[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic graft-versus-host disease is the major long-term complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a suboptimal response rate to current treatments. Therefore, clinical efficacy and changes in lymphocyte subsets before and after rituximab treatment were evaluated in a prospective phase II study in patients with steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease. Overall response rate was 61%. Only responding patients were found to have increased B-cell numbers prior to treatment. B cells had a naïve-antigen-presenting phenotype and were mainly CD5 negative or had a low CD5 expression. Normal B-cell homeostasis was reestablished in responding patients one year after ritxumab treatment and associated with a significant decline in skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that host B cells play a role in maintaining pathological CD8(+) T-cell responses. Imbalances in B-cell homeostasis could be used to identify patients a priori with a higher chance of response to rituximab treatment (Eudra-CT 2008-004125-42).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematologica 2011 [Epub ahead of print] Citation: van Dorp S, Resemann H, te Boome L, Pietersma F, van Baarle D, Gmelig-Meyling FH, de Weger R, Petersen E, Minnema M, Lokhorst H, Ebeling S, Beijn SJP, Knoll EF, van Dijk MR, Meijer E, and Kuball J. The immunological phenotype of rituximab-sensitive chronic GVHD: a phase II study. Haematologica. 2011; 96:xxx doi:10.3324/haematol.2011.041814 Publisher's Disclaimer. E-publishing ahead of print is increasingly important for the rapid dissemination of science. Haematologica is, therefore, E-publishing PDF files of an early version of manuscripts that have completed a regular peer review and have been accepted for publication. E-publishing of this PDF file has been approved by the authors. After having E-published Ahead of Print, manuscripts will then undergo technical and English editing, typesetting, proof correction and be presented for the authors' final approval; the final version of the manuscript will then appear in print on a regular issue of the journal. All legal disclaimers that apply to the journal also pertain to this production process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incorporation of the chimeric CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment schedule of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has significantly improved outcome. Despite this success, about half of the patients do not respond to treatment or suffer from a relapse and additional therapy is required. A low CD20-expression level may in part be responsible for resistance against rituximab. We therefore investigated whether the CD20-expression level related resistance to rituximab could be overcome by a new group of CD20 mAbs (HuMab-7D8 and ofatumumab) targeting a unique membrane-proximal epitope on the CD20 molecule.
By retroviral transduction of the CD20 gene into CD20-negative cells and clonal selection of transduced cells a system was developed in which the CD20-expression level is the only variable. These CD20 transduced cells were used to study the impact of rituximab and HuMab-7D8 mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. To study the in vivo efficacy of these mAbs an in vivo imaging system was generated by retroviral expression of the luciferase gene in the CD20-positive cells.
We show that HuMab-7D8 efficiently killed CD20(low) cells that are not susceptible to rituximab-induced killing in vitro. In a mouse xenograft model, we observed a comparable increase in survival time between HuMab-7D8 and rituximab-treated mice. Most significantly, however, HuMab-7D8 eradicated all CD20-expressing cells both in the periphery as well as in the bone marrow whereas after rituximab treatment CD20(low) cells survived.
Cells that are insensitive to in vitro and in vivo killing by rituximab as the result of their low CD20-expression profile may be efficiently killed by an antibody against the membrane-proximal epitope on CD20. Such antibodies should, therefore, be explored to overcome rituximab resistance in the clinic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a serious complication in long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with several organ systems affected. Chronic graft-versus-host disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This article reviews the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In particularly, the role of B cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease is evaluated, as is evident from several studies which have investigated the presence of antibodies as well as studies which have analyzed B cells as a target for immunotherapy. Thirty autoantibodies and 5 alloantibodies have been identified in chronic graft-versus-host disease patients in 24 studies, and 8 autoantibodies and 5 alloantibodies seemed to be strongly associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease. In addition, various studies have observed significant improvements in chronic graft-versus-host disease using the anti-CD20(+) antibody rituximab. However, it appears to be highly likely that both B cells as well as T cells are of major importance in chronic graft-versus-host disease. Further research is required to clarify the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent clinical trials of adoptive immunotherapy showed diminished reactivity of human T cells upon ex vivo manipulation. For a safe and effective clinical application of human T cells, it is necessary to improve ex vivo manipulation procedures and evaluate their impact on in vivo functionality. However, there is no preclinical model for quantitative assessment of in vivo functionality of human T cells. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using the huPBMC- RAG2(-/-)gammac(-/-) xenogeneic mouse model. As a first example, we compared 3 different ex vivo culture conditions for human T cells.
RAG2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice received cultured human T cells that were stimulated via CD3 alone or costimulated via CD28 (CD3/28) and/or human 4-1BB (CD3/28/4-1BB). Engraftment levels and survival of the cells were measured. The dynamics of the human T cell phenotypes were analyzed during culture and in vivo, as well as the mechanism of the xenoresponse.
Engraftment potential was improved twofold for costimulation compared to CD3 alone (p < 0.001). Phenotypic analysis showed a strikingly similar pattern of development towards CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector and effector-memory cells, suggesting antigen-driven survival and expansion. All parameters used to analyze different effects on in vivo T-cell functionality, like culture condition, engraftment levels, survival of the cells over time, or xenogeneic graft-vs-host disease were absolutely independent of the distribution of the T cell population in vivo following contact with xeno-antigen.
The huPBMC-RAG2(-/-)gammac(-/-) xenogeneic transplant model is the most sensitive to date for in vivo functional evaluation of human T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major challenge to improve the safety of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for leukemia treatment. In murine transplantation models, administration of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) can prevent GvHD. Toward understanding the role of human Treg in stem cell transplantation, we studied their capacity to modulate T-cell-dependent xenogeneic (x)-GvHD in a new model where x-GvHD is induced in RAG2-/-gammac-/- mice by i.v. administration of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
Human PBMC, depleted of or supplemented with autologous CD25+ Tregs, were administered in mice at different doses. The development of x-GvHD, in vivo expansion of human T cells, and secretion of human cytokines were monitored at weekly intervals.
Depletion of CD25+ cells from human PBMC significantly exacerbated x-GvHD and accelerated its lethality. In contrast, coadministration of Treg-enriched CD25+ cell fractions with autologous PBMC significantly reduced the lethality of x-GvHD. Treg administration significantly inhibited the explosive expansion of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, protection from x-GvHD after Treg administration was associated with a significant increase in plasma levels of interleukin-10 and IFN-gamma, suggesting the de novo development of TR1 cells.
These results show, for the first time, the potent in vivo capacity of naturally occurring human Tregs to control GvHD-inducing autologous T cells, and indicate that this xenogeneic in vivo model may provide a suitable platform to further explore the in vivo mechanisms of T-cell down-regulation by naturally occurring human Tregs.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2006; 12(18):5520-5. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of the CD20-specific antibody rituximab has greatly improved the response to treatment of CD20+ follicular lymphoma. Despite the success of rituximab, resistance has been reported and prognostic markers to predict individual response are lacking. The level of CD20 expression on tumors has been related to response, but results of several studies are contradictory and no clear relationship could be established. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) are thought to be important effector mechanisms, but the exact mechanism of rituximab-mediated cell kill is still unknown. Importantly, no data have been reported on the combined contribution of CDC and ADCC.
We have developed a system of clonally related CEM-CD20 cells by retroviral transfer of the human CD20 cDNA (n = 90). This set of cells, with the CD20 molecule as the only variable, was used to study the importance of CD20 expression level on rituximab-mediated CDC, ADCC, and the combination.
We show a sigmoidal correlation of CD20 expression level and rituximab-mediated killing via CDC but not ADCC. On both high and low CD20-expressing cells, all CD20 molecules were translocated into lipid rafts after rituximab binding. Furthermore, CDC and ADCC act simultaneously and CDC-resistant cells are sensitive to ADCC and vice versa.
