Geneviève Blondin

University of Grenoble, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (63)284.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The preparation of [FeIV(O)(MePy2tacn)]2+ (2, MePy2tacn = N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) by reaction of [FeII(MePy2tacn)(solvent)]2+ (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its iron(II) precursor by irradiation at 447 nm in the presence of catalytic amounts of [RuII(bpy)3]2+ as photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor (Na2S2O8). Remarkably, the rate of the reaction of the photochemically prepared compound 2 towards sulfides increases 150-fold under irradiation and 2 is partially regenerated after the sulfide has been consumed; hence the process can be repeated several times. The origin of this rate enhancement has been established by studying the reaction of chemically generated compound 2 with sulfides under different conditions, which demonstrated that both light and [RuII(bpy)3]2+ are necessary for the observed increase in the reaction rate. A combination of nanosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with laser pulse excitation and other mechanistic studies has led to the conclusion that an electron transfer mechanism is the most plausible to explain the observed rate enhancement. According to this mechanism, the in situ generated [RuIII(bpy)3]3+ oxidizes the sulfide to form the corresponding radical cation, which is eventually oxidized by 2 to the corresponding sulfoxide.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2014; · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Given its ability to detect all iron centers, to identify their electronic structures, and to quantify the ratios of the different iron forms present in a sample, many researchers turn to Mössbauer spectroscopy when wanting to address structural and mechanistic questions involving iron proteins. Yet, this technique applied to biochemistry is provided by only a few dedicated teams in the world. Technical difficulties ranging from sample preparation to data analysis and interpretation make necessary the collaboration between biochemists and Mössbauer spectroscopists. This chapter will be confined to iron Mössbauer. It will focus on giving biologists and biochemists the keys to understand what essential information Mössbauer spectroscopy can yield, and how to engage in successful collaborations with spectroscopists. After introducing the basic principles of a Mössbauer experiment, we will describe first how to prepare a suitable Mössbauer sample, then how this technique is applied to the identification of different iron species inside proteins.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1122:153-70. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Let the Fur fly: Mutation of a single glutamate into an aspartate was shown to make the Fe sensor Fur as reactive to H2 O2 as the peroxide sensor PerR. In vivo and in vitro peroxide sensitivities of a series of PerR and Fur Asp/Glu mutants were studied by mass spectrometry. A combination of Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses and DFT calculations gave a structural rationale for this behavior.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 08/2013; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A model of rubredoxin based on a cyclic peptide with a linear tail is presented. This model reproduces almost perfectly the fold, the spectroscopic characterizations and the redox activity of rubredoxins.
    Chemical Communications 03/2013; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-valent oxo-metal complexes are involved in key biochemical processes of selective oxidation and removal of xenobiotics. The catalytic properties of cytochrome P-450 and soluble methane monooxygenase enzymes are associated with oxo species on mononuclear iron haem and diiron non-haem platforms, respectively. Bio-inspired chemical systems that can reproduce the fascinating ability of these enzymes to oxidize the strongest C-H bonds are the focus of intense scrutiny. In this context, the development of highly oxidizing diiron macrocyclic catalysts requires a structural determination of the elusive active species and elucidation of the reaction mechanism. Here we report the preparation of an Fe(IV)(µ-nitrido)Fe(IV) = O tetraphenylporphyrin cation radical species at -90 °C, characterized by ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies and by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This species exhibits a very high activity for oxygen-atom transfer towards alkanes, including methane. These findings provide a foundation on which to develop efficient and clean oxidation processes, in particular transformations of the strongest C-H bonds.
    Nature Chemistry 10/2012; 4(12):1024-9. · 21.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The heterodinuclear complexes [Fe(III)Mn(II)(L-Bn)(μ-OAc)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (1) and [Fe(II)Mn(II)(L-Bn)(μ-OAc)(2)](ClO(4)) (2) with the unsymmetrical dinucleating ligand HL-Bn {[2-bis[(2-pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]]-6-[benzyl-2-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]-4-methylphenol} were synthesized and characterized as biologically relevant models of the new Fe/Mn class of nonheme enzymes. Crystallographic studies have been completed on compound 1 and reveal an Fe(III)Mn(II)μ-phenoxobis(μ-carboxylato) core. A single location of the Fe(III) ion in 1 and of the Fe(II) ion in 2 was demonstrated by Mössbauer and (1)H NMR spectroscopies, respectively. An investigation of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of 1 revealed a moderate antiferromagnetic interaction (J = 20 cm(-1)) between the high-spin Fe(III) and Mn(II) ions in 1, which was confirmed by Mössbauer and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. The electrochemical properties of complex 1 are described. A quasireversible electron transfer at -40 mV versus Ag/AgCl corresponding to the Fe(III)Mn(II)/Fe(II)Mn(II) couple appears in the cyclic voltammogram. Thorough investigations of the Mössbauer and EPR signatures of complex 2 were performed. The analysis allowed evidencing of a weak antiferromagnetic interaction (J = 5.72 cm(-1)) within the Fe(II)Mn(II) pair consistent with that deduced from magnetic susceptibility measurements (J = 6.8 cm(-1)). Owing to the similar value of the Fe(II) zero-field splitting (D(Fe) = 3.55 cm(-1)), the usual treatment within the strong exchange limit was precluded and a full analysis of the electronic structure of the ground state of complex 2 was developed. This situation is reminiscent of that found in many diiron and iron-manganese enzyme active sites.
