[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STOMATAL CYTOKINESIS DEFECTIVE1 (SCD1) encodes a putative Rab guanine nucleotide exchange factor that functions in membrane trafficking and is required for cytokinesis and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the loss of SCD2 function disrupts cytokinesis and cell expansion and impairs fertility, phenotypes similar to those observed for scd1 mutants. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed that SCD1 function is dependent upon SCD2 and that together these proteins are required for plasma membrane internalization. Further specifying the role of these proteins in membrane trafficking, SCD1 and SCD2 proteins were found to be associated with isolated clathrin-coated vesicles and to colocalize with clathrin light chain at putative sites of endocytosis at the plasma membrane. Together, these data suggest that SCD1 and SCD2 function in clathrin-mediated membrane transport, including plasma membrane endocytosis, required for cytokinesis and cell expansion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many soluble proteins transit through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the prevacuolar compartment (PVC) en route to the vacuole, but our mechanistic understanding of this vectorial trafficking step in plants is limited. In particular, it is unknown whether clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) participate in this transport step. Through a screen for modified transport to the vacuole (mtv) mutants that secrete the vacuolar protein VAC2, we identified MTV1, which encodes an EPSIN N-TERMINAL HOMOLOGY protein, and MTV4, which encodes the ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein NEVERSHED/AGD5. MTV1 and NEV/AGD5 have overlapping expression patterns and interact genetically to transport vacuolar cargo and promote plant growth, but they have no apparent roles in protein secretion or endocytosis. MTV1 and NEV/AGD5 colocalize with clathrin at the TGN and are incorporated into CCVs. Importantly, mtv1 nev/agd5 double mutants show altered subcellular distribution of CCV cargo exported from the TGN. Moreover, MTV1 binds clathrin in vitro, and NEV/AGD5 associates in vivo with clathrin, directly linking these proteins to CCV formation. These results indicate that MTV1 and NEV/AGD5 are key effectors for CCV-mediated trafficking of vacuolar proteins from the TGN to the PVC in plants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cisternal progression/maturation model of Golgi trafficking predicts that cis-Golgi cisternae are formed de novo on the cis-side of the Golgi. Here we describe structural and functional intermediates of the cis cisterna assembly process in high-pressure frozen algae (Scherffelia dubia, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Dionaea muscipula; Venus Flytrap) as determined by electron microscopy, electron tomography and immuno-electron microscopy techniques. Our findings are as follows: (1) The cis-most (C1) Golgi cisternae are generated de novo from cisterna initiators produced by the fusion of 3-5 COPII vesicles in contact with a C2 cis cisterna. (2) COPII vesicles fuel the growth of the initiators, which then merge into a coherent C1 cisterna. (3) When a C1 cisterna nucleates its first cisterna initiator it becomes a C2 cisterna. (4) C2-Cn cis cisternae grow through COPII vesicle fusion. (5) ER-resident proteins are recycled from cis cisternae to the ER via COPIa-type vesicles. (6) In S. dubia the C2 cisternae are capable of mediating the self-assembly of scale protein complexes. (7) In plants, ~90% of native α-mannosidase I localizes to medial Golgi cisternae. (8) Biochemical activation of cis cisternae appears to coincide with their conversion to medial cisternae via recycling of medial cisterna enzymes. We propose how the different cis cisterna assembly intermediates of plants and algae may actually be related to those present in the ERGIC and in the pre-cis Golgi cisterna layer in mammalian cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotes employ complex immune mechanisms for protection
against microbial pathogens. Here, we identified SCD1
(Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1), previously implicated in
growth and development through its role in cytokinesis and
polarized cell expansion (Falbel, T. G., Koch, L. M., Nadeau, J. A.,
Segui-Simarro, J. M., Sack, F. D., and Bednarek, S. Y. (2003)
Development 130, 4011–4024) as a novel component of innate
immunity. In Arabidopsis, SCD1 is a unique gene encoding for
the only protein containing a complete DENN (Differentially
Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain. The DENN
domain is a largely uncharacterized tripartite protein motif conserved
among eukaryotic proteins. We show that conditional
scd1-1 plants containing a point mutation in a conserved DENN
residue affected a subset of signaling responses to some bacterial
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Consistent
with increased transcript accumulation of Pathogen-related
(PR) genes, scd1-1 plants were more resistant to Pseudomonas
syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection implicating
SCD1 as a negative regulator of basal resistance against bacteria.