These findings suggest that CDC depends on CD20 expression level and that both CDC and ADCC act complementary. These data give new insights into novel strategies to improve the efficacy of CD20-specific antibodies for the treatment of CD20+ tumors.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2006; 12(13):4027-35. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously defined a panel of fully human CD20 mAb. Most of these were unexpectedly efficient in their ability to recruit C1q to the surface of CD20-positive cells and mediate tumor lysis via activation of the classical pathway of complement. This complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) potency appeared to relate to the unusually slow off-rate of these human Abs. However, we now present epitope-mapping data, which indicates that all human mAb bind a novel region of CD20 that may influence CDC potency. Epitope mapping, using both mutagenesis studies and overlapping 15-mer peptides of the extracellular loops of CD20, defined the amino acids required for binding by an extensive panel of mouse and human mAb. Binding by rituximab and mouse CD20 mAb, had an absolute requirement for alanine and proline at positions 170 and 172, respectively, within the large extracellular loop of CD20. Surprisingly, however, all of the human CD20 mAb recognize a completely novel epitope located N-terminally of this motif, also including the small extracellular loop of CD20. Thus, although off-rate may influence biological activity of mAb, another critical factor for determining CDC potency by CD20 mAb appears to be the region of the target molecule they recognize. We conclude that recognition of the novel epitope cooperates with slow off-rate in determining the activity of CD20 Ab in activation of complement and induction of tumor cell lysis.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2006; 177(1):362-71. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes is an attractive strategy for many experimental treatment strategies for cancer. Unfortunately, manipulated T cells could be responsible for serious adverse events. Retroviral CD20-transduced T cells may be able to control these unwanted effects. CD20-positive cells are sensitive to rituximab (RTX), a monoclonal antibody specific for CD20. This permits their selective elimination in vivo in case of adverse events. To this end, a system is required that permits efficient and safe transduction of donor T cells and effective elimination of CD20-positive T cells. We constructed different CD20-encoding retroviral vectors and investigated the impact of inclusion of the woodchuck post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) and the chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator elements on the levels, homogeneity and stability of CD20 expression. Importantly, inclusion of either WPRE or insulator elements in the retroviral vector resulted in a dramatic improvement in the stability of CD20 expression. The insulator element also led to a much more homogeneous level of CD20 expression. We also show the efficient elimination of the CD20-transgenic T cells via RTX by different effector mechanisms. In conclusion, we have constructed CD20-encoding retroviral vectors with improved efficiency and safety profiles, which can be used as a suicide strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of a broad array of leukaemia-associated antigens is a crucial step towards immunotherapy of haematological malignancies. However, it is frequently hampered by the decrease of proliferative potential and functional activity of T cell clones used for screening procedures. Transfer of the genes encoding the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains of leukaemia-specific clones into primary T cells may help to circumvent this obstacle. In this study, transfer of two minor histocompatibility antigen (minor H antigen)-specific TCRs was performed and the feasibility of the use of TCR-transgenic T cells for identification of minor H antigens through cDNA library screening was investigated. We found that TCR-transgenic cells acquired the specificity of the original clones and matched their sensitivity. Moreover, the higher scale of cytokine-production by TCR-transgenic T cells permits the detection of either small amounts of antigen-positive cells or cells expressing low amounts of an antigen. When applied in equal numbers, TCR-transgenic T cells and the original T cell clones produced similar results in the screening of a cDNA library. However, the use of increased numbers of TCR-transgenic T cells allowed detection of minute amounts of antigen, barely discernible by the T cell clone. In conclusion, TCR-transfer generates a large amount of functional antigen-specific cells suitable for screening of cDNA expression libraries for identification of cognate antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of T cells is frequently associated with unwanted side effects. In order to tackle these effects one could introduce a safety switch into the cells that permits their selective in vivo elimination. The human CD20 gene in combination with CD20 antibodies was recently proposed as a novel safety switch. In such a system, T cells may be genetically modified with a CD20-encoding vector prior to adoptive transfer. If necessary, CD20-transgenic cells can be eliminated in vivo through administration of CD20 antibodies, such as the chimeric antibody rituximab (RTX) that is currently used to treat CD20+ lymphoma cells. RTX activates the complement system and recruits immune effector cells, resulting in rapid death of CD20+ cells. Recently, a novel human CD20 antibody, Humab 7D8, was shown to have superior activity over RTX.In this study a set of CD20-encoding retroviral vectors was generated, which either lacked or contained one or both of two regulatory elements: 1) the woodchuck posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) to increase CD20 expression, and 2) the chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator element (INS) to achieve a position independent expression of CD20 and to increase the safety profile of the vector by preventing activation of cellular (onco)genes by the retroviral enhancer. We found that the level of CD20 expression obtained with vectors containing INS was 2-fold lower than with vectors lacking INS. Additional inclusion of WPRE restored the level to that of the vector without INS. In addition, INS greatly enhanced the homogeneity of CD20 expression in T cells. Moreover, after 3 months in culture, all cells generated with CD20-INS had retained CD20 expression, while 60% of cells transduced with the control CD20 vector had lost CD20 expression.Complement dependent cell kill (CDC) of both RTX and HuMab 7D8 was dependent on the level of CD20 expression (p99% of CD20+ cells, prolonging survival of mice from 20 till 42 days.In conclusion, we developed a safe vector that leads to homogeneous and stable expression of CD20 on human T cells. These cells can be killed effectively in vivo with HuMab 7D8, a recently developed CD20 antibody. This system will be applicable to other approaches that require inclusion of a safety switch in ex vivo modified cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapeutic approaches that target antigens that are differentially recognized on haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells may specifically enhance the graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL) effect of donor lymphocyte infusion. In this study, we have characterized a new HLA-B*5201-restricted epitope of the UTY gene. Unusually, presentation of this epitope was restricted to lymphoblasts. As a result, a T cell clone specific to this epitope recognized normal and malignant male B and T lymphoblasts, while showing little reactivity towards male HLA-B*5201+ fibroblasts. Transfer of its T cell receptor (TCR) into donor T cells led to the generation of large numbers of T cells, which acquired the specificity of the original clone, its avidity and the differential pattern of reactivity towards lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. Remarkably, the specific response of TCR-transferred T cells was significantly higher than that of the original clone. This is the first demonstration of the possibility to preserve the specific pattern of a T cell response to a differentially expressed antigen after TCR-transfer and to augment the amplitude of this response concomitantly. These results indicate that it may be feasible to enhance the GVL effect of donor lymphocyte infusions in lymphoproliferative malignancies by the transfer of TCRs specific to epitopes that are differentially recognized on lymphoblasts.
British Journal of Haematology 06/2005; 129(3):392-402. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The superior graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect of the female-to-male stem cell transplantation is partially independent from the concomitant graft-versus-host reactivity. However, the antigenic basis of this selective GVL response remains enigmatic, because no H-Y antigens with hematopoietic-restricted expression were identified. In this study, we report a novel H-Y epitope that is preferentially recognized on activated proliferating lymphocytes.
We generated a CTL clone YKIII.8 that showed reactivity toward male B*5201+ CD40-activated B cells, EBV-lymphoblastoid cell lines, and phytohemagglutinin-activated T-cell blasts but little or no reactivity toward fibroblasts, CD14+ cells, or unstimulated B and T cells. The antigen recognized by YKIII.8 was identified by screening of a cDNA expression library, and its pattern of expression was investigated.
cDNA of the male isoform of 40S ribosomal protein S4 was found to encode the antigenic peptide TIRYPDPVI, which was recognized by YKIII.8. Western blot analysis showed that rapidly proliferating cells overexpress the RPS4 protein in comparison with nonrecognized cell subsets. Retroviral transfer of YKIII.8 T-cell receptor resulted in preservation of the lymphoblast-specific reactivity pattern.