    Inorganic Chemistry 09/2012; 51(19):10447-60. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of proton-induced intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) may be measured electrochemically by generating one of the members of the IVCT couple in situ and following its conversion by means of the electrochemical signature of the other member of the couple. In the case of the diiron complex taken as an example, the reaction kinetics analysis, including the H/D isotope effect, clearly points to the prevalence of the concerted proton-intervalence charge transfer pathway over the stepwise pathways. A route is thus open toward systematic kinetic studies of proton-induced IVCT aiming at uncovering the main reactivity parameters and the factors that control the occurrence of concerted versus stepwise pathways.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2012; 134(4):1906-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coupling of electron and proton transfers is currently under intense scrutiny. This Communication reports a new kind of proton-coupled electron transfer within a homodinuclear first-row transition-metal complex. The triply-bridged complex [Fe(III)(μ-OPh)(μ(2)-mpdp)Fe(II)(NH(2)Bn)] (1; mpdp(2-) = m-phenylenedipropionate) bearing a terminal aminobenzyl ligand can be reversibly deprotonated to the anilinate complex 2 whose core [Fe(II)(μ-OPh)(μ(2)-mpdp)Fe(III)(NHBn)] features an inversion of the iron valences. This observation is supported by a combination of UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2011; 50(14):6408-10. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aerobic reaction of the Schiff-base ligand N-(benzimidazol-2-yl)salicylaldimine (Hbisi) with iron(II) perchlorate in methanol leads to the formation of the remarkable coordination compound [Fe(4)(mu(4)-O)(mu-MeO)(4)(bisi)(4)](ClO(4))(2) x 4 MeOH (1), whose single-crystal X-ray structure reveals the presence of a discrete Fe(III)(4)(mu(4)-O) core. Magnetic and Mossbauer studies both show that the exchange interaction within the square tetranuclear iron(III) unit is dominated by the central bridging mu(4)-oxido ligand, the involvement of the mu-methoxido bridges being negligible.
    Inorganic Chemistry 03/2010; 49(5):2427-34. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826–1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 Å crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(8):5792-5801. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826–1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 Å crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The trinuclear oxo bridged manganese cluster, [Mn(IV)(3)O(4)(terpy)(terpyO(2))(2)(H(2)O)](S(2)O(8))(2) (5) (terpy = 2,2':2'',6'-terpyridine and terpyO(2) = 2,2':2'',6'-terpyridine 1,1''-dioxide), was isolated in an acidic aqueous medium from the reaction of MnSO(4), terpy, and oxone as chemical oxidant. The terpyO(2) ligands were generated in situ during the synthesis by partial oxidation of terpy. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 14.251(5) A, b = 15.245(5) A, c = 24.672(5) A, alpha = 90.000(5) degrees, beta = 92.045(5) degrees, gamma = 90.000(5) degrees, and Z = 4. The triangular {Mn(IV)(3)O(4)}(4+) core observed in this complex is built up of a basal Mn(mu-O)(2)Mn unit where each Mn ion is linked to an apical Mn ion via mono(mu-O) bridges. The facial coordination of the two tridentate terpyO(2) ligands to the Mn(mu-O)(2)Mn unit allows the formation of the triangular core. 5 is also the first structurally characterized Mn complex with polypyridinyl N-oxide ligands. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for this complex, in the range of 10-300 K, are consistent with an S = 1/2 ground state and were fit using the spin Hamiltonian H(eff) with S(1) = S(2) = S(3) = 3/2, J(a) = -37 (+/-0.5) and J(b) = -53 (+/-1) cm(-1), where J(a) and J(b) are exchange constants through the mono-mu-oxo and the di-mu-oxo bridges, respectively. The doublet ground spin state of 5 is confirmed by EPR spectroscopic measurements. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the broken symmetry approach reproduce the magnetic properties of 5 very well (calculated values: J(a) = -39.4 and J(b) = -55.9 cm(-1)), thus confirming the capability of this quantum chemical method for predicting the magnetic behavior of clusters involving more than two metal ions. The nature of the ground spin state of the magnetic {Mn(IV)(3)O(4)}(4+) core and the role of ancillary ligands on the magnitude of J are also discussed.
