[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here investigated the immediate impact of the change to SP on the frequency of SP and CQ resistance-related haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt before and a year after the introduction of SP.
Samples were collected during two cross sectional surveys in early 2002 and 2003 involving 796 and 692 children one year or older and adults randomly selected living in Maciana, an area located in Manhiça district, Southern Mozambique. Out of these, 171 and 173 P. falciparum positive samples were randomly selected to measure the frequency of resistance- related haplotypes in Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt based on results obtained by nested PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP)-ELISA.
The frequency of the SP-resistance associated Pfdhps double mutant (SGEAA) haplotype increased significantly from 14% to 35% (P < 0.001), while the triple mutant Pfdhfr haplotype (CIRNI) remained high and only changed marginally from 46% to 53% (P = 0.405) after one year with SP as first-line treatment in the study area. Conversely, the combined Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quintuple mutant haplotype increased from 8% to 26% (P = 0.005). The frequency of the chloroquine resistance associated Pfcrt-CVIET haplotype was above 90% in both years.
These retrospective findings add to the general concern on the lifespan of the combination of SP/artesunate in Mozambique. The high frequency of quintuple Pfdhfr/Pfdhps haplotypes found here as early as 2002 most likely cause ideal conditions for the development of artesunate tolerance in the P. falciparum populations and may even endanger the sensitivity to the second-line drug, Coartem.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A is a recombinant protein containing part of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) sequence of Plasmodium falciparum, linked to the hepatitis B surface antigen and formulated in the proprietary adjuvant system AS02A. In a recent trial conducted in children younger than age five in southern Mozambique, the vaccine demonstrated significant and sustained efficacy against both infection and clinical disease. In a follow-up study to the main trial, breakthrough infections identified in the trial were examined to determine whether the distribution of csp sequences was affected by the vaccine and to measure the multiplicity of infecting parasite genotypes.
P. falciparum DNA from isolates collected during the trial was used for genotype studies.
The main trial was carried out in the Manhiça district, Maputo province, Mozambique, between April 2003 and May 2004.
Children from the two cohorts of the main trial provided parasite isolates as follows: children from Cohort 1 who were admitted to hospital with clinical malaria; children from Cohort 1 who were parasite-positive in a cross-sectional survey at study month 8.5; children from Cohort 2 identified as parasite-positive during follow-up by active detection of infection.
Divergence of DNA sequence encoding the CSP T cell-epitope region sequence from that of the vaccine sequence was measured in 521 isolates. The number of distinct P. falciparum genotypes was also determined.
We found no evidence that parasite genotypes from children in the RTS,S/AS02A arm were more divergent than those receiving control vaccines. For Cohort 1 (survey at study month 8.5) and Cohort 2, infections in the vaccine group contained significantly fewer genotypes than those in the control group, (p = 0.035, p = 0.006), respectively, for the two cohorts. This was not the case for children in Cohort 1 who were admitted to hospital (p = 0.478).
RTS,S/AS02A did not select for genotypes encoding divergent T cell epitopes in the C-terminal region of CSP in this trial. In both cohorts, there was a modest reduction in the mean number of parasite genotypes harboured by vaccinated children compared with controls, but only among those with asymptomatic infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps), and chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) genes are used as molecular markers of P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine. However, to be a practical tool in the surveillance of drug resistance, simpler methods for high-throughput haplotyping are warranted. Here we describe a quick and simple technique that detects dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology. Biotinylated PCR products of dhfr, dhps, or Pfcrt were captured on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) were hybridized with the PCR products. A stringent washing procedure enabled detection of remaining bound SSOPs and distinguished between the SNPs of dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt with high specificity. The SSOP-ELISA compared well with a standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure, and gave identical positive results in more than 90% of the P. falciparum slide-positive samples tested. The SSOP-ELISA of all dhfr, dhps, or Pfcrt SNPs on 88 samples can be performed in a single day and provides quick and reproducible results. The system can potentially be modified to detect SNPs in other genes.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2005; 72(2):155-62. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports a two-phase study in Manhiça district, Mozambique: first we assessed the clinical efficacy and parasitological response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ), then we tested the safety and efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, of three combinations: AQ + SP, artesunate (AR) + SP and AQ + AR. Based on the WHO (1996, WHO/MAL/96.1077) in vivo protocol, we conducted two open, randomized, clinical trials. Children aged 6-59 months with axillary body temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C and non-complicated malaria were randomly allocated to treatment groups and followed up for 21 days (first and second trial) and 28 days (first trial). The therapeutic efficacy of AQ (91.6%) was better than that of SP (82.7%) and CQ (47.1%). After 14 days, 69% of the strains were parasitologically resistant to CQ, 21.4% to SP and 26% to AQ. Co-administration of AQ + SP, AR + SP and AQ + AR was safe and had 100% clinical efficacy at 14-day follow-up. The combination therapies affected rapid fever clearance time and reduced the incidence of gametocytaemia during follow-up.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2004; 9(2):200-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor