patterned elements and direction of the bias field affect essentially the resonance peaks (changing their position, amplitude and number) and the corresponding dynamical magnetization profiles. We simulated from one up to three ferromagnetic resonance peaks and found the areas of microwave magnetization localization for them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When the in-plane bias magnetic field acting on a flat circular magnetic dot is smaller than the saturation field, there are two stable competing magnetization configurations of the dot: the vortex and the quasi-uniform (C-state). We measured microwave absorption properties in an array of non-interacting permalloy dots in the frequency range 1–8 GHz when the in-plane bias magnetic field was varied in the region of the dot magnetization state bi-stability. We found that the microwave absorption properties in the vortex and quasi-uniform stable states are substantially different, so that switching between these states in a fixed bias field can be used for the development of reconfigurable microwave magnetic materials.
New Journal of Physics 06/2014; 16(6):063044. DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/16/6/063044 · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vortex gyrotropic modes in ferromagnetic nanostructures can be described as flexure oscillations of the vortex core line with different number of nodes n along the dot thickness. By conducting broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements in the absence of external magnetic field on Ni80Fe20 circular nanodots with radius R = 150 nm and thickness 50 ≤ L ≤ 100 nm, we established that above L = 70 nm the intensity of more complicated n = 1 vortex mode is unexpectedly higher than the one of n = 0 mode. The observed behavior is explained on the basis of the inhomogeneous vortex mode phase profiles extracted from micromagnetic simulations. The phase difference of vortex core gyrations at the top and bottom dot faces is essentially different from 0 and π. The difference is increasing with increase in the dot aspect ratio L/R for the 0th order mode, whereas an inverse relationship is observed for the 1st order mode. The analytical theory indicates that this phase difference has magnetostatic origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic vortex that consists of an in-plane curling magnetization configuration and a needle-like core region with out-of-plane magnetization is known to be the ground state of geometrically confined submicron soft magnetic elements. Here magnetodynamics of relatively thick (50-100 nm) circular Ni80Fe20 dots were probed by broadband ferromagnetic resonance in the absence of external magnetic field. Spin excitation modes related to the thickness dependent vortex core gyrotropic dynamics were detected experimentally in the gigahertz frequency range. Both analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations revealed that these exchange dominated modes are flexure oscillations of the vortex core string with n = 0,1,2 nodes along the dot thickness. The intensity of the mode with n = 1 depends significantly on both dot thickness and diameter and in some cases is higher than the one of the uniform mode with n = 0. This opens promising perspectives in the area of spin transfer torque oscillators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two ferromagnetic layers magnetically decoupled by a thick normal metal
spacer layer can be, nevertheless, dynamically coupled via spin currents
emitted by the spin-pump and absorbed through the spin-torque effects at the
neighboring interfaces. A decrease of damping in both layers due to a partial
compensation of the angular momentum leakage in each layer was previously
observed at the coincidence of the two ferromagnetic resonances. In case of
non-zero magnetic coupling, such a dynamic exchange will depend on the mutual
precession of the magnetic moments in the layers. A difference in the linewidth
of the resonance peaks is expected for the acoustic and optical regimes of
precession. However, the interlayer coupling hybridizes the resonance responses
of the layers and therefore can also change their linewidths. The interplay
between the two mechanisms has never been considered before. In the present
work, the joint influence of the hybridization and non-local damping on the
linewidth has been studied in weakly coupled NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/MnIr spin-valve
multilayers. It has been found that the dynamic exchange by spin currents is
different in the optical and acoustic modes, and this difference is dependent
on the interlayer coupling strength. In contrast to the acoustic precession
mode, the dynamic exchange in the optical mode works as an additional damping
source. A simulation in the framework of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert formalism
for two ferromagnetic layers coupled magnetically and by spin currents has been
done to separate the effects of the non-local damping from the resonance modes
hybridization. In our samples both mechanisms bring about linewidth changes of
the same order of magnitude, but lead to a distinctly different angular
behavior. The obtained results are relevant for a broad class of coupled
magnetic multilayers with ballistic regime of the spin transport.
Physical Review B 04/2014; 89:144410. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.144410 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work is to show a simple method that combines conventional laser interferometry and standard thin film deposition techniques to fabricate modulated magnetic nanostructures with lateral periodicity, and to tailor the magnetic properties by varying geometrical parameters. Well defined Ni80Fe20 magnetic thin films with sinusoidal grating profiles were obtained with a periodicity of 1.2 μm and different grating depths. Magnetic studies via ferromagnetic resonance and magneto optical Kerr effect demonstrate the tunability of the induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy with depth profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnonic crystals with periodically modulated thickness were fabricated using deep ultraviolet lithography by covering Ni80Fe20 nanowire arrays with continuous Ni80Fe20 film. It is shown that the magnetization reversal and ferromagnetic resonance fields can be tuned either varying the film thickness (t) or the stripe width (w). For t ≥ 20 nm, two different stable magnetic configurations in zero external field were obtained. These configurations are characterized by noticeably different frequencies of ferromagnetic resonance up to 1 GHz and can be switched by applying magnetic pulses of proper amplitude and polarity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of an isothermal structural transition observed in Bi1-xLaxFeO3 (0.17⩽x⩽0.19) ceramics. At room temperature, an initially pure polar rhombohedral phase gradually transforms into a pure antipolar orthorhombic one. The polar phase can be recovered by annealing at T>300 °C. In accordance with neutron powder diffraction data, an inverse isothermal antipolar-polar transition takes place at T>300 °C, where the polar phase becomes more stable. The antipolar phase is characterized by a weak ferromagnetic state, whereas the polar phase has been obtained in a mixed antiferromagnet–weak ferromagnet state. The relatively low external pressure induces polar-antipolar transition, but there is no evidence of electric-field-driven antipolar-polar transition. The observed large local piezoelectric response is associated with structural instability of the polar phase, whereas local multistate piezoelectric loops can be related to the domain wall pinning effect.
Physical Review B 10/2013; 83(5). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.054109 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superconducting and magnetic properties of a-Co x Si 1−x / Nb bilayers have been studied as a function of Co content in order to analyze the superconducting/ferromagnetic proximity effect in a system with strong disorder in the magnetic layers. As Co atoms become more diluted, the magnetization of the amorphous a-Co x Si 1−x alloy decreases gradually, whereas their resistivity increases and enters in a weak localization regime. The superconducting transition temperatures of the a-Co x Si 1−x / Nb bilayers follow a decreasing trend as Co content is reduced, reaching the lowest value at the boundary between the ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic amorphous phases. These results can be understood in terms of the increase in interface transparency together with the changes in the spin-flip scattering term as magnetic disorder increases and the amorphous a-Co x Si 1−x layers loose their magnetic character.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetization and magnetoresistance in function of the magnitude and orientation of applied magnetic field were studied in Co-Fe discontinuous multilayers close to their structural percolation. The high pulsed magnetic fields up to 33 T were used in the 120–310 K temperature range. Comparison between longitudinal and transverse (with respect to the film plane) field configurations was made in the low-field and high-field regimes in order to clarify the nature of the measured negative magnetoresistance. Coexistence of two distinct magnetic fractions, superparamagnetic (SPM, consisting of small spherical Co-Fe granules) and superferromagnetic (SFM, by bigger Co-Fe clusters), was established in this system. These fractions were shown to have different relevance for the system magnetization and magnetotransport. While the magnetization is almost completely (up to ∼97%) defined by the SFM contribution and practically independent of temperature (in this range), the magnetoresistance experiences a crossover from a regime dominated by Langevin correlations (suppressed with temperature) between neighbor SPM and SFM moments at low fields, to that dominated by spin scattering (enhanced with temperature) of charge carriers within SFM clusters at high fields. Also, the demagnetizing effects, sensitive to the field orientation, were found to essentially define the low-field behavior and characteristic crossover field.
Physical Review B 09/2013; 82(14). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.82.144432 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amorphous Nd–Co films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been nanostructured in a lateral magnetic multilayer geometry in order to analyse and modify in a controlled way the configuration of its characteristic stripe domains as well as their rotation processes. Magnetic force microscopy measurements reveal that, actually, the artificial thickness modulation results in size effects on the magnetic stripes, so that the stripe domains configuration can be tuned with the lateral multilayer periodicity, and, due to the consequent reduction of the rotatable magnetic anisotropy, it is possible to modify the stripe rotation processes for in-plane magnetization reversal.
Journal of Physics D Applied Physics 08/2013; 46(34-34):345001. DOI:10.1088/0022-3727/46/34/345001 · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modulated structures consisting of square arrays of 60 nm thick Ni80Fe20 circular dots underneath a continuous Ni80Fe20 film were fabricated using multi-level process based on deep ultraviolet lithography at 248 nm exposure wavelength. We observed a drastic change in both the static and dynamic properties of the modulated structures by varying the Ni80Fe20 film thickness t in the range from 5 to 60 nm. It was revealed via comparison between experimental results and micromagnetic simulations that the dots create perturbations of internal fields in the neighbor regions of the film which can be controlled by magnetic field and film thickness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We use the resonant and non-resonant microwave absorption to probe the dynamic and static magnetic parameters of weakly coupled spin valves. The sample series include spin valve structures with varying thickness of the non-magnetic metallic spacer and reference samples comprised only a free or fixed magnetic layer. Beside the common resonance absorption peaks, the observed microwave spectra present step-like features with hysteretic behavior. The latter effect is a direct manifestation of the interlayer coupling between the ferromagnetic layers and provides two static magnetic parameters, the switching field and coercivity of the fixed layer. The analysis of the microwave absorption spectra under in-plane rotation of the applied magnetic field at different spacer thicknesses permits a deeper insight in the magnetic interactions in this system as compared to the conventional magnetometry. We combine the standard Smit-Beljers formalism for the angular dependence of the resonance fields with a Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert dynamics extended to describe in detail the intensity of microwave absorption in the spin valves. In this way, we extract a set of parameters for each layer including the effective magnetization and anisotropy, exchange bias and interlayer coupling, as well as Gilbert damping. The model reproduces well the experimental findings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the estimated parameters are in a reasonable agreement with the values known from the literature. The proposed theoretical treatment can be adopted for other multilayered dynamic systems as, e.g., spin-torque oscillators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spin wave spectra of 40-nm thick perpendicularly magnetized circular Permalloy dots of 250 nm radius were measured using ferromagnetic resonance technique in 70-80 GHz range at 4.2 K and in 10 GHz at room temperature. The five sharp resonance peaks were observed for both frequency ranges. The resonance fields can be well described by a magneto-exchange dispersion relation, implying that the observed resonances correspond to circular “drumhead” modes with Bessel-function profiles. The relative distances between neighbor peaks for different frequency ranges were almost the same, while the absolute interpeak distances in millimeter range were ∼30% bigger than at 10 GHz, as predicted by the theory.