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2009; 48(21):10281-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Bacillus subtilis, PerR is a metal-dependent sensor of hydrogen peroxide. PerR is a dimeric zinc protein with a regulatory site that coordinates either Fe(2+) (PerR-Zn-Fe) or Mn(2+) (PerR-Zn-Mn). Though most of the peroxide sensors use cysteines to detect H(2)O(2), it has been shown that reaction of PerR-Zn-Fe with H(2)O(2) leads to the oxidation of one histidine residue. Oxidation of PerR leads to the incorporation of one oxygen atom into His37 or His91. This study presents the crystal structure of the oxidized PerR protein (PerR-Zn-ox), which clearly shows a 2-oxo-histidine residue in position 37. Formation of 2-oxo-histidine is demonstrated and quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. EPR experiments indicate that PerR-Zn-H37ox retains a significant affinity for the regulatory metal, whereas PerR-Zn-H91ox shows a considerably reduced affinity for the metal ion. In spite of these major differences in terms of metal binding affinity, oxidation of His37 and/or His91 in PerR prevents DNA binding.
    Nature Chemical Biology 01/2009; 5(1):53-9. · 12.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The solution behavior of mononuclear Mn(II) complexes, namely, [(L(5)(2))MnCl](+) (1), [(L(5)(3))MnCl](+) (2), [(L(5)(2))Mn(OH(2))](2+) (3), [(L(5)(3))Mn(OH(2))](2+) (4), and [(L(6)(2))Mn(OH(2))](2+) (6), with L(5)(2/3) and L(6)(2) being penta- and hexadentate amino-pyridine ligands, is investigated in MeCN using EPR, UV-vis spectroscopies, and electrochemistry. The addition of one chloride ion onto species 6 leads to the formation of the complex [(L(6)(2))MnCl](+) (5) that is X-ray characterized. EPR and UV-vis spectra indicate that structure and redox states of complexes 1-6 are maintained in MeCN solution. Chloro complexes 1, 2, and 5 show reversible Mn(II)/Mn(III) process at 0.95, 1.02, and 1.05 V vs SCE, respectively, whereas solvated complexes 3, 4, and 6 show an irreversible anodic peak around 1.5 V vs SCE. Electrochemical oxidations of 1 and 5 leading to the Mn(III) complexes [(L(5)(2))MnCl](2+) (7) and [(L(6)(2))MnCl](2+) (8) are successful. The UV-vis signatures of 7 and 8 show features associated with chloro to Mn(III) LMCT and d-d transitions. The X-ray characterization of the heptacoordinated Mn(III) species 8 is also reported. The analogous electrochemical generation of the corresponding Mn(III) complex was not possible when starting from 2. The new mixed-valence di-mu-oxo [(L(5)(2))Mn(muO)(2)Mn(L(5)(2))](3+) species (9) can be obtained from 3, whereas the sister [(L(5)(3))Mn(muO)(2)Mn(L(5)(3))](3+) species can not be generated from 4. Such different responses upon oxidations are commented on with the help of comparison with related Mn/Fe complexes and are discussed in relation with the size of the metallacycle formed between the diamino bridge and the metal center (5- vs 6-membered). Lastly, a comparison between redox potentials of the studied Mn(II) complexes with those of Fe(II) analogues is drawn and completed with previously reported data on Mn/Fe isostructural systems. This gives us the opportunity to get some indirect insights into the metal specificity encountered in enzymes among which superoxide dismutase is the archetypal model.
    Inorganic Chemistry 12/2008; 47(24):11783-97. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two pentadentate amino-pyridine ligands L5(2) and L5(3) (L5(2) and L5(3) stand for the N-methyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine and the N-methyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)propane-1,3-diamine, respectively) were used to synthesize four mononuclear Mn(II) complexes, namely [(L5(2))MnCl](PF6) (1(PF6)), [(L5(3))MnCl](PF6) (2(PF6)), [(L5(2))Mn(OH2)](BPh4)2 (3(BPh4)2), and [(L5(3))Mn(OH2)](BPh4)2 (4(BPh4)2). The X-ray diffraction studies revealed different configurations for the ligand L5(n) (n = 2, 3) depending on the sixth exogenous ligand and/or the counterion. Solid state high-field electron paramagnetic resonance spectra were recorded on complexes 1-4 as on previously described mononuclear Mn(II) systems with tetra- or hexadentate amino-pyridine ligands. Positive and negative axial zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters D were determined whose absolute values ranged from 0.090 to 0.180 cm(-1). Density-functional theory calculations were performed unraveling that, in contrast with chloro systems, the spin-spin and spin-orbit coupling contributions to the D-parameter are comparable for mixed N,O-coordination sphere complexes.