scd1-1 plants were different from known mutants exhibiting
constitutive expressor ofPR(cpr)-like phenotypes, in that growth
impairment of scd1-1 plants was genetically independent of
constitutive immune response activation. For scd1-1, shift to
elevated temperature or introduction of a mutant allele in Salicylic
acid Induction-Deficient 2 (SID2) suppressed constitutive
defense response activation. sid2-2 also repressed the resistance
phenotype of scd1-1. Temperature shift and sid2-2, however,
did not rescue conditional growth and sterility defects of scd1-1.
These results implicateSCD1in multiple cellular pathways, possibly
by affecting different proteins. Overall, our studies identified
a novel role for eukaryotic DENN proteins in immunity
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1 I. 1 II. 3 III. 8 IV. 13 13 References 13 SUMMARY: Following mitosis, cytoplasm, organelles and genetic material are partitioned into daughter cells through the process of cytokinesis. In somatic cells of higher plants, two cytoskeletal arrays, the preprophase band and the phragmoplast, facilitate the positioning and de novo assembly of the plant-specific cytokinetic organelle, the cell plate, which develops across the division plane and fuses with the parental plasma membrane to yield distinct new cells. The coordination of cytoskeletal and membrane dynamics required to initiate, assemble and shape the cell plate as it grows toward the mother cell cortex is dependent upon a large array of proteins, including molecular motors, membrane tethering, fusion and restructuring factors and biosynthetic, structural and regulatory elements. This review focuses on the temporal and molecular requirements of cytokinesis in somatic cells of higher plants gleaned from recent studies using cell biology, genetics, pharmacology and biochemistry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin , which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [2, 3], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4, 5]. The PIN polar localization results from clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) from the plasma membrane and subsequent polar recycling . The Arabidopsis genome encodes two groups of dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) that show homology to mammalian dynamin-a protein required for fission of endocytic vesicles during CME [7, 8]. Here we show by coimmunoprecipitation (coIP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) that members of the DRP1 group closely associate with PIN proteins at the cell plate. Localization and phenotypic analysis of novel drp1 mutants revealed a requirement for DRP1 function in correct PIN distribution and in auxin-mediated development. We propose that rapid and specific internalization of PIN proteins mediated by the DRP1 proteins and the associated CME machinery from the cell plate membranes during cytokinesis is an important mechanism for proper polar PIN positioning in interphase cells.
Current biology: CB 06/2011; 21(12):1055-60. · 10.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spatial distribution of the plant hormone auxin regulates multiple aspects of plant development. These self-regulating auxin gradients are established by the action of PIN auxin transporters, whose activity is regulated by their constitutive cycling between the plasma membrane and endosomes. Here, we show that auxin signaling by the auxin receptor AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) inhibits the clathrin-mediated internalization of PIN proteins. ABP1 acts as a positive factor in clathrin recruitment to the plasma membrane, thereby promoting endocytosis. Auxin binding to ABP1 interferes with this action and leads to the inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our study demonstrates that ABP1 mediates a nontranscriptional auxin signaling that regulates the evolutionarily conserved process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and suggests that this signaling may be essential for the developmentally important feedback of auxin on its own transport.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking is critical for multiple stages of plant growth and development. One key component of clathrin-mediated trafficking in animals is dynamin, a polymerizing GTPase that plays both regulatory and mechanical roles. Other eukaryotes use various dynamin-related proteins (DRP) in clathrin-mediated trafficking. Plants are unique in the apparent involvement of both a family of classical dynamins (DRP2) and a family of dynamin-related proteins (DRP1) in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking. Our analysis of drp2 insertional mutants demonstrates that, similar to the DRP1 family, the DRP2 family is essential for Arabidopsis thaliana development. Gametophytes lacking both DRP2A and DRP2B were inviable, arresting prior to the first mitotic division in both male and female gametogenesis. Mutant pollen displayed a variety of defects, including branched or irregular cell plates, altered Golgi morphology and ectopic callose deposition. Ectopic callose deposition was also visible in the pollen-lethal drp1c-1 mutant and appears to be a specific feature of pollen-defective mutants with impaired membrane trafficking. However, drp2ab pollen arrested at earlier stages in development than drp1c-1 pollen and did not accumulate excess plasma membrane or display other gross defects in plasma membrane morphology. Therefore, the DRP2 family, but not DRP1C, is necessary for cell cycle progression during early gametophyte development. This suggests a possible role for DRP2-dependent clathrin-mediated trafficking in the transduction of developmental signals in the gametophyte.
The Plant Cell 10/2010; 22(10):3218-31. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotes employ complex immune mechanisms for protection against microbial pathogens. Here, we identified SCD1 (Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1), previously implicated in growth and development through its role in cytokinesis and polarized cell expansion (Falbel, T. G., Koch, L. M., Nadeau, J. A., Segui-Simarro, J. M., Sack, F. D., and Bednarek, S. Y. (2003) Development 130, 4011-4024) as a novel component of innate immunity. In Arabidopsis, SCD1 is a unique gene encoding for the only protein containing a complete DENN (Differentially Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain. The DENN domain is a largely uncharacterized tripartite protein motif conserved among eukaryotic proteins. We show that conditional scd1-1 plants containing a point mutation in a conserved DENN residue affected a subset of signaling responses to some bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Consistent with increased transcript accumulation of Pathogen-related (PR) genes, scd1-1 plants were more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection implicating SCD1 as a negative regulator of basal resistance against bacteria. scd1-1 plants were different from known mutants exhibiting constitutive expressor of PR (cpr)-like phenotypes, in that growth impairment of scd1-1 plants was genetically independent of constitutive immune response activation. For scd1-1, shift to elevated temperature or introduction of a mutant allele in Salicylic acid Induction-Deficient 2 (SID2) suppressed constitutive defense response activation. sid2-2 also repressed the resistance phenotype of scd1-1. Temperature shift and sid2-2, however, did not rescue conditional growth and sterility defects of scd1-1. These results implicate SCD1 in multiple cellular pathways, possibly by affecting different proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel role for eukaryotic DENN proteins in immunity against bacteria.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(30):23342-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two separate families of Arabidopsis dynamin-related proteins, DRP1 and DRP2, have been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and cell plate maturation during cytokinesis. The present review summarizes the current genetic, biochemical and cell biological knowledge about these two protein families, and suggests key directions for more fully understanding their roles and untangling their function in membrane trafficking. We focus particularly on comparing and contrasting these two protein families, which have very distinct domain structures and are independently essential for Arabidopsis development, yet which have been implicated in very similar cellular processes during cytokinesis and cell expansion.
Biochemical Society Transactions 06/2010; 38(3):797-806. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) is involved in endocytosis and cell plate maturation in Arabidopsis. Unlike dynamin, AtDRP1A does not have any recognized membrane binding or protein-protein interaction domains. We report that GTPase active AtDRP1A purified from Escherichia coli as a fusion to maltose binding protein forms homopolymers visible by negative staining electron microscopy. These polymers interact with protein-free liposomes whose lipid composition mimics that of the inner leaflet of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, suggesting that lipid-binding may play a role in AtDRP1A function. However, AtDRP1A polymers do not appear to assemble and disassemble in a dynamic fashion and do not have the ability to tubulate liposomes in vitro, suggesting that additional factors or modifications are necessary for AtDRP1A's in vivo function.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2010; 393(4):734-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli is a frequently used expression system for the generation of protein encoded by genes from diverse kingdoms and, thus, it is well suited for the production of protein antigens for antibody generation. It is a system of choice for many due to factors such as (1) the commercial availability of a vast array of reagents and materials needed for cloning, expression, and purification and (2) the potential high protein yields that can be acquired in a timely and cost-effective manner. This chapter will focus on (1) the general principles to keep in mind when choosing an antigen to express and (2) the use of a modified pGEX vector system (Rancour et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279:54264-54274, 2004) to use in its expression. Simplified protocols are provided for (1) assessing the expression of your protein, (2) testing whether your protein is or is not expressed as a soluble product, (3) performing bulk purifications of soluble or insoluble E. coli-expressed protein to acquire enough to be used for a complete immunization protocol, and (4) an optional procedure for epitope tag removal from your expressed protein of interest in order to avoid the unnecessary and sometimes unwanted production of antibodies against the fusion protein affinity chromatography tag. These four procedures have been used extensively and successfully in our lab as a basis for the production of recombinant protein and subsequent antibody production.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2010; 657:3-20.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CDC48/p97 is a conserved homohexameric AAA-ATPase chaperone required for a variety of cellular processes but whose role in the development of a multicellular model system has not been examined. Here, we have used reverse genetics, visualization of a functional Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDC48 fluorescent fusion protein, and morphological analysis to examine the subcellular distribution and requirements for AtCDC48A in planta. Homozygous Atcdc48A T-DNA insertion mutants arrest during seedling development, exhibiting decreased cell expansion and displaying pleiotropic defects in pollen and embryo development. Atcdc48A insertion alleles show significantly reduced male transmission efficiency due to defects in pollen tube growth. Yellow fluorescent protein-AtCDC48A, a fusion protein that functionally complements the insertion mutant defects, localizes in the nucleus and cytoplasm and is recruited to the division mid-zone during cytokinesis. The pattern of nuclear localization differs according to the stage of the cell cycle and differentiation state. Inducible expression of an Atcdc48A Walker A ATPase mutant in planta results in cytokinesis abnormalities, aberrant cell divisions, and root trichoblast differentiation defects apparent in excessive root hair emergence. At the biochemical level, our data suggest that the endogenous steady-state protein level of AtCDC48A is dependent upon the presence of ATPase-active AtCDC48A. These results demonstrate that CDC48A/p97 is critical for cytokinesis, cell expansion, and differentiation in plants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant morphogenesis depends on polarized exocytic and endocytic membrane trafficking. Members of the Arabidopsis thaliana dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) subfamily are required for polarized cell expansion and cytokinesis. Using a combination of live-cell imaging techniques, we show that a functional DRP1C green fluorescent fusion protein (DRP1C-GFP) was localized at the division plane in dividing cells and to the plasma membrane in expanding interphase cells. In both tip growing root hairs and diffuse-polar expanding epidermal cells, DRP1C-GFP organized into dynamic foci at the cell cortex, which colocalized with a clathrin light chain fluorescent fusion protein (CLC-FFP), suggesting that DRP1C may participate in clathrin-mediated membrane dynamics. DRP1C-GFP and CLC-GFP foci dynamics are dependent on cytoskeleton organization, cytoplasmic streaming, and functional clathrin-mediated endocytic traffic. Our studies provide insight into DRP1 and clathrin dynamics in the plant cell cortex and indicate that the clathrin endocytic machinery in plants has both similarities and striking differences to that in mammalian cells and yeast.
The Plant Cell 06/2008; 20(5):1363-80. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1 (DRP1) family are required for cytokinesis and cell expansion. Two isoforms, DRP1A and DRP1C, are required for plasma membrane maintenance during stigmatic papillae expansion and pollen development, respectively. It is unknown whether the DRP1s function interchangeably or if they have distinct roles during cell division and expansion. DRP1C was previously shown to form dynamic foci in the cell cortex, which colocalize with part of the clathrin endocytic machinery in plants. DRP1A localizes to the plasma membrane, but its cortical organization and dynamics have not been determined. Using dual color labeling with live cell imaging techniques, we showed that DRP1A also forms discreet dynamic foci in the epidermal cell cortex. Although the foci overlap with those formed by DRP1C and clathrin light chain, there are clear differences in behavior and response to pharmacological inhibitors between DRP1A and DRP1C foci. Possible functional or regulatory differences between DRP1A and DRP1C were supported by the failure of DRP1C to functionally compensate for the absence of DRP1A. Our studies indicated that the DRP1 isoforms function or are regulated differently during cell expansion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live-cell microscopy imaging of fluorescent-tagged fusion proteins is an essential tool for cell biologists. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has joined confocal microscopy as a complementary system for the imaging of cell surface protein dynamics in mammalian and yeast systems because of its high temporal and spatial resolution. Here we present an alternative to TIRFM, termed variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM), for the visualization of protein dynamics at or near the plasma membrane of plant epidermal cells and root hairs in whole, intact seedlings that provides high-signal, low-background and near real-time imaging. VAEM uses highly oblique subcritical incident angles to decrease background fluorophore excitation. We discuss the utilities and advantages of VAEM for imaging of fluorescent fusion-tagged marker proteins in studying cortical cytoskeletal and membrane proteins. We believe that the application of VAEM will be an invaluable imaging tool for plant cell biologists.
The Plant Journal 02/2008; 53(1):186-96. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two of the most fundamental processes in plant development are cytokinesis, by which new cells are formed, and cell expansion, by which existing cells grow and establish their functional morphology. In this review we summarize recent progress in understanding the pathways necessary for cytokinesis and cell expansion, including the role of the cytoskeleton, cell wall biogenesis, and membrane trafficking. Here, we focus on genes and lipids that are involved in both cytokinesis and cell expansion and bridge the divide between these two processes. In addition, we discuss our understanding of and controversies surrounding the role of endocytosis in both of these processes.
Current Opinion in Plant Biology 01/2008; 10(6):607-15. · 8.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CDC48/p97 is an essential AAA-ATPase chaperone that functions in numerous diverse cellular activities through its interaction with specific adapter proteins. The ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX)-containing protein, PUX1, functions to regulate the hexameric structure and ATPase activity of AtCDC48. To characterize the biochemical mechanism of PUX1 action on AtCDC48, we have defined domains of both PUX1 and AtCDC48 that are critical for interaction and oligomer disassembly. Binding of PUX1 to AtCDC48 was mediated through a region containing both the UBX domain and the immediate C-terminal flanking amino acids (UBX-C). Like other UBX domains, the primary binding site for the UBX-C of PUX1 is the N(a) domain of AtCDC48. Alternative plant PUX protein UBX domains also bind AtCDC48 through the N terminus but were found not to be able to substitute for the action imparted by the UBX-C of PUX1 in hexamer disassembly, suggesting unique features for the UBX-C of PUX1. We propose that the PUX1 UBX-C domain modulates a second binding site on AtCDC48 required for the N-terminal domain of PUX1 to interact with and promote dissociation of the AtCDC48 hexamer. Utilizing Atcdc48 ATP hydrolysis and binding mutants, we demonstrate that PUX1 binding was not affected but that hexamer disassembly was significantly influenced by the ATP status of AtCDC48. ATPase activity in both the D1 and the D2 domains was critical for PUX1-mediated AtCDC48 hexamer disassembly. Together these results provide new mechanistic insight into how the hexameric status and ATPase activity of AtCDC48 are modulated.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2007; 282(8):5217-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic factor 1 (FAC1) is one of the earliest expressed plant genes and encodes an AMP deaminase (AMPD), which is also an identified herbicide target. This report identifies an N-terminal transmembrane domain in Arabidopsis FAC1, explores subcellular fractionation, and presents a 3.3-A globular catalytic domain x-ray crystal structure with a bound herbicide-based transition state inhibitor that provides the first glimpse of a complete AMPD active site. FAC1 contains an (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel characterized by loops in place of strands 5 and 6 that places it in a small subset of the amidohydrolase superfamily with imperfect folds. Unlike tetrameric animal orthologs, FAC1 is a dimer and each subunit contains an exposed Walker A motif that may be involved in the dramatic combined K(m) (25-80-fold lower) and V(max) (5-6-fold higher) activation by ATP. Normal mode analysis predicts a hinge motion that flattens basic surfaces on each monomer that flank the dimer interface, which suggests a reversible association between the FAC1 globular catalytic domain and intracellular membranes, with N-terminal transmembrane and disordered linker regions serving as the anchor and attachment to the globular catalytic domain, respectively.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2006; 281(21):14939-47. · 4.65 Impact Factor