Our findings suggest that CTL specific to certain epitopes of ubiquitously expressed H-Y antigens may specifically target lymphoblasts, contributing to the selective GVL effect of female-to-male stem cell transplantation.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2005; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD40-activated B lymphocytes have been used successfully as potent APC for the induction of T-cell responses. However, the 3T3-CD40L cell line, regularly used for engagement of CD40 on the B-cell surface, is a potential source of xenoantigens. This may affect the specificity of T cells stimulated with CD40-activated B cells, especially when generation of T-cell lines specific for endogenously processed Ag is desired.
To develop a system that allows efficient expansion of B cells in the absence of sources of xenoantigens, we created a human 293-CD40L-sCD40L cell line that produces soluble CD40L and expresses CD40L on the cell surface. B cells from patients with hematologic malignancies were expanded on the 293-CD40L-sCD40L cells and used for stimulation of either naive or in vivo primed donor T cells in three HLA-identical patient-donor combinations.
The 293-CD40L-sCD40L cell line was able to stimulate B-cell growth with an efficiency superior to that of the commonly used 3T3-CD40L cell line. In all cases T-cell lines and, subsequently, T-cell clones were generated that showed reactivity against patient and not donor B cells, suggesting their specificity for minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg).
B cells activated with GMP grade 293-CD40L-sCD40L can be used in a variety of applications. In particular, they may be suitable for ex vivo stimulation of T cells prior to donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), which may enhance its graft versus leukemia (GvL) effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retroviral-mediated transfer of a suicide gene into donor T cells has been proposed as a method to control alloreactivity after hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Gene-modified cells (GMC) may be infused into the patient either at the time of transplantation, together with a T-cell depleted HSC graft, or after transplantation, as a donor lymphocyte infusion. Administration of a so-called pro-drug activating the "suicide" mechanism only after occurrence of GvHD should selectively destroy the alloreactive GMC in vivo, eventually leading to GvHD abrogation. Although phase I-II clinical trials provided vital proof of the principle of GvHD control by suicide-gene therapy, this approach is still suboptimal. Indeed, current gene transfer strategies rely on gamma-retroviral vectors that require extensive T-cell activation and expansion for efficient transduction. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the activation, cell expansion, transduction and selection steps lead to TCR repertoire alterations and impairment of crucial T-cell functions, such as alloreactivity and anti-EBV reactivity. Thus, improvements of the suicide-gene transfer processes are required in order to preserve T-cell function. This could be achieved by using CD3/CD28 co-stimulation and immunomagnetic selection of transduced cells. In future clinical trials, lentiviral vectors may prove to be a better alternative to gamma-retroviral-mediated gene transfer, by reducing the need for prolonged ex vivo culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication competent retrovirus (RCR) may arise through homologous recombination in virus producer cells. A seminal study by Donahue et al. showed that infection with RCR may lead to development of cancer in primates. Therefore, rigorous testing of clinical grade preparations of retroviral vectors is required to exclude the presence of RCR. Many regulatory agencies require RCR-testing of ex vivo transduced cells as well. The latter requirement originates from the presumed amplification of RCR during culture, when cells are infected by very low levels of RCR. In a previous study we challenged the requirement of RCR-testing of ex vivo transduced T cells (Ebeling et al., Gene Ther. 10: 1800, 2003). We found that T cells have a very low capacity to produce RCR.In this study we present the mechanism, which allow T cells to efficiently abort RCR-infection. Individual clones were established from the bulk cultures of RCR-infected T cells. None of the 19 clones tested produced RCR, but all clones had been infected initially, as evidenced by an LTR-specific PCR. Intriguingly, only two clones contained the env gene, suggesting that part of the proviral genome had been deleted. To establish the extent of the deletions, four PCR assays were