[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously proposed that mouse CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells and human CD57(+) T cells, which increase with age and exhibit potent IFN-gamma production, represent a double-edged sword as they play critical roles in host defense and the lethal IL-12/LPS-induced generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR). However, our proposal was based solely on comparisons of young and old mice. In this study, we attempted to increase CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells in young mice with exogenous IL-15 and confirm their countervailing functions in young mice. After young mice (6 weeks) were injected with IL-15, they showed significant increases in CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells in the liver and spleen. Liver CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells from IL-15-pretreated mice had a potent capacity to produce IFN-gamma after IL-12 injection or Escherichia coli infection. IL-15-pretreated mice showed increased survival to E. coli infections and enhanced anti-tumor activities against liver metastatic EL4 cells, as well as an exacerbation of the GSR. Correspondingly, liver CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells produced more perforin than CD8(+)CD122(-) T cells in EL4-inoculated mice. Unexpectedly, comparable IL-15 treatment did not induce further increases in CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells in aged mice and did not enhance their defenses against bacterial infection or tumor growth. Interestingly, however, nontreated, aged mice (50 weeks) showed twofold higher IL-15 levels (but not TNF or IFN-gamma) in liver homogenates compared with young mice. Our results further support that CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells, which are increased physiologically or therapeutically by IL-15, are involved in antibacterial immunity, anti-tumor immunity, and the GSR.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 10/2008; 84(4):1047-56. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lethal human septic shock model, mouse generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR), was elicited by two consecutive lippolysaccharide (LPS) injections (24 h apart) in which interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced by interleukin (IL)-12 played a critical role in the priming phase, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was an important effector molecule in the second phase. We recently reported IL-12/LPS-induced mouse GSR age-dependently enhanced. We herein demonstrate that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults/elderly, cultured with IL-12 for 24 h and with LPS for an additional 24 h, produced a much larger amount of TNF (which increased age-dependently) than did PBMC without IL-12 priming. Whereas macrophages mainly produced TNF following LPS stimulation, macrophages and lymphocytes were necessary for a sufficient TNF production. IL-12-induced IFN-gamma up-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) on macrophages of adults. Although the PBMC from children produced a substantial amount of IFN-gamma after IL-12 priming, the GSR response, with augmented TNF production and an up-regulated TLR-4 expression of macrophages, was not elicited by LPS stimulation. CD56+natural killer cells, CD56+T cells, and CD57+T cells (NK-T cells), which age-dependently increased in PBMC, produced much larger amounts of IFN-gamma after IL-12 priming than that of conventional CD56-CD57-T cells and also induced cocultured macrophages to produce TNF by subsequent LPS stimulation. The elder septic patients were consistently more susceptible to lethal shock with enhanced serum TNF levels than the adult patients. The NK cells, NK-T cells, and macrophages, which change proportionally or functionally with aging, might be involved in the enhanced GSR response/septic shock observed in elderly patients.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 04/2006; 79(3):463-72. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a 15-month-old girl with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) associated with HHV-6. Inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the CSF and serum and the number of CD56bright NK cells was significantly increased in the peripheral blood. CD56bright NK cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of ANE by producing inflammatory cytokines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of mouse CD8+ CD122+ T cells, which increase in number with age, in the generalized Shwartzman reaction. This reaction was induced by IL-12 priming and subsequent LPS challenge (after 24 h) in mice of various ages (4-50 weeks of age). Although most young mice (4 or 6 weeks of age) survived, mortality essentially increased with increasing age of the mice, and all mice of 20 weeks of age or older died within 48 h. Serum TNF-alpha levels after LPS challenge also increased age dependently. The neutralization of either IL-12-induced IFN-gamma or LPS-induced TNF-alpha improved the survival of middle-aged (25-week-old) mice. Both IFN-gamma production after IL-12 priming and TNF-alpha production from the liver mononuclear cells after LPS challenge were also prominent in the middle-aged mice. CD8+CD122+ T cells cultured with IL-12 produced a much larger amount of IFN-gamma than CD8+CD122- T cells. Although the depletion of NK/NK T cells did not decrease the IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha production in the Shwartzman reaction of the middle-aged mice, an additional depletion of CD8+CD122+ T cells did decrease such production and also improved mouse survival. Furthermore, young mice transferred with CD8+CD122+ T cells from aged B6 nude mice showed an enhanced Shwartzman reaction.
European Journal of Immunology 03/2005; 35(2):593-602. · 4.97 Impact Factor