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2008; 47(20):9238-47. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MiaE catalyzes the posttranscriptional allylic hydroxylation of 2-methylthio-N-6-isopentenyl adenosine in tRNAs. The Salmonella typhimurium enzyme was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme is a monomer with two iron atoms and displays activity in in vitro assays. The type and properties of the iron center were investigated by using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR, HYSCORE, and Mössbauer spectroscopies which demonstrated that the MiaE enzyme contains a nonheme dinuclear iron cluster, similar to that found in the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase. This is the first example of an enzyme from this important class of diiron monooxygenases to be involved in the hydroxylation of a biological macromolecule and the second example of a redox metalloenzyme participating in tRNA modification.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2007; 104(33):13295-300. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An unprecedented atom connectivity, MnIV(mu-O)MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV(mu-O)MnIV, is found in the complex [MnIV4O4(EtO-terpy)4(OH)2(OH2)2](ClO4)(6).8H2O (EtO-terpy=4'-ethoxyl-2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine), which has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, X-ray powder diffraction, EPR spectroscopy, and magnetic studies. This complex is the first example of a compound where a MnIV ion is coordinated by all three types of water-derived ligands: oxo, hydroxo, and aqua. Bond distances and angles for this complex are consistent with a MnIV4 oxidation state assignment. The di-mu-oxo- and mono-mu-oxo-bridged Mn-Mn distances are 2.80 and 3.51 A, respectively. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for this complex, in the range of 10-300 K, are consistent with an S=0 ground state and were fit using the spin Hamiltonian HHDvV=-J1S2S1-J2S1S1A-J1S1AS2A (S1=S1A=S2=S2A=3/2) with J1=-432 cm-1 and J2=-164 cm-1 (where J1 and J2 are exchange constants through the mono-mu-oxo and the di-mu-oxo bridges, respectively). The first excited spin state of this tetramer is a spin triplet state at 279 cm-1 above the diamagnetic ground state. The next spin states are the S=1 and S=2 levels at about 700 and 820 cm-1 above the S=0 ground state, respectively. These large energy gaps are consistent with the absence of an EPR signal for this complex, even at high temperature.
    Inorganic Chemistry 01/2006; 44(25):9567-73. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two manganese complexes, (py2(NMe)2)MnIICl2 (1) and [(py2(NMe)2)MnIIIF2]+ (2), are here described with the macrocyclic ligand py2(NMe)2 (py2(NMe)2 = N,N'-dimethyl-2,11-diaza[3,3](2,6)pyridinophane). For both, the crystal structure is reported. The UV-visible spectrum of 2 exhibits a very broad near-infrared (NIR) band corresponding to the transition between the two e(g)-type orbitals split by the Jahn-Teller effect. A negative D value of ca. -4 cm(-1) was estimated by high-field and high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HF-EPR) spectroscopy, which was consistent with symmetry considerations. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on 2 support the 5B1 electronic ground state predicted from the X-ray structure. Moreover, to explain the large value of the D parameter, a spin triplet first excited spin state was postulated to occur at low energy. This was confirmed by the DFT calculations.
    Inorganic Chemistry 11/2005; 44(20):6959-66. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new trinuclear MnIIIMnIIMnIII complex has been isolated and X-ray characterised, namely [(py-salpn)MnIII(μ-OAc)MnII(μ-OAc)MnIII(py-salpn)]2+ (1), where H2py-salpn is the new bulky [N3O2] ligand derived from the H2salpn Schiff base by the addition of one pyridine arm and the reduction of the imine function. The crystal structure reveals that the complex has a strictly 180° MnIII···MnII···MnIII angle, the MnII ion being located at an inversion centre. The complex is valence-trapped, with the terminal MnIII ions showing a Jahn–Teller elongation along the pyridine–MnIII–acetate axis. The MnII···MnIII separation is 3.1224(13) Å. The EPR spectra recorded on solid and frozen solutions are consistent with an MnIIIMnIIMnIII species. The electrochemical response of complex 1 in acetonitrile solution exhibits two, one-electron reduction waves at E1/2 = 0.140 and –0.075 V vs. SCE.Phenolato and acetatoMnIII ligand-to-metal charge-transfer transitions are detected by UV/Visible spectroscopy at 359 and 587 nm, respectively. Chemical oxidation of an acetonitrile solution with tert-butyl hydroperoxide leads to mononuclear MnIV–hydroxo species, as evidenced by UV/Visible and EPR spectroscopy as well as ESI mass spectrometry.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005)
    Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 10/2005; 2005(23):4808 - 4817. · 2.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

302 Citations
284.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1997–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      • Chemistry and Biology of Metals (CBM)
      Gif-sur-Yvette, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1992–2008
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d'Orsay (ICMMO)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1
      • Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux
      Grenoble, Rhone-Alpes, France