designed, which together cover the entire proviral genome. Twelve clones were negative in all four PCR assays, suggesting that a very large part of the proviral genome had been deleted. One clone, #27, was positive in the PCR assay, which covers almost the entire env gene. A second clone, #36, was positive in two PCR assays, which together cover half of the pol and the entire env gene. These deletions were consistent with the activity of the recently discovered CEM15/APOBEC3G gene. The CEM15 gene product has been shown to be co-packaged in retro- and lentiviral particles produced by T cells. After infection of target cells with such CEM15+ virions, CEM15 converts C into U residues in the negative cDNA strand during viral replication. As a consequence, this negative strand is degraded. Alternatively, the mutated negative strand may remain (partly) intact and serve as a template for synthesis of the positive strand, resulting in G to A mutations in this strand (e.g. Harris et al., Cell 2003, and Mangeat et al., Nature 2003). Therefore, the provirus in clones #27 and #36 and the LTR of four other clones were sequenced. We found that the 3′ end of the PCR product from clone #27 contained numerous G to A substitutions. We therefore conclude that RCR-infection in human T cells is aborted by the CEM15 protein. Additional analysis of the proviral integration sites through molecular cloning only revealed the 3′ LTR. The 5′ LTR was never found. These data add to our conclusion that the major part of the proviral genome has been deleted from these clones.Together, the results broaden our understanding of the precise mechanism of action of CEM15.In conclusion, we believe that these results will be valuable in evaluation of the safety profile of retro- and lentiviral vectors. In addition, these experiments provide sufficient reason to reconsider the necessity of RCR-testing of ex vivo transduced T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safe application of new strategies for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is hampered by the lack of a clinically relevant model for preclinical testing. Current models are based on intraperitoneal transfer of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (huPBMCs) into NOD-SCID (nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient)/SCID mice. Intravenous transfer would be preferred but this has always been ineffective. We developed a new model for xenogeneic GVHD (X-GVHD) by intravenous transfer of huPBMCs into RAG2-/- gammac-/-mice. Our results show a high human T-cell chimerism of more than 20% (up to 98%) in more than 90% of mice, associated with a consistent development of XGVHD within 14 to 28 days and a total mortality rate of 85% shorter than 2 months. After murine macrophage depletion, engraftment was earlier and equally high with lower doses of huPBMCs. Human macrophages were also absent in these mice. Purified huCD3+ cells showed a similar X-GVH effect with contribution of both CD4 and CD8 phenotypes. Human immunoglobulins and cytokines were produced in diseased mice. One of 30 mice developed chronic X-GVHD with skin histology similar to human GVHD. In conclusion, we present a new model for X-GVHD by intravenous transfer of huPBMCs in RAG2-/- gammac-/- mice. Murine and human macrophages do not seem to be necessary for acute X-GVHD in this model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of replication-competent retrovirus (RCR) in retroviral-based gene therapy products poses a potential safety risk for patients. Therefore, RCR testing of clinical gene therapy products and monitoring of patients enrolled in gene therapy trials is required to assure viral safety. The requirement to test ex vivo-transduced cells originates from the presumed amplification of adventitious RCR during the transduction procedure. However, data on the capacity of different cell types to do so are lacking. In this study, we sought to analyze the amplification potential of primary human T lymphocytes after infection with amphotropic MLV-based RCR. The total number of viral particles produced after 1 or 2 weeks was measured by a quantitative 4070A env-specific RT-PCR assay. The fraction of infectious replication-competent viral particles was analyzed in the PG-4 S+L- assay. From this study, we conclude that the total number of viral particles RCR produced by T lymphocytes is 2-4 logs lower than the number produced by NIH-3T3 cells. Surprisingly, less than 1% of the viral particles produced by primary T lymphocytes appeared to be infectious, while nearly all virions produced by NIH-3T3 were. We conclude that primary human T lymphocytes are low producers of MLV-based amphotropic